dcsimg

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 22.2 years (captivity) Observations: In captivity, these animals have been known to live up to 22.2 years (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Behavior

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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Paschka, N. 2000. "Callimico goeldii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Callimico_goeldii.html
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Nick Paschka, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Conservation Status

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Callimico goeldii are listed as Appendix I under CITES, therefore commercial import and export has been banned. This is not well enforced in Bolivia. Loss of habitat and dangers from hunting and trapping are severely threatening Callimico goeldii populations. They seem to do well under captive conditions, and are housed in a number of zoos worldwide with highly successful breeding programs at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (GB) and the Brookfield Zoo (Chicago).

(Pook 1990; Thornback and Jenkins 1982; Wilson and Reeder 1993;)

US Federal List: endangered

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable

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Paschka, N. 2000. "Callimico goeldii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Callimico_goeldii.html
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Nick Paschka, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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N/A

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Paschka, N. 2000. "Callimico goeldii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Callimico_goeldii.html
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Nick Paschka, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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Because they are rare and internationally protected, poachers, particularly in Bolivia, are able to sell Callimico goeldii for large profits on the black market. BR

(Pook 1990)

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Paschka, N. 2000. "Callimico goeldii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Callimico_goeldii.html
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Nick Paschka, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Trophic Strategy

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The diet of Callimico goeldii consists primarily of fruits, insects, and small vertebrates. A group of Goeldi's monkeys will travel and feed in fruiting trees. Competition for fruit seems not to be a problem. They hunt individually, leaping to the ground to obtain small verebrates.

(Pook 1990)

Animal Foods: insects

Plant Foods: fruit

Primary Diet: omnivore

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Paschka, N. 2000. "Callimico goeldii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Callimico_goeldii.html
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Nick Paschka, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Distribution

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Located between 1 degree north and 13 degrees south latitude in the northern Amazon forests, Callimico goeldii can be found in southern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, western Brazil, and northern Bolivia. BR

(Burton 1987; Nowak 1999; Pook 1990; Thornback and Jenkins 1982)

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

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Paschka, N. 2000. "Callimico goeldii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Callimico_goeldii.html
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Nick Paschka, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Habitat

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Pook (1990) reports that Callimico goeldii inhabit areas of the Amazon rainforest that have patchy canopy cover and strong undergrowth. Thornback and Jenkins (1982) describe it as "shabby forest such as mixed forest, scrub, second-growth woods, bamboo forests, and forest with discontinuous canopies and well-developed scrub. The majority of their time is spent at levels of less than 5 meters with forays to higher elevations for fruit.

(Pook 1990; Thornback and Jenkins 1982)

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest

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Paschka, N. 2000. "Callimico goeldii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Callimico_goeldii.html
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Nick Paschka, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Life Expectancy

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Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
10.9 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
9.0 years.

Average lifespan
Sex: male
Status: captivity:
15.8 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
17.9 years.

Average lifespan
Sex: female
Status: captivity:
16.1 years.

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Paschka, N. 2000. "Callimico goeldii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Callimico_goeldii.html
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Nick Paschka, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Morphology

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According to a study by Hershkovitz (1977), Callimico goeldii are small with a length of 210-234 mm, and a tail length of 255-324 mm. They are dark brown or black with possible white areas on and around the face. Longer hairs form "a mane [that] drapes from the neck and shoulders and extend also from above the base of the tail" (Nowak 1999). Adults have pale rings on the tail. Other characteristics include clawlike nails on all of the digits excluding the large toe and a dental formula of 2/2, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3.

(Hershkovitz 1977; Nowak 1999; Pook 1990)

Range mass: 393 to 860 g.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Paschka, N. 2000. "Callimico goeldii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Callimico_goeldii.html
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Nick Paschka, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Reproduction

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Female Callimico goeldii normally give birth to single offspring. Females are polyestrous and the estrous cycle averages 23 days with a duration of one week. Gestation averages around 155 days allowing multiple births within a year. Young reach sexual maturity as early as 14 months of age and have been observed in captivity to live at long as 18 years.

(Burton 1987; Nowak 1999: Pook 1990; Ross 1991)

Breeding interval: Females may breed twice per year.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average gestation period: 155 days.

Average weaning age: 12 weeks.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 14 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 14 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 48.15 g.

Average gestation period: 153 days.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male:
395 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female:
365 days.

Young weigh 30-60 grams and nurse for 12 weeks. At 4 weeks of age, the young are able to ingest solid food given by adults, and at 7 weeks of age, the young begin to forage. The mother carries the young for the first 2 weeks. During the third week, the father carries the young, while in the fourth week, responsibility for carrying young is taken up by the entire group.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Male, Female); extended period of juvenile learning

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Paschka, N. 2000. "Callimico goeldii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Callimico_goeldii.html
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Nick Paschka, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Biology

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This monkey lives either in monogamous pairs or in multi-male / multi-female groups of up to 10 (2). Mating occurs during the wet season from September to November in the wild. Females are polyoestrous and have a gestation period of between 145-152 days (3) (2). Single young are usually produced and females have been known to give birth two times a year (5). The mother cares for the infant for the first 10-20 days of its life though after this other members of the group assist in caring for it (3). After seven weeks the juvenile is able to move and forage by itself and sexual maturity is reached at 18-24 months (3). The diet includes fruits, insects, fungi and some vertebrates (2). It usually forages in the understory of the forest, though it will occasionally travel to the forest floor or higher in the trees to feed (3). Goeldi's monkey moves with agility through the forest on all fours and is able to leap distances of up to four metres between branches, which is quite spectacular for such a small monkey (3) (5).
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Conservation

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The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) has listed this species on Appendix I, prohibiting its international trade. However, since Goeldi's monkey is rare, its value on the international black market is increasing (4). Sadly, there is little protection of this species in its natural habitat across its range. In Colombia it has been seen in only six sites, of which only two are in National Parks (6). Should the other four sites prove to be attractive for human development or colonisation, this species is likely to become threatened. A first step for the conservation of Goeldi's monkey is therefore to ascertain this species' precise range, population locations and numbers (6). Since this species is naturally rare and dependant on a specialised habitat it will be important to take proactive steps to protect it as parts of its range may soon come under development (3).
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Description

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Goeldi's monkey is a small, rare inhabitant of the Amazon (5). Adults are blackish brown with thick, soft hair and a mane draping from the neck and the shoulders (3). When threatened, Goeldi's monkey takes an arched posture and raises its bristles in defence to look larger (5). The head and dorsal surface may be spotted with white flecks, and the tail may have two or three light coloured rings at the base. Juveniles are similar in appearance, though they lack these tail rings and the draping mane around the neck and shoulders (5).
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Habitat

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This species inhabits dense, scrubby undergrowth, especially upland bamboo forests, and so populations exist in patches of suitable vegetation that may be isolated by several kilometres (5).
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Range

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Occurs in the upper Amazonian rainforests of southern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, western Brazil, and northern Bolivia (3).
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Status

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Classified as Near Threatened (NT) on the IUCN Red List 2003 (1) and listed on Appendix I of CITES (4).
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Threats

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This monkey is classified as Near Threatened (NT) on the IUCN Redlist 2003 as it exists in widely separated and localised populations (1). Though there is little chance of it becoming extinct in the near future it could become threatened very quickly should the areas in which it occurs be developed as logging sites or agricultural land (1).
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Goeldi's marmoset

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The Goeldi's marmoset or Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) is a small, South American New World monkey that lives in the upper Amazon basin region of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. It is the only species classified in the genus Callimico, and the monkeys are sometimes referred to as "callimicos".

Goeldi's marmosets are blackish or blackish-brown in color and the hair on their head and tail sometimes has red, white, or silverly brown highlights.[4] Their bodies are about 8–9 inches (20–23 cm) long, and their tails are about 10–12 inches (25–30 cm) long.

 src=
Marmoset eating a butterfly
 src=
Marmoset in Venezuela
Callimico goeldii at Universeum, Gothenburg, Sweden

Goeldi's marmoset was first described in 1904, making Callimico one of the more recent monkey genera to be described. In older classification schemes it was sometimes placed in its own family Callimiconidae and sometimes, along with the marmosets and tamarins, in the subfamily Callitrichinae in the family Cebidae. More recently, Callitrichinae has been (re-)elevated to family status as Callitrichidae.

Females reach sexual maturity at 8.5 months, males at 16.5 months. The gestation period lasts from 140 to 180 days. Unlike other New World monkeys, they have the capacity to give birth twice a year. The mother carries a single baby monkey per pregnancy, whereas most other species in the family Callitrichidae usually give birth to twins. For the first 2–3 weeks the mother acts as the primary caregiver until the father takes over most of the responsibilities except for nursing. The infant is weaned after about 65 days. Females outnumber males by 2 to 1.[4] The life expectancy in captivity is about 10 years.

Goeldi's marmosets prefer to forage in dense scrubby undergrowth; perhaps because of this, they are rare, with groups living in separate patches of suitable habitat, separated by miles of unsuitable flora. In the wet season, their diet includes fruit, insects, spiders, lizards, frogs, and snakes. In the dry season, they feed on fungi, the only tropical primates known to depend on this source of food. They live in small social groups (approximately six individuals) that stay within a few feet of one another most of the time, staying in contact via high-pitched calls. They are also known to form polyspecific groups with tamarins such as the white-lipped tamarin and brown-mantled tamarin.[5] This is perhaps because Goeldi's marmosets are not known to have the X-linked polymorphism which enables some individuals of other New World monkey species to see in full tri-chromatic vision.[6]

The species takes its name from its discoverer, the Swiss naturalist Emil August Goeldi.

References

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 129. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ Rylands AB, Mittermeier RA (2009). "The Diversity of the New World Primates (Platyrrhini)". In Garber PA, Estrada A, Bicca-Marques JC, Heymann EW, Strier KB (eds.). South American Primates: Comparative Perspectives in the Study of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Springer. pp. 23–54. ISBN 978-0-387-78704-6.
  3. ^ Mittermeier, R. A. & Rylands, A. B. (2008). "Callimico goeldii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2009.old-form url
  4. ^ a b Falk, Dean (2000). Primate Diversity. W.W. Norton and Company, ISBN 0-393-97428-6.
  5. ^ Rosenberger, Alfred L. (2020). New World Monkeys: The Evolutionary Odyssey. Princeton University Press. p. 184. ISBN 9780691143644.
  6. ^ Surridge AK, Mundy NI (2002). "Trans-specific evolution of opsin alleles and the maintenance of trichromatic colour vision in Callitrichine primates". Molecular Ecology. 11 (10): 2157–2169. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294X.2002.01597.x. PMID 12296957.

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Goeldi's marmoset: Brief Summary

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The Goeldi's marmoset or Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) is a small, South American New World monkey that lives in the upper Amazon basin region of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. It is the only species classified in the genus Callimico, and the monkeys are sometimes referred to as "callimicos".

Goeldi's marmosets are blackish or blackish-brown in color and the hair on their head and tail sometimes has red, white, or silverly brown highlights. Their bodies are about 8–9 inches (20–23 cm) long, and their tails are about 10–12 inches (25–30 cm) long.

 src= Marmoset eating a butterfly  src= Marmoset in Venezuela Callimico goeldii at Universeum, Gothenburg, Sweden

Goeldi's marmoset was first described in 1904, making Callimico one of the more recent monkey genera to be described. In older classification schemes it was sometimes placed in its own family Callimiconidae and sometimes, along with the marmosets and tamarins, in the subfamily Callitrichinae in the family Cebidae. More recently, Callitrichinae has been (re-)elevated to family status as Callitrichidae.

Females reach sexual maturity at 8.5 months, males at 16.5 months. The gestation period lasts from 140 to 180 days. Unlike other New World monkeys, they have the capacity to give birth twice a year. The mother carries a single baby monkey per pregnancy, whereas most other species in the family Callitrichidae usually give birth to twins. For the first 2–3 weeks the mother acts as the primary caregiver until the father takes over most of the responsibilities except for nursing. The infant is weaned after about 65 days. Females outnumber males by 2 to 1. The life expectancy in captivity is about 10 years.

Goeldi's marmosets prefer to forage in dense scrubby undergrowth; perhaps because of this, they are rare, with groups living in separate patches of suitable habitat, separated by miles of unsuitable flora. In the wet season, their diet includes fruit, insects, spiders, lizards, frogs, and snakes. In the dry season, they feed on fungi, the only tropical primates known to depend on this source of food. They live in small social groups (approximately six individuals) that stay within a few feet of one another most of the time, staying in contact via high-pitched calls. They are also known to form polyspecific groups with tamarins such as the white-lipped tamarin and brown-mantled tamarin. This is perhaps because Goeldi's marmosets are not known to have the X-linked polymorphism which enables some individuals of other New World monkey species to see in full tri-chromatic vision.

The species takes its name from its discoverer, the Swiss naturalist Emil August Goeldi.

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