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As with some other species of primates, the posterior end of male western red colobus monkeys changes with age. Juvenile males display a swelling of the perineal organ to mimic that of a mature female during heat, though they are morphologically different. As fetuses and juveniles, western red colobus have a perineal organ that is bright pinkish-red, with a bright blue fake clitoris and some spots around the origin of the tail and anus. This vibrant coloration remains until maturity. The coloration of males changes drastically as they mature: the bright pinkish-red portion of the perineal organ turns a greyish-yellowish-red, and the bright blue darkens to a blueish-black. The perineal organ of males is covered with scaly keratinized skin that is stratified. Because juveniles look like adult females, they are protected against older, stronger males of the group.

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Vasselin, K. 2011. "Piliocolobus badius" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Piliocolobus_badius.html
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Kathleen Vasselin, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Doris Audet, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Behavior

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Western red colobus monkeys use vocalizations to communicate. When predators, such as chimpanzees and leopards, are near, western red colobus call out. Immediately on detecting a chimpanzee, they call out in alarm but stop shortly thereafter. They then climb higher in the trees, up to strata 4 and 5, or higher than 26 m. When a leopard is spotted, western red colobus give an alarm call and several males then approach the leopard and drive it away. Juveniles exhibit a pink gential swelling much like the swelling of the adult females. This mimicry helps juveniles avoid confrontation with older, larger males of the group.

Communication Channels: acoustic

Other Communication Modes: mimicry ; choruses

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Vasselin, K. 2011. "Piliocolobus badius" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Piliocolobus_badius.html
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Kathleen Vasselin, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Conservation Status

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Western red colobus monkeys are considered endangered by the IUCN. The subspecies P.b. waldroni is critically endangered and possibly extinct. Low population size is due to hunting for bushmeat and fur as well as habitat destruction from logging.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered

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Vasselin, K. 2011. "Piliocolobus badius" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Piliocolobus_badius.html
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Kathleen Vasselin, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Benefits

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There are no known adverse effects of Piliocolobus badius on humans.

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Vasselin, K. 2011. "Piliocolobus badius" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Piliocolobus_badius.html
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Kathleen Vasselin, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Benefits

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Western red colobus monkeys are an important part of the bushmeat trade. It is difficult to enforce laws in national parks, where poachers hunt with little interference. The subspecies P.b. waldroni has been driven to or very near extinction due to poaching and the bushmeat trade. Western red colobus monkeys are also hunted for their coat, as they possess long fur with an appealing coloration.

Positive Impacts: food ; body parts are source of valuable material

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Vasselin, K. 2011. "Piliocolobus badius" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Piliocolobus_badius.html
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Kathleen Vasselin, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Associations

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Western red colobus monkeys are prey to chimpanzees and leopards. They may also act as seed dispersers during the dry season when they eat a higher proportion of fruits.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

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Vasselin, K. 2011. "Piliocolobus badius" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Piliocolobus_badius.html
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Kathleen Vasselin, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Trophic Strategy

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Western red colobus monkeys are folivorous, consuming mostly young leaves but also mature leaves, seeds, unripe fruit and shoots. Members of the subspecies P.b. temmincki consume leaves of Terminalia macroptera, Celtis integrifolia, Erythrophleum guineense, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Dichrostachys glomerata as well as fruits and flowers at the end of the dry season when leaves have become hard. Western red colobus possess a unique digestive system in which a ruminant-like multi-chambered stomach digests cellulose.

Plant Foods: seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit; flowers

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )

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Vasselin, K. 2011. "Piliocolobus badius" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Piliocolobus_badius.html
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Kathleen Vasselin, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Distribution

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Western red colobus monkeys are found in western Africa. The subspecies P.b. badius, bay red colobus, is native to Cote d’Ivoire, Sierra Leone and Liberia. The subspecies P.b. waldroni, Miss Waldron's red colobus, is native to eastern Cote d’Ivoire and western Ghana. The subspecies, P.b. temminiki, Temminck's red colobus, is native to Senegal and is scattered through Guinea, Gambia and Guinea-Bissau.

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

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Vasselin, K. 2011. "Piliocolobus badius" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Piliocolobus_badius.html
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Kathleen Vasselin, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Habitat

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Western red colobus are found in old growth rain forests at all levels of the canopy, from the ground to stratum 5 of the tree canopy, which is the tops of developing trees greater than 40m above ground. Western red colobus monkeys spend most of their time in the third or fourth strata (20 to 30m). The subspeices P.b. Temmincki resides in mountain forests and tropical rain forests and are also adapted to the dry forests of Senegal. The subspecies P.b. waldroni inhabits dense, tall canopied forests.

Range elevation: 0 (low) m.

Average elevation: 20-30 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest

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Vasselin, K. 2011. "Piliocolobus badius" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Piliocolobus_badius.html
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Kathleen Vasselin, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Life Expectancy

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Western red colobus monkeys have about a 30% mortality rate in their first 6 months. Between 6 and 12 months of age, they have a mortality rate of 18%. Due to chimpanzee predation, mortality rates are 28% between 18 and 24 months of age. Because females migrate between groups and males do not, females have a higher mortality rate than males. The lifespan of western red colobus is currently unknown.

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Vasselin, K. 2011. "Piliocolobus badius" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Piliocolobus_badius.html
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Kathleen Vasselin, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Morphology

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Western red colobus are sexually dimorphic, and adult females are slightly smaller than adult males. Males weigh between 9.1 kg and 12.2 kg, whereas females weigh between 6.8 kg and 9.1 kg. Western red colobus are 45 to 67 cm in length, and their tail is an additional 52 to 80cm long. Their body is brown, grey or black in color, and their head and appendages are chestnut or red in color. Their pubic area is surrounded by white fur. Their coat is even in length. Western red colobus do not have a thumb, but rather have a bump in their place. They also have long fingers for grasping branches. In addition, male and female juvenile western red colobus exhibit similar genital swellings as mature females, and juvenile males do not yet show evidence of a penis or scrotum. There are three subspecies of Pilliocolobus badius, P.b. badius, P.b. temmincki, and P.b. waldroni, and each are slightly different in physical appearance. P.b. badius exhibit black foreheads and outer thighs, and they also possess an exterior nose elevetaed on a well padded base. P.b. waldroni possess more red on their outer thighs and forehead than P.b. badius.

Range mass: 6.8 to 12.2 kg.

Range length: 97 to 147 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike; male larger

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Vasselin, K. 2011. "Piliocolobus badius" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Piliocolobus_badius.html
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Kathleen Vasselin, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Doris Audet, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Associations

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When predators, such as chimpanzees and leopards, are near, western red colobus call out. Immediately on detecting a chimpanzee, they call out in alarm but stop shortly thereafter. The group then climbs higher in the trees, up to strata 4 and 5, or higher than 26 m. When a leopard is spotted, western red colobus give an alarm call and several males then approach the leopard and drive it away. Western red colobus monkeys are also hunted by humans for their bushmeat and fur. The subspecies P.b. waldroni has been driven to or very near extinction by poachers because of their fur and meat. If P.b. waldroni is truly extinct, it would be the first recorded 20th century primate taxon to die off. There is, however, evidence of their continued existence, though this is limited to the forest between the Ehy Lagoon and Tanoe River of western Ghana.

Known Predators:

  • chimpanzees Pan trogladytes
  • leopards Panthera pardus
  • humans Homo sapiens
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Vasselin, K. 2011. "Piliocolobus badius" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Piliocolobus_badius.html
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Kathleen Vasselin, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Doris Audet, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Reproduction

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Female western red colobus monkeys choose which male(s) with which to mate, as they migrate from group to group. It is uncertain whether this species is monogamous or polyandrous.

Female western red colobus monkeys give birth to a single offspring every two years. Females leave their natal group, moving freely between groups of males, which remain in their natal group. Males of different coalitions demonstrate aggression as they fight for the mobile females. When females are ready to mate, they develop eostrogen-dependent swollen genitals that resemble a pink rosebud. This is not a permanent change. It is uncertain whether female western red colobus monkeys mate with a single male or multiple males. Characteristic of the subspecies P.b. temminckii, a male and female withdraw from the group, and the female lies susceptible to the male for copulation. P.b. temmincki also show distinctive seasonal breeding. The gestation period of western red colobus monkeys is 6 to 6.5 months. Females of P.b. temmincki do not make any sounds during copulation, whereas females of P.b. badius females do vocalize while copulating.

Range number of offspring: 1 (low) .

Range gestation period: 6 to 6.5 months.

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Little information is available regarding parental investment of western red colobus monkeys, as they do not survive long enough to breed in captivity and few studies have focused on this aspect in the wild. General observations suggest no parental involvement occurs after birth. Mothers, however, defend, nurse and groom their offspring.

Parental Investment: altricial ; female parental care ; pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

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Vasselin, K. 2011. "Piliocolobus badius" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Piliocolobus_badius.html
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Kathleen Vasselin, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Doris Audet, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus
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Biology

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Forming large polyandrous groups of between 12 and 80 individuals (1), the red colobus is diurnal (6). It spends the day moving through the top of the canopy looking for leaves, shoots, fruits, and fungi. It has a complex stomach divided into sacs, due to its diet. In the upper chamber of the stomach, foliage is fermented by bacteria, and once in the lower chamber it can be digested by acid. The stomach is particularly large so that it can take the large quantities of this low value food that are needed to provide the red colobus with the necessary energy and nutrients to survive. More than a quarter of the body weight of an adult can be attributed to the food in its stomach (6). Although not territorial, larger groups tend to have dominance over smaller groups when interactions occur. Mixed-sex groups contain more females than males, leaving bachelor groups of between 8 and 40 males. When ready to mate, females develop swollen genitals and will present to males to encourage mating. Each female may mate with many males, producing just one offspring every two years. Infanticide can occur, but the reasons for this are not fully understood. Once weaned, both males and females will leave the group, but females will join another mixed-sex group, whereas males may join a bachelor group. A social monkey, the red colobus conforms to a hierarchy, crouching to communicate submission, which may lead to 'social' mounting, not to mate, but as a prelude to social grooming (5).
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Conservation

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The larger issues of habitat loss and the bushmeat trade underscore the red colobus' fight to exist. Both these problems rely on wide-ranging social and political change for their solution, and much is being done to counter them. Miss Waldron's colobus was declared extinct in 2000, becoming the first primate to go extinct in at least 200 years. However, the scientists who announced its extinction obtained evidence in 2004 of its possible existence, consisting of a tail, a skin and a photograph from hunters, providing new hope. The IUCN continue to classify this subspecies as Critically Endangered, since it has not satisfied the criteria stating that it is beyond reasonable doubt that the last individual has died (8).
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Description

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The red colobus, like other colobus species, has just a bump in place of the thumb, indeed, colobus means 'docked' in Greek, but the other fingers are particularly long. This monkey differs from other colobus species as the fur is of even length over the whole body, with no tufts of longer fur. Whilst the subspecies differ in size and colouration, they are mainly black, grey or brown above with red or chestnut arms, legs and head (2). Around the pubic area the fur is white, and juveniles of both sexes have female-like genital swellings, possibly to prevent mature males evicting young males before they have matured (5). The red colobus does not have cheek pouches (6). Taxonomic relationships within this species, and with other taxa of red colobus, are widely debated by experts and require clarification.
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Habitat

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The red colobus is found in tropical and gallery rainforests in all levels of the canopy (5).
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Range

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The red colobus is found across much of Africa but the subspecies are confined to certain areas, many of which overlap. The Lomami red colobus (P. b. parmentieri), the Kisangani red colobus (P. b. langi), the Foa red colobus (P. b. foai), and the Kahuzi red colobus (P. b. lulindicus) are all found only in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Elliot's red colobus (P. b. ellioti) is also found in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is thought to be extinct in Uganda. Miss Waldron's red colobus (P. b. waldronae) was found in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana but has not been seen alive since 1978 (3). However, recent evidence of a tail, a skin and a photograph suggest that a handful of individuals have remained undetected to this point in the extreme southeast of Ivory Coast (7). The bay colobus (P. b. badius) is found in the western Ivory Coast, Liberia and Sierra Leone (1). Temminck's red colobus (P. b. temminckii) is found in Gambia, northern Guinea, Guinea-Bissau and southern Senegal (1) (3).
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Status

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The red colobus is classified as Endangered (EN A1cd + 2cd, B1 + 2abc) on the IUCN Red List 2004 (3) and is listed on Appendix II of CITES (4), both as Procolobus badius. Subspecies: the bay colobus (P. b. badius) and Temminck's red colobus (P. b. temminckii) are classified as Endangered (EN A2cd + 3cd + 4cd), and Miss Waldron's red colobus (P. b. waldronae) is classified as Critically Endangered (CR A1c, C2a, D) on the IUCN Red List 2004 (3). The IUCN also recognise a further five subspecies: the Lomami red colobus (P. b. parmentieri), Elliot's red colobus (P. b. ellioti), the Kisangani red colobus (P. b. langi), the Kahuzi red colobus (P. b. lulindicus), and the Foa red colobus (P. b. foai), all classified as Data Deficient (DD) (3). However, recent scientific thought is that these colobus do not belong to Piliocolobus badius, but should be included as subspecies of a different species, P. foai (1).
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Threats

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Although hunting of the red colobus is illegal, it is still very common, with red colobus forming a fair proportion of the bushmeat trade. Compounding this major threat is the loss of huge tracts of forest, particularly along the Ivory Coast, where 85% of original forest cover has been lost (8).
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Kolobouz ruz Kornôgafrika ( Breton )

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Kolobouz ruz Kornôgafrika (Piliocolobus badius) a zo ur marmouz hag a vev e kornôg Afrika, eus Senegal betek Ghana.

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Còlob vermell occidental ( Catalan; Valencian )

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El còlob vermell occidental (Procolobus badius) és una espècie de primat de la subfamília dels colobins. Assoleix una llargada corporal de 45–67 cm, amb una cua que pot arribar a mesurar fins a 80 cm. Pesa 5–11 kg i els mascles pesen una mica més que les femelles.

Es tracta d'un animal esvelt amb extremitats llargues i relativament primes. El pelatge és negre o gris a la part superior, mentre que els braços, les cames i el cap són de color marró gris. El ventre i la regió genital són blancs. Com en tots els còlobs, els polzes no són més que monyons.

El 1994, micos còlobs vermells occidentals van infectar molts ximpanzés amb el virus d'Ebola al ser caçats i menjats pels ximpanzés.[1]

Referències

 src= A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Còlob vermell occidental Modifica l'enllaç a Wikidata


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Còlob vermell occidental: Brief Summary ( Catalan; Valencian )

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El còlob vermell occidental (Procolobus badius) és una espècie de primat de la subfamília dels colobins. Assoleix una llargada corporal de 45–67 cm, amb una cua que pot arribar a mesurar fins a 80 cm. Pesa 5–11 kg i els mascles pesen una mica més que les femelles.

Es tracta d'un animal esvelt amb extremitats llargues i relativament primes. El pelatge és negre o gris a la part superior, mentre que els braços, les cames i el cap són de color marró gris. El ventre i la regió genital són blancs. Com en tots els còlobs, els polzes no són més que monyons.

El 1994, micos còlobs vermells occidentals van infectar molts ximpanzés amb el virus d'Ebola al ser caçats i menjats pels ximpanzés.

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Gueréza červená ( Czech )

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Gueréza červená (Piliocolobus badius, syn. Procolobus badius) je malý a výrazně zbarvený zástupce čeledi kočkodanovitých (Cercopithecidae) obývající tropické deštné lesy v Kamerunu, Kongu, na Pobřeží slonoviny, v Gambii, Ghaně, Guineji, Libérii, Nigérii, Senegalu a Sierra Leone.[zdroj?]

Délka těla se pohybuje mezi 45 – 67 cm, hmotnost obvykle nepřesáhne 11,3 kg a ocas je dlouhý 50 - 85 cm. Díky jejímu nápadnému zbarvení ji spolehlivě rozeznáme od ostatních druhů gueréz. Hřbet, boky a ocas je šedý, část končetin a hrdlo je výrazně oranžovočervené a břicho bílé. Stejně jako ostatní guerézy má sedací mozoly, které ji dovolují sedět i na tenkých větví delší časové období a silné zadní končetiny, přizpůsobené k mohutným skokům z jednoho stromu na druhý. Naopak ji chybí lícní torby, chápavý ocas a palec, který je u gueréz téměř zcela zakrnělý.

Gueréza červená je denní primát, pohybující se většinou v korunách stromů. Žije ve skupinách tvořených 4 až 20 dospělými jedinci a mláďaty. Mladí samci tvoří zhruba 8 členné mládenecké skupiny. Živí se bobulemi, listy, květy, různými plody a zelenými částmi rostlin. Sama se velice často stává potravou šimpanzů učenlivých (Pan troglodytes). V roce 1994 infikovala velké množství šimpanzů velice nebezpečným virem Ebola, který způsobil častá úmrtí nebo doživotní následky.[2] Je to zvláště hlučné zvíře, které se dorozumívá širokou škálou pronikavých pokřiků a posunků.

Je ohrožována především lovem a masivní ztrátou přirozeného biomu. V Červeném seznamu IUCN ji nalezneme v kategorii ohrožených druhů.[3]

Poddruhy

U guerézy červené rozeznáváme celkem 8 poddruhů:[3]

  • Procolobus badius parmentieri
  • Procolobus badius ellioti
  • Procolobus badius waldronae
  • Procolobus badius langi
  • Procolobus badius badius
  • Procolobus badius temminckii
  • Procolobus badius lulindicus
  • Procolobus badius foai

Nejohroženějším poddruhem je P. b. waldronae, který je v přírodě kriticky ohrožený nebo dokonce zcela vyhubený a vyskytuje se zřejmě jen na malém území Pobřeží slonoviny.[4]

Reference

  1. Červený seznam IUCN 2018.1. 5. července 2018. Dostupné online. [cit. 2018-08-10]
  2. http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/eboci.html
  3. a b https://web.archive.org/web/http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/18240/all
  4. https://web.archive.org/web/http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/18248/all

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Gueréza červená: Brief Summary ( Czech )

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Gueréza červená (Piliocolobus badius, syn. Procolobus badius) je malý a výrazně zbarvený zástupce čeledi kočkodanovitých (Cercopithecidae) obývající tropické deštné lesy v Kamerunu, Kongu, na Pobřeží slonoviny, v Gambii, Ghaně, Guineji, Libérii, Nigérii, Senegalu a Sierra Leone.[zdroj?]

Délka těla se pohybuje mezi 45 – 67 cm, hmotnost obvykle nepřesáhne 11,3 kg a ocas je dlouhý 50 - 85 cm. Díky jejímu nápadnému zbarvení ji spolehlivě rozeznáme od ostatních druhů gueréz. Hřbet, boky a ocas je šedý, část končetin a hrdlo je výrazně oranžovočervené a břicho bílé. Stejně jako ostatní guerézy má sedací mozoly, které ji dovolují sedět i na tenkých větví delší časové období a silné zadní končetiny, přizpůsobené k mohutným skokům z jednoho stromu na druhý. Naopak ji chybí lícní torby, chápavý ocas a palec, který je u gueréz téměř zcela zakrnělý.

Gueréza červená je denní primát, pohybující se většinou v korunách stromů. Žije ve skupinách tvořených 4 až 20 dospělými jedinci a mláďaty. Mladí samci tvoří zhruba 8 členné mládenecké skupiny. Živí se bobulemi, listy, květy, různými plody a zelenými částmi rostlin. Sama se velice často stává potravou šimpanzů učenlivých (Pan troglodytes). V roce 1994 infikovala velké množství šimpanzů velice nebezpečným virem Ebola, který způsobil častá úmrtí nebo doživotní následky. Je to zvláště hlučné zvíře, které se dorozumívá širokou škálou pronikavých pokřiků a posunků.

Je ohrožována především lovem a masivní ztrátou přirozeného biomu. V Červeném seznamu IUCN ji nalezneme v kategorii ohrožených druhů.

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Westafrikanischer Stummelaffe ( German )

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Wissenschaftlicher Name Piliocolobus badius (Kerr, 1792)

Der Westafrikanische Stummelaffe (Piliocolobus badius) ist eine Primatenart aus der Gruppe der Stummelaffen.

Merkmale

Westafrikanische Stummelaffen erreichen eine Kopfrumpflänge von 50 bis 63 (Männchen) bzw. 43 bis 63 (Weibchen) Zentimeter, wozu noch ein 63 bis 77 Zentimeter langer Schwanz kommt. Ihr Gewicht variiert zwischen 9 und 12,5 (Männchen) bzw. 6 bis 9 (Weibchen) Kilogramm. Ihr Körperbau ist schlank, die Gliedmaßen sind lang und verhältnismäßig dünn. Ihr Fell ist an der Oberseite, den Außenseiten von Oberarmen und Oberschenkeln und der Kopfoberseite glänzend schwarz gefärbt, der Bauch, die Innenseiten von Oberarmen und Oberschenkeln, Unterarme und Unterschenkel und die Wangen sind rötlich-braun bis kastanienbraun. Rund um die Genitalregion sind sie weiß. Der Schwanz ist rötlich und wird zum Ende hin zunehmend schwärzlicher. Das faltige Gesicht ist schwarz und rund um die Augen und das Maul rosig. Jungtiere sind oben grau und unten weißlich gefärbt, mit einer rötlichen Tönung an Händen und Füßen und am Schwanz. Wie bei allen Stummelaffen ist der Daumen zurückgebildet.[1]

Verbreitung und Lebensraum

 src=
Grün, das Verbreitungsgebiet des Westafrikanischen Stummelaffen, gelb Temminck-Stummelaffe, rot das ehemalige Verbreitungsgebiet von Miss Waldrons Roter Stummelaffe

Westafrikanische Stummelaffen sind von Sierra Leone über Liberia und Südguinea bis in die westlicher Elfenbeinküste östlich bis zum Bandama beheimatet. Östlich des Bandama schließt das (ehemalige) Verbreitungsgebiet von Miss Waldrons Roter Stummelaffe (P. waldronae), der möglicherweise ausgestorben ist. Diese Art und der im Senegal, in Gambia und in Guinea-Bissau vorkommende Temminck-Stummelaffe (P. temminckii) wurden in der Vergangenheit als Unterarten des Westafrikanischen Stummelaffen betrachtet. Ob das Verbreitungsgebiet des Temminck-Stummelaffe und des Westafrikanischen Stummelaffen direkt aneinander grenzen oder ob es eine Verbreitungslücke oder eine geografische Barriere zwischen den Arten gibt ist bisher unbekannt. Die Tiere sind Baumbewohner, und auf alte, feuchte Wälder angewiesen. Sie halten sich mehr auf hohen Bäumen auf als der Temminck-Stummelaffe.[1]

Lebensweise

Westafrikanische Stummelaffen sind wie alle Altweltaffen tagaktiv. Sie sind geschickte Kletterer, wozu ihnen auch ihr langer Schwanz und ihre langen Finger dienen, und kommen nur selten auf den Boden.

Diese Tiere leben in Gruppen von 33 bis 90 Tieren. In einer Gruppe finden sich mehrere Männchen und meist zwei- bis dreimal so viel Weibchen. Manche Tiere, insbesondere junge Männchen, die aus ihrer Geburtsgruppe verjagt wurden, leben aber auch einzelgängerisch. Beide Geschlechter entwickeln eine strenge Rangordnung, die unter anderem in bevorzugtem Zugang zu Nahrungsquellen und Schlafplätzen, aber auch in Vorrang bei der Fellpflege und bei der Paarung zum Vorschein kommt. (So pflanzt sich die höchstrangige Männchen einer Gruppe am öftesten fort.) Sie kommunizieren mit einer Reihe von Lauten, darunter ein bellendes Alarmgeräusch der Männchen, sowie mit Gesten und Körperhaltungen.

Diese Tiere haben kein festes Territorium, verteidigen aber ihren gegenwärtigen Aufenthaltsort mit aggressiven Gesten und Geschrei gegenüber anderen Gruppen. Die Größe der Streifgebiete hängt vom Lebensraum und der Gruppengröße ab und kann zwischen 8 und 132 Hektar liegen – durchschnittlich sind es 1 bis 2 Hektar pro Tier.

Nahrung

Westafrikanische Stummelaffen ernähren sich in erster Linie von Blättern, daneben nehmen sie auch Früchte und Blüten zu sich. Sie besitzen wie alle Stummelaffen einen vierkammerigen Magen, der der Aufspaltung der Zellulose dient und so eine bessere Verwertung der nährstoffarmen Blätternahrung bewirkt – in ähnlicher Form findet sich dieses Verdauungssystem auch bei Wiederkäuern.

Fortpflanzung

Nach einer rund 4,5- bis 5,5-monatigen Tragzeit bringt das Weibchen meist ein einzelnes Jungtier zur Welt. Die meisten Geburten fallen in den Beginn der Trockenzeit, etwa Oktober bis Dezember. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Stummelaffen kümmert sich nur die Mutter und nicht auch andere Weibchen um das Jungtier. Weibchen wie Männchen verlassen beim Eintreten der Geschlechtsreife ihre Geburtsgruppe; während Weibchen meist schnell Anschluss in einer anderen Gruppe finden, werden die jungen Männchen oft mit Gewalt verjagt und leben häufig eine gewisse Zeit einzelgängerisch.

Bedrohung

Westafrikanische Stummelaffen gehören zu den Beutetieren der Gemeinen Schimpansen und des Kronenadlers, auch Leoparden machen Jagd auf sie. Die größte Bedrohung geht jedoch vom Menschen aus: durch die fortschreitende Zerstörung ihres Lebensraums wurde ihr Verbreitungsgebiet stark eingeschränkt, hinzu kommt die Bejagung wegen ihres Fleisches („Bushmeat“). Die IUCN listet die Art als stark gefährdet (endangered).[2] Schutzgebiete, in denen die Art vorkommt sind u. a., der Nationalpark Taï in der Elfenbeinküste, und die Nationalparks Gola, Outamba-Kilimi und Tiwai in Sierra Leone.[1]

Systematik

Der Westafrikanische Stummelaffe wird heute als eine von 17 Arten der Gattung der Roten Stummelaffen (Piliocolobus) geführt. Ältere Systematiken fassten alle Arten noch zu einer einzigen Art (P. badius) zusammen, dieser wissenschaftliche Name gilt heute aber nur für die westafrikanische Art. Ebenfalls findet sich in älteren Werken noch die Einordnung dieser Tiere in die Gattung Colobus oder Procolobus.

Literatur

  • Thomas Geissmann: Vergleichende Primatologie. Springer-Verlag, Berlin u. a. 2003, ISBN 3-540-43645-6.
  • Ronald M. Nowak: Walker's Mammals of the World. 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore MD 1999, ISBN 0-8018-5789-9.
  • Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder (Hrsg.): Mammal Species of the World. A taxonomic and geographic Reference. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore MD 2005, ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.

Einzelnachweise

  1. a b c Elizabeth L. Gadsby, Colin P. Groves, Aoife Healy, K. Praveen Karanth, Sanjay Molur, Tilo Nadler, Matthew C. Richardson, Erin P. Riley, Anthony B. Rylands, Lori K. Sheeran, Nelson Ting, Janette Wallis, Siân S. Waters & Danielle J. Whittaker: Family Cercopithecidae (Old World Monkeys). Seite 705 in Russell A. Mittermeier, Anthony B. Rylands & Don E. Wilson: Handbook of the Mammals of the World: - Volume 3. Primates. Lynx Editions, 2013 ISBN 978-8496553897
  2. Piliocolobus badius in der Roten Liste gefährdeter Arten der IUCN 2016. Eingestellt von: Oates, J.F., Struhsaker, T. & McGraw, S., 2008. Abgerufen am 4. August 2007.
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Westafrikanischer Stummelaffe: Brief Summary ( German )

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Der Westafrikanische Stummelaffe (Piliocolobus badius) ist eine Primatenart aus der Gruppe der Stummelaffen.

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Western red colobus

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The western red colobus (Piliocolobus badius), also known as the bay red colobus, rust red colobus or Upper Guinea red colobus, is a species of Old World monkey in West African forests from Senegal to Ghana.[1] All other species of red colobuses have formerly been considered subspecies of P. badius. It is often hunted by the common chimpanzee. In 1994, western red colobus monkeys infected many chimpanzees with Ebola virus when the chimpanzees hunted the monkeys as prey.[3]

Subspecies

According to Groves (2005) the Western red colobus has three subspecies, including the nominate:[1]

P. b. waldronae is critically endangered, possibly even extinct. The other two subspecies are endangered.[2] Under more recent taxonomies, these are generally considered separate species.[4] Groves concurs with this revision, although not all primatologists agree.[4][5]

Description

The western red colobus grows to a head-and-body length of 450 to 670 mm (18 to 26 in) with a tail of 520 to 800 mm (20 to 31 in), and a weight of between 5 and 11 kg (11 and 24 lb). It has red or chestnut-brown head and limbs and black, slatey-grey or dark brown upper parts. It does not have long fringes of hair, or tufts of hair on the tail. Compared to monkeys in the genus Colobus, the nostrils are V-shaped, the digits are long and the big toe short.[6]

Distribution and habitat

The red colobus is endemic to tropical West Africa. Its range includes various fragmentary populations in Sierra Leone, and contiguous populations in Liberia, Guinea and western Ivory Coast. It is unclear exactly where the ranges of P. b. badius and P. b. temminckii meet, but P. b. badius populations are separated from P. b. waldronae by the Bandama River in Ivory Coast. The red colobus is an arboreal species, typically found in primary rainforest, but also inhabiting secondary forest and gallery forest.[2]

Ecology

The red colobus lives in colonies of between twelve and eighty members. There are usually several males and up to three times this number of adult females. There is a social hierarchy, giving access to food, space and grooming.[6]

References

  1. ^ a b c Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 169. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b c Oates, J.F.; Struhsaker, T.; McGraw, S. (2016). "Piliocolobus badius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T40009A92635756. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T40009A92635756.en.
  3. ^ Ebola Cote d'Ivoire Outbreaks
  4. ^ a b Zinner, D.; Fickenscher, G.H.; Roos, C. (2013). Mittermeier, Russell A.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Wilson, Don E. (eds.). Handbook of the Mammals of the World: Volume 3, Primates. Lynx. pp. 705–706. ISBN 978-8496553897.
  5. ^ Groves, C.P. (2016). "Species concepts and conservation". In Wich, Serge A.; Marshall, Andrew J. (eds.). An Introduction to Primate Conservation. pp. 45–47. ISBN 9780198703396.
  6. ^ a b Ronald M. Nowak (1999). Walker's Primates of the World. JHU Press. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-0-8018-6251-9.

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Western red colobus: Brief Summary

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The western red colobus (Piliocolobus badius), also known as the bay red colobus, rust red colobus or Upper Guinea red colobus, is a species of Old World monkey in West African forests from Senegal to Ghana. All other species of red colobuses have formerly been considered subspecies of P. badius. It is often hunted by the common chimpanzee. In 1994, western red colobus monkeys infected many chimpanzees with Ebola virus when the chimpanzees hunted the monkeys as prey.

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Piliocolobus badius ( Spanish; Castilian )

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El colobo rojo occidental (Piliocolobus badius) es una especie de mono del viejo mundo que habita los bosques de África Occidental, desde Senegal hasta Ghana.[1]​ Todas las especies de colobos rojos fueron catalogadas anteriormente como subespecies de P. badius. Es cazado con frecuencia por los chimpancés. En 1994 estos colobos infectaron muchos chimpancés con ébola al ser cazados y devorados por estos.[3]

Subespecies

Se reconocen tres subespecies:[1]

P. b. waldronae está críticamente amenazado, quizá extinto. Las otras dos subespecies se encuentran en peligro de extinción por la pérdida de su hábitat natural y por la caza.[2]

Referencias

  1. a b c Groves, Colin (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3ª edición). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 169. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.
  2. a b Oates, J. F., Struhsaker, T., McGraw, S., Galat-Luong, A., Galat, G. & Ting, T. (2008). «Procolobus badius». Lista Roja de especies amenazadas de la UICN 2008 (en inglés). ISSN 2307-8235. Consultado el 4 de enero de 2009.
  3. «Ebola Cote d'Ivoire Outbreaks». Archivado desde el original el 16 de febrero de 2008. Consultado el 19 de marzo de 2010.

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Piliocolobus badius: Brief Summary ( Spanish; Castilian )

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El colobo rojo occidental (Piliocolobus badius) es una especie de mono del viejo mundo que habita los bosques de África Occidental, desde Senegal hasta Ghana.​ Todas las especies de colobos rojos fueron catalogadas anteriormente como subespecies de P. badius. Es cazado con frecuencia por los chimpancés. En 1994 estos colobos infectaron muchos chimpancés con ébola al ser cazados y devorados por estos.​

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Piliocolobus badius ( Basque )

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Piliocolobus badius Piliocolobus generoko animalia da. Primateen barruko Colobinae azpifamilia eta Cercopithecidae familian sailkatuta dago

Erreferentziak

  1. Kerr (1792) In Linnaeus 74. or..

Kanpo estekak

Ikus, gainera

(RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.log.warn("Gadget "ErrefAurrebista" was not loaded. Please migrate it to use ResourceLoader. See u003Chttps://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berezi:Gadgetaku003E.");});
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Piliocolobus badius: Brief Summary ( Basque )

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Piliocolobus badius Piliocolobus generoko animalia da. Primateen barruko Colobinae azpifamilia eta Cercopithecidae familian sailkatuta dago

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Guineanruostegueretsa ( Finnish )

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Guineanruostegueretsa (Piliocolobus badius) on Piliocolobus-sukuun kuuluva laji. Yksilön pituus ilman häntää on 45-67 cm ja hännän pituus on 52-80 cm. Naaras painaa 6,8-9,1 kg ja uros 9,1-12,2 kg. Lajia tavataan läntisessä Afrikassa vanhoissa sademetsissä. Naaras synnyttää yhden poikasen kerrallaan joka toinen vuosi. Naaraan tiineys kestää noin puoli vuotta. Guineanruostegueretsa oleskelee enimmäkseen korkealla puustossa ja laskeutuu harvoin maahan. Se käyttää häntäänsä apuna tasapainoiluun puissa. Laji muodostaa noin 20 yksilön laumoja. Guineanruostegueretsa syö enimmäkseen lehtiä ja jonkin verran myös kasvien versoja, hedelmien raakileita ja siemeniä.[2] Laji on erittäin uhanalainen.[3]

Lähteet

  1. Anthony B.Rylands: Piliocolobus badius Itis Report. 29.7.2014. Viitattu 29.7.2014. (englanniksi)
  2. Kathleen Vasselin: Piliocolobus badius, Western red colobus Animal Diversity web. 2011. Viitattu 29.7.2014. (englanniksi)
  3. Oates, J.F, Struhsaker, T., McGraw, S., Galat-Luong, A., Galat G., Ting T.: Procolobus badius The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature and natural Resources. Viitattu 29.7.2014. (englanniksi)

Aiheesta muualla

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Guineanruostegueretsa: Brief Summary ( Finnish )

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Guineanruostegueretsa (Piliocolobus badius) on Piliocolobus-sukuun kuuluva laji. Yksilön pituus ilman häntää on 45-67 cm ja hännän pituus on 52-80 cm. Naaras painaa 6,8-9,1 kg ja uros 9,1-12,2 kg. Lajia tavataan läntisessä Afrikassa vanhoissa sademetsissä. Naaras synnyttää yhden poikasen kerrallaan joka toinen vuosi. Naaraan tiineys kestää noin puoli vuotta. Guineanruostegueretsa oleskelee enimmäkseen korkealla puustossa ja laskeutuu harvoin maahan. Se käyttää häntäänsä apuna tasapainoiluun puissa. Laji muodostaa noin 20 yksilön laumoja. Guineanruostegueretsa syö enimmäkseen lehtiä ja jonkin verran myös kasvien versoja, hedelmien raakileita ja siemeniä. Laji on erittäin uhanalainen.

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Piliocolobus badius ( French )

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Piliocolobus badius (syn. Procolobus badius) est une espèce qui fait partie des Primates. C’est un colobe, un singe de la famille des Cercopithecidae, appelé en français Colobe bai[1], Colobe bai d'Afrique occidentale[1] ou Colobe rouge[1]. La classification de cette espèce est encore discutée.

Liste des sous-espèces

Selon Mammal Species of the World (version 3, 2005) (26 mars 2011)[2] :

  • sous-espèce Piliocolobus badius badius
  • sous-espèce Piliocolobus badius temminckii
  • sous-espèce Piliocolobus badius waldroni

Selon NCBI (26 mars 2011)[3] :

  • sous-espèce Piliocolobus badius badius
  • sous-espèce Piliocolobus badius temminckii

Notes et références

  1. a b et c (en) Murray Wrobel, 2007. Elsevier's dictionary of mammals: in Latin, English, German, French and Italian. Elsevier, 2007. (ISBN 0444518770), 9780444518774. 857 pages. Rechercher dans le document numérisé
  2. Mammal Species of the World (version 3, 2005), consulté le 26 mars 2011
  3. NCBI, consulté le 26 mars 2011

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Piliocolobus badius: Brief Summary ( French )

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Piliocolobus badius (syn. Procolobus badius) est une espèce qui fait partie des Primates. C’est un colobe, un singe de la famille des Cercopithecidae, appelé en français Colobe bai, Colobe bai d'Afrique occidentale ou Colobe rouge. La classification de cette espèce est encore discutée.

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Piliocolobus badius ( Italian )

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Il colobo ferruginoso o colobo rosso occidentale (Piliocolobus badius) è una specie di scimmia del Vecchio Mondo.

Veniva in passato classificato nel genere Procolobus, al quale è attualmente ascritta un'unica specie: opere ancor più vecchie possono addirittura classificare questa specie nel genere Colobus.

Distribuzione

Con tre sottospecie (Piliocolobus badius badius, Piliocolobus badius temminckii e Piliocolobus badius waldronae, quest'ultima forse estinta), la specie è diffusa nell'area compresa fra Senegal e Ghana: le varie sottospecie sono separate da ampi tratti di vegetazione arbustiva che circondano le aree di foresta pluviale, le savane ed i mangrovieti dove vivono.

Descrizione

Dimensioni

 src=
Due colobi ferruginosi in Gambia: la tonalità del mantello varia anche sensibilmente da esemplare a esemplare.

Misura fino a 130 cm di lunghezza, di cui fino a due terzi spettano alla lunga coda, per un peso di 5-10 kg. I maschi sono più grossi e pesanti delle femmine.

Aspetto

Si tratta di scimmie dalla corporatura slanciata. Il dorso è grigio-nerastro sul dorso e sulla calotta cranica, mentre braccia, gambe e testa sono di color ruggine, da cui il nome comune: Il basso ventre, in particolare la regione genitale, è di color bianco candido.

Biologia

 src=
Un colobo ferruginoso si riposa all'ombra: questi animali sono soliti restare inattivi durante le ore più calde.

Si tratta di animali diurni ed arboricoli, anche se non così legate all'ambiente arboreo come gli altri colobi. Vivono in grossi gruppi (fino ad 80 individui, mediamente attorno alla cinquantina), formati da più maschi (mai in numero superiore a cinque) e femmine in numero almeno triplo rispetto a quello di questi ultimi. Nell'ambito del gruppo vige una precisa gerarchia, sia fra i maschi che fra le femmine, che si traduce nella priorità o meno nella scelta dei giacigli per la notte, nell'accesso più o meno immediato alle fonti di cibo od all'accoppiamento e nel dover fare o ricevere il grooming.
Pur non essendo soliti delimitare un proprio territorio ben definito, questi animali difendono il proprio luogo di soggiorno, le cui dimensioni variano a seconda del numero di componenti del gruppo (generalmente va contato un ettaro e mezzo di estensione per ciascun animale), con vocalizzazioni minacciose e gesti ed espressioni facciali minacciose. I maschi hanno il compito di vigilare sul gruppo, avvertendo in caso di pericolo con particolari suoni simili all'abbaiare di un cane di media taglia.
Viene spesso cacciato dallo scimpanzé comune: nel 1994, queste scimmie infettarono con il virus Ebola molti scimpanzé che si erano nutriti delle loro carni[3].

Alimentazione

Questi animali si nutrono principalmente di foglie, ma non disdegnano tuttavia di mangiare anche frutti e fiori. Per poter ricavare il massimo dell'energia possibile da un'alimentazione che ne è naturalmente povera (la cellulosa, di cui le foglie abbondano, è difficile da demolire per ricavarne zuccheri semplici), i colobi ferruginosi hanno sviluppato uno stomaco simile a quello dei ruminanti.

Riproduzione

Ciascun maschio si accoppia con un numero di femmine proporzionale al suo posto nella scala gerarchica del gruppo. Dopo una gestazione di circa cinque mesi, la femmina dà alla luce un unico cucciolo, che viene solitamente al mondo all'inizio della stagione secca (ottobre-dicembre). Il piccolo, oltre che dalla madre, può venire accudito da altre femmine del gruppo mentre quest'ultima si nutre. Al raggiungimento della maturità sessuale, i cuccioli tendono a lasciare il gruppo: le femmine cercano di entrare in nuovi gruppi, mentre i maschi, spesso allontanati con la forza, passano solitamente dei periodi solitari od in compagnia di altri maschi scapoli, in attesa di diventare abbastanza grandi e forti da poter rivaleggiare con un maschio per il possesso di un gruppo.

Note

  1. ^ (EN) Colin Groves, Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, a cura di D.E. Wilson e D.M. Reeder, 3ª ed., Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005, 12100621, ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.
  2. ^ (EN) Butynski, T. & Members of the Primate Specialist Group (2000), Piliocolobus badius, su IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Versione 2019.2, IUCN, 2019.
  3. ^ Ebola Cote d'Ivoire Outbreaks, su virus.stanford.edu. URL consultato il 7 settembre 2008 (archiviato dall'url originale il 16 febbraio 2008).

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Piliocolobus badius: Brief Summary ( Italian )

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Il colobo ferruginoso o colobo rosso occidentale (Piliocolobus badius) è una specie di scimmia del Vecchio Mondo.

Veniva in passato classificato nel genere Procolobus, al quale è attualmente ascritta un'unica specie: opere ancor più vecchie possono addirittura classificare questa specie nel genere Colobus.

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Piliocolobus badius ( Dutch; Flemish )

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Piliocolobus badius is een zoogdier uit de familie van de apen van de Oude Wereld (Cercopithecidae). De wetenschappelijke naam werd in 1792 gepubliceerd door Robert Kerr voor een soort waarvan een exemplaar uit Sierra Leone was opgestuurd naar Sir Ashton Lever.[2]

Bronnen, noten en/of referenties
Geplaatst op:
15-07-2012
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Gerezanka ruda ( Polish )

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Commons Multimedia w Wikimedia Commons

Gerezanka ruda[3], gereza ruda[4] (Piliocolobus badius) – gatunek ssaka z rodziny koczkodanowatych (Cercopithecidae).

Występowanie i środowisko życia

Od Senegalu, poprzez wszystkie kraje Afryki Zachodniej, do północnej Angoli, Republiki Środkowoafrykańskiej, w Sudanie do zachodniego brzegu Nilu, w Afryce Wschodniej do zachodniego brzegu Jeziora Wiktorii.

Lasy wszystkich typów położonych do 1500 m n.p.m., najlepiej w pobliżu rzek i potoków.

Systematyka

Taksonomia

Gatunek po raz pierwszy opisany naukowo przez R. Kerra w 1792 roku pod nazwą Cercopithecus badius[5]. Jako miejsce typowe autor wskazał Sierra Leone[5].

Podgatunki

Wyróżniono kilka podgatunków P. badius[6][3]:

  • P. badius badiusgerezanka ruda (status IUCN: EN)[7]
  • P. badius temminckiigerezanka gwinejska (status IUCN: EN)[8]
  • P. badius waldroni gerezanka samotna (status IUCN: CR)[9]

Etymologia

Nazwa rodzajowa jest połączeniem greckiego słowa πιλίον pilion – „w czapce” (zdrobnienie πιλος pilos) oraz nazwy rodzaju Colobus Illiger, 1811[10]. Epitet gatunkowy pochodzi od łacińskiego słowa badius – „kasztanowaty, brązowy”.

Charakterystyka

Małpa o małej głowie, krótkim pysku, bokobrodach skierowanych do tyłu. Ubarwienie ciała zmienne w zależności od podgatunku, prawie zawsze czerwonawe (łącznie z głową i bokobrodami). Wierzch ciała szary, z czerwonawym lub całkiem szarym spodem. Spód i nogi są najczęściej jaśniejsze. Ogon długi, cienki, na końcu trochę grubszy, jednolicie czerwony lub szary.

Wymiary ciała

Długość ciała bez ogona
46 – 70 cm
Długość ogona
45 – 80 cm
Masa ciała
samce 9 – 13 kg, samice 7 – 9 kg

Tryb życia

Piliocolobus temminckii 0004.jpg

Aktywne w ciągu dnia. Żyją najczęściej w koronach drzew. Tworzą grupy składające się z 8 – 10 osobników, w których występują zwierzęta obojga płci. Na jednego samca przypada 2 do 3 samic. Młodociane samce i samice nie opuszczają macierzystej grupy. Zwierzęta są agresywne jedynie w stosunku do innych grup na obcym, nie znakowanym terytorialnie terenie. Więzi w grupie nią są zbyt silne. Zdarza się, że samce zabijają młode. Gerezy żywią się wyłącznie pokarmem roślinnym: liśćmi, młodymi pędami, pączkami kwiatów i owocami.

Rozród

Zachowania godowe i seksualne słabo poznane. Ciąża u samic trwa około 6 miesięcy, po czym rodzi się jedno młode. Młode karmione jest mlekiem matki przez rok. Pomiędzy kolejnymi miotami mija 2 lata. Dojrzałość płciową samice osiągają w 2 roku życia, samce w 3 roku życia.

Przypisy

  1. Piliocolobus badius, w: Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ang.).
  2. Oates, J.F., Struhsaker, T., McGraw, S., Galat-Luong, A., Galat, G. & Ting, T. 2008, Procolobus badius [w:] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015 [online], wersja 2015-3 [dostęp 2015-10-11] (ang.).
  3. a b Włodzimierz Cichocki, Agnieszka Ważna, Jan Cichocki, Ewa Rajska, Artur Jasiński, Wiesław Bogdanowicz: Polskie nazewnictwo ssaków świata. Warszawa: Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, 2015, s. 49. ISBN 978-83-88147-15-9.
  4. K. Kowalski (redaktor naukowy), A. Krzanowski, H. Kubiak, G. Rzebik-Kowalska, L. Sych: Ssaki. Wyd. IV. Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna, 1991, s. 90, seria: Mały słownik zoologiczny. ISBN 83-214-0637-8.
  5. a b R. Kerr: Mammalia. W: C. Linnaeus: The animal kingdom, or zoological system. Edynburg: A. Strahan, and T. Cadell, London, and W. Creech, 1792, s. 74. (ang.)
  6. Wilson Don E. & Reeder DeeAnn M. (red.) Piliocolobus badius. w: Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (Wyd. 3.) [on-line]. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. (ang.) [dostęp 2015-10-11]
  7. Oates, J.F., Struhsaker, T. & McGraw, S. 2008, Procolobus badius ssp. badius [w:] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015 [online], wersja 2015-3 [dostęp 2015-10-11] (ang.).
  8. Galat-Luong, A., Galat, G., Oates, J.F., Struhsaker, T., McGraw, S. & Ting, N. 2008, Procolobus badius ssp. temminckii [w:] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015 [online], wersja 2015-3 [dostęp 2015-10-11] (ang.).
  9. Oates, J.F., Struhsaker, T. & McGraw, S. 2008, Procolobus badius ssp. waldroni [w:] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015 [online], wersja 2015-3 [dostęp 2015-10-11] (ang.).
  10. T. S. Palmer: Index Generum Mammalium: a List of the Genera and Families of Mammals. Waszyngton: Government Printing Office, 1904, s. 537, seria: North American Fauna. (ang.)

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Gerezanka ruda: Brief Summary ( Polish )

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Gerezanka ruda, gereza ruda (Piliocolobus badius) – gatunek ssaka z rodziny koczkodanowatych (Cercopithecidae).

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Piliocolobus badius ( Portuguese )

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Nome binomial Piliocolobus badius
(Kerr, 1792)

O Piliocolobus badius é uma espécie dos macacos do velho mundo. É freqüentemente caçado por chimpanzés. Em 1994, os macacos dessa espécie infectaram muitos chimpanzés com o vírus Ebola ao serem comidos.

Referências

  1. (em inglês) {{{assessores}}} ({{{ano}}}). {{{título}}}. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Acesso a {{{data}}}.
Ícone de esboço Este artigo sobre Macacos do Velho Mundo ou Hominoidea, integrado ao WikiProjeto Primatas é um esboço. Você pode ajudar a Wikipédia expandindo-o.
Espécies vivens da família Cercopithecidae (Macacos do Velho Mundo) (subfamília Colobinae) Grupo africano Colobus
(Colobos preto e branco) Procolobus
(Colobos vermelhos) Grupo langur Semnopithecus
(Langurs cinza) Trachypithecus Presbytis Grupo odd-nosed Pygathrix Rhinopithecus Nasalis Simias Categoria
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Piliocolobus badius: Brief Summary ( Portuguese )

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O Piliocolobus badius é uma espécie dos macacos do velho mundo. É freqüentemente caçado por chimpanzés. Em 1994, os macacos dessa espécie infectaram muitos chimpanzés com o vírus Ebola ao serem comidos.

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Piliocolobus badius ( Swedish )

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Piliocolobus badius[2] (tidigare Procolobus badius[3][4]) är en däggdjursart som först beskrevs av Kerr 1792. Det svenska trivialnamnet röd guereza förekommer för arten.[5] Piliocolobus badius ingår i släktet röda guerezor och familjen markattartade apor.[6][7] IUCN kategoriserar arten globalt som starkt hotad.[1]

Inga underarter finns listade i Catalogue of Life.[6] Wilson & Reeder (2005) skiljer mellan tre underarter.[2]

Denna primat förekommer med två från varandra skilda populationer i västra Afrika. Den första populationen finns i sydvästra Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau och nordvästra Guinea. Utbredningsområdet för den andra populationen sträcker sig från sydöstra Guinea till Elfenbenskusten eller möjligen till Ghana. Habitatet utgörs av olika slags skogar. På grund av skogsavverkningar vistas arten ibland i savanner och träskmarker.[1]

Individerna når en kroppslängd (huvud och bål) av 47 till 63 cm och en svanslängd av 52 till 75 cm. Vikten är 5,5 till 10 kg. Pälsen har på huvudets topp, på ryggen, på svansen och på lårens övre del en mörkgrå till svart färg. Annars är pälsen orange eller ljusorange med undantag av den vita buken.[5]

Hannar och honor bildar flockar med upp till 90 medlemmar.[1] Arten vilar ungefär en halv dag och resten av tiden är uppdelad i sök efter föda, vandringar, spel och pälsvård. Oftast är det honor som står lägre i hierarkin som ger pälsvård åt dominanta honor och åt hanar. För kommunikationen har Piliocolobus badius många olika läten.[8]

Honor föredrar parningen med flockens alfahane men de kan även para sig med mindre dominanta hanar och även med hanar från andra flockar. En hona kan bli brunstig under alla årstider men de flesta ungar föds under den varma fuktiga tiden när tillgången till frukter är störst. I flera fall dokumenterades att en hane dödade en unge som hade en annan far för att sedan para sig med honan. Honor föder sin första unge efter ungefär 50 månader och de kan sedan föda ungar med cirka 30 månader mellanrum.[8]

Piliocolobus badius jagas bland annat av leopard, schimpans, nilkrokodil, stora ormar och av rovfåglar. De flesta individer dödas däremot av människor.[8] Denna guereza jagas främst av bönder som betraktar den som skadedjur på fruktodlingar.[1]

Källor

  1. ^ [a b c d e] 2008 Procolobus badius Från: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2 <www.iucnredlist.org>. Läst 2012-10-24.
  2. ^ [a b] (2005) , website Piliocolobus badius, Mammal Species of the World
  3. ^ Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. (1992) , Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  4. ^ Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole (2000) , Common Names of Mammals of the World
  5. ^ [a b] David W. McDonald (en), S. Ulfstrand (sv), red (1996). ”Röda guerezor”. Bonniers Stora Verk Om Jordens Djur. "Apor". Bonnier Lexikon AB. sid. 112. ISBN 91-632-0077-5
  6. ^ [a b] Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D. (red.) (28 april 2011). ”Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist.”. Species 2000: Reading, UK. http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2011/search/all/key/piliocolobus+badius/match/1. Läst 24 september 2012.
  7. ^ ITIS: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Orrell T. (custodian), 2011-04-26
  8. ^ [a b c] Kingdon, Jonathan (2013). Procolobus badius (på engelska). Mammals of Africa. "2". A & C Black. sid. 131-133. ISBN 9781408122549

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Piliocolobus badius: Brief Summary ( Swedish )

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Piliocolobus badius (tidigare Procolobus badius) är en däggdjursart som först beskrevs av Kerr 1792. Det svenska trivialnamnet röd guereza förekommer för arten. Piliocolobus badius ingår i släktet röda guerezor och familjen markattartade apor. IUCN kategoriserar arten globalt som starkt hotad.

Inga underarter finns listade i Catalogue of Life. Wilson & Reeder (2005) skiljer mellan tre underarter.

Denna primat förekommer med två från varandra skilda populationer i västra Afrika. Den första populationen finns i sydvästra Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau och nordvästra Guinea. Utbredningsområdet för den andra populationen sträcker sig från sydöstra Guinea till Elfenbenskusten eller möjligen till Ghana. Habitatet utgörs av olika slags skogar. På grund av skogsavverkningar vistas arten ibland i savanner och träskmarker.

Individerna når en kroppslängd (huvud och bål) av 47 till 63 cm och en svanslängd av 52 till 75 cm. Vikten är 5,5 till 10 kg. Pälsen har på huvudets topp, på ryggen, på svansen och på lårens övre del en mörkgrå till svart färg. Annars är pälsen orange eller ljusorange med undantag av den vita buken.

Hannar och honor bildar flockar med upp till 90 medlemmar. Arten vilar ungefär en halv dag och resten av tiden är uppdelad i sök efter föda, vandringar, spel och pälsvård. Oftast är det honor som står lägre i hierarkin som ger pälsvård åt dominanta honor och åt hanar. För kommunikationen har Piliocolobus badius många olika läten.

Honor föredrar parningen med flockens alfahane men de kan även para sig med mindre dominanta hanar och även med hanar från andra flockar. En hona kan bli brunstig under alla årstider men de flesta ungar föds under den varma fuktiga tiden när tillgången till frukter är störst. I flera fall dokumenterades att en hane dödade en unge som hade en annan far för att sedan para sig med honan. Honor föder sin första unge efter ungefär 50 månader och de kan sedan föda ungar med cirka 30 månader mellanrum.

Piliocolobus badius jagas bland annat av leopard, schimpans, nilkrokodil, stora ormar och av rovfåglar. De flesta individer dödas däremot av människor. Denna guereza jagas främst av bönder som betraktar den som skadedjur på fruktodlingar.

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Procolobus badius ( Ukrainian )

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Опис

Довжина голови й тіла: 45-67 см. Довжина хвоста: 52-80 см. Вага: 5.1-11.3 кг, самці трохи важчі. Тіло струнке, кінцівки довгі і відносно тонкі. Хутро зверху забарвлене в чорний сіро-коричневий колір, руки, ноги і голова червонувато-коричневі. Живіт і статева область білі. Як і у всіх колобусових великий палець зменшений, а шлунок багатокамерний, який служить розщепленню целюлози.

Поширення

Країни проживання: Кот-д'Івуар; Гамбія; Гана; Гвінея; Гвінея-Бісау; Ліберія; Сенегал; Сьєрра-Леоне. Цей деревний вид зустрічається в різних типах лісів у тому числі первинних, вторинних та річкових чи галерейних. P. b. badius полюбляє первинний або зрілий старий вологий ліс, і більше залежить від лісового середовища проживання, ніж P. b. temminckii.

Стиль життя

Денний, рідко сходить на землю. Розмір групи становить до 90 тварин. У групі є кілька самців і, як правило, у два-три рази більше самиць. Деякі тварини, особливо молоді самці можуть були вигнані з рідної групи і жити самотньо. Ці тварини не мають фіксованої території, але захищають їх поточне місце розташування агресивними жестами і криками. Харчуються в основному листям, крім того, вони беруть в їжу фрукти та квіти. Вороги: Pan troglodytes, Homo sapiens.

Після близько 4,5-5,5-місячного періоду вагітності, самиця народжує зазвичай одне дитинча. Більшість пологів припадає на початок сухого сезону, з жовтня по грудень. На відміну від інших колобусових, тільки мати піклувається про молодь.

Загрози та охорона

Основними загрозами для виду є втрата середовища існування та полювання. Занесений у Додаток II СІТЕС і відноситься до класу B Африканського Конвенції про збереження природи і природних ресурсів. Записаний у ряді охоронних територій

Посилання

Галерея


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Piliocolobus badius ( Vietnamese )

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Procolobus badius là một loài động vật có vú trong họ Cercopithecidae, bộ Linh trưởng. Loài này được Kerr mô tả năm 1792.[2]

Hình ảnh

Chú thích

  1. ^ Oates, J. F., Struhsaker, T., McGraw, S., Galat-Luong, A., Galat, G. & Ting, T. (2008). Procolobus badius. 2008 Sách đỏ IUCN. Liên minh Bảo tồn Thiên nhiên Quốc tế 2008. Truy cập ngày 4 tháng 1 năm 2009.
  2. ^ a ă Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. biên tập (2005). “Piliocolobus badius”. Mammal Species of the World . Baltimore: Nhà in Đại học Johns Hopkins, 2 tập (2.142 trang). ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.

Tham khảo

Hình tượng sơ khai Bài viết liên quan đến Bộ Linh trưởng này vẫn còn sơ khai. Bạn có thể giúp Wikipedia bằng cách mở rộng nội dung để bài được hoàn chỉnh hơn.
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Piliocolobus badius: Brief Summary ( Vietnamese )

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Procolobus badius là một loài động vật có vú trong họ Cercopithecidae, bộ Linh trưởng. Loài này được Kerr mô tả năm 1792.

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Красный колобус ( Russian )

provided by wikipedia русскую Википедию
Без ранга: Вторичноротые
Подтип: Позвоночные
Инфратип: Челюстноротые
Надкласс: Четвероногие
Подкласс: Звери
Инфракласс: Плацентарные
Надотряд: Euarchontoglires
Грандотряд: Euarchonta
Миротряд: Приматообразные
Отряд: Приматы
Инфраотряд: Обезьянообразные
Надсемейство: Собакоголовые
Семейство: Мартышковые
Подсемейство: Тонкотелые обезьяны
Триба: Толстотелы
Вид: Красный колобус
Международное научное название

Piliocolobus badius (Kerr, 1792)

Синонимы
Procolobus badius
Ареал красного колобуса изображение
зелёный — современный
оранжевый — исторический
Охранный статус Wikispecies-logo.svg
Систематика
на Викивидах
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Изображения
на Викискладе
ITIS 944230NCBI 164648EOL 310992

Красный колобус[1][2], или красная гвереца[3], или чёрно-красная гвереца[4][2], или красный толстотел[2] (лат. Piliocolobus badius) — вид обезьян семейства мартышковых отряда приматов, один из видов рода Красные колобусы.

Описание

Выражен половой диморфизм, самки несколько мельче самцов. Вес самцов от 9,1 до 12,2 кг, вес самок от 6,8 до 9,1 кг. В длину составляют от 45 до 67 см, хвост длиной от 52 до 80 см. Шерсть коричневая, серая или чёрная, голова каштанового или красного цвета. Лобковая область покрыта белой шерстью. Шерсть одной длины по всей поверхности тела. Больших пальцев нет, на их месте небольшой бугорок. Пальцы длинные, способные обхватывать ветви деревьев. Существует три подвида, немного отличающихся внешне. P.b. badius имеет чёрные лоб и внешнюю поверхность бёдер. Их нос более выступающий, чем у других подвидов. P.b. waldroni имеет красноватую внешнюю поверхность бёдер и лоб.[5]

Распространение

Населяют леса Западной Африки от Сенегала до Ганы.[6]

Поведение

Представители вида встречаются на всех ярусах леса от земли до самых верхушек деревьев на высоте более 40 метров.[7] В рационе в основном листья, а также фрукты и молодые побеги. Их желудок многокамерный, пищеварительная система способна эффективно переваривать целлюлозу.[8]

Самки красного колобуса выбирают себе партнера, мигрируя из группы в группу. Самцы сражаются за самок. Когда самка готова к спариванию, её гениталии набухают, что является сигналом для самца.

Каждые два года самка приносит потомство, обычно одного, редко двух детёнышей. Беременность длится от 6 до 6,5 месяцев.[9]

Классификация

Ранее все виды красных колобусов считались подвидами Piliocolobus badius. В настоящее время выделяют три подвида:[6]

  • Piliocolobus badius badius
  • Piliocolobus badius temminckii
  • Piliocolobus badius waldronae

Популяция P. b. waldronae находится в критической опасности, возможно этот подвид уже вымер. Два других подвида также находятся под угрозой.[10]

Примечания

  1. Полная иллюстрированная энциклопедия. «Млекопитающие» Кн. 2 = The New Encyclopedia of Mammals / под ред. Д. Макдональда. — М.: Омега, 2007. — С. 458. — 3000 экз.ISBN 978-5-465-01346-8.
  2. 1 2 3 Соколов В. Е. Пятиязычный словарь названий животных. Млекопитающие. Латинский, русский, английский, немецкий, французский. / под общей редакцией акад. В. Е. Соколова. — М.: Рус. яз., 1984. — С. 90. — 10 000 экз.
  3. Фишер Д., Саймон Н., Винсент Д. Красная книга. Дикая природа в опасности / пер. с англ., под ред. А. Г. Банникова. — М.: Прогресс, 1976. — С. 58. — 478 с.
  4. Жизнь животных. Том 7. Млекопитающие / под ред. В. Е. Соколова. — 2-е изд. — М.: Просвещение, 1989. — С. 256. — 558 с. — ISBN 5-09-001434-5
  5. McGraw, S. Update on the Search for Miss Waldron's Red Colobus Monkey // International Journal of Primatology. — 2005. — № 26/3. — С. 605—619.
  6. 1 2 Wilson, D. E., Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (англ.). — Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. — ISBN 0-801-88221-4.
  7. Galat-Luong, A., Galat G. Conservation and Survival Adaptations of Temminck's Red Colobus (Pocolobus badius temmicki) in Senegal // International journal of primatology. — 2005. — № 26/3. — С. 585—603.
  8. Ting, N. Mitochondrial Relationships and Divergence Dates of the African Colobines: Evidence of Miocene Origins for the Living Colobus Monkeys // Journal of Human Evolution. — 2008. — № 55/1. — С. 312—325.
  9. Stanford, C. Chimpanzee and Red Colobus: Ecology of Predator and Prey. — Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press, 1998.
  10. Piliocolobus badius (англ.). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
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Авторы и редакторы Википедии

Красный колобус: Brief Summary ( Russian )

provided by wikipedia русскую Википедию

Красный колобус, или красная гвереца, или чёрно-красная гвереца, или красный толстотел (лат. Piliocolobus badius) — вид обезьян семейства мартышковых отряда приматов, один из видов рода Красные колобусы.

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Авторы и редакторы Википедии

서부붉은콜로부스 ( Korean )

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과
학명 Procolobus badius
(Kerr, 1792)

서부붉은콜로부스 (Procolobus badius)는 세네갈부터 가나에 이르는 서아프리카에서 발견되는 구세계원숭이 중 하나이다.[1] 현재 붉은콜로부스속에 속해 있는 모든 종들은 이전에는 서부붉은콜로부스(P. badius)의 아종으로 간주되었었다. 종종 침팬지에 의해 사냥당한다. 1994년에, 서부붉은콜로부스는 침팬지에 의해 잡아먹히거나 사냥당함으로써, 상당수의 침팬지들을 에볼라 바이러스에 감염시켰다.[3]

아종

이 붉은콜로부스는 3종의 아종이 있다[1]

왈드론붉은콜로부스(P. b. waldronae)는 심각한 멸종위기에 처해 있으며, 이미 멸종되었는지도 모른다. 나머지 2종도 멸종 위기에 처해 있다.[2]

계통 분류

다음은 붉은콜로부스의 계통 분류이다.[4]

붉은콜로부스속

서부붉은콜로부스, 테민크붉은콜로부스



왈드론붉은콜로부스




프로이스붉은콜로부스



페넌트콜로부스





로마미붉은콜로부스



오스탈렛붉은콜로부스 (서부)






오스탈렛붉은콜로부스 (동부)



중부아프리카붉은콜로부스



우간다붉은콜로부스



타나강붉은콜로부스





우드중와붉은콜로부스



잔지바르붉은콜로부스




나이저삼각주붉은콜로부스




올리브콜로부스속

올리브콜로부스



각주

  1. Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., 편집. 《Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference》 (영어) 3판. 존스 홉킨스 대학교 출판사. 169쪽. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  2. “Procolobus badius”. 《멸종 위기 종의 IUCN 적색 목록. 2008판》 (영어). 국제 자연 보전 연맹. 2008. 2009년 1월 4일에 확인함.
  3. 코트디부아르에 에볼라 바이러스가 창궐하다.
  4. Nelson Ting: Molecular systematics of red colobus monkeys (Procolobus [Piliocolobus]): Understanding the evolution of an endangered primate. PhD thesis, City University of New York, 2008, New York.
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cc-by-sa-3.0
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Wikipedia 작가 및 편집자

서부붉은콜로부스: Brief Summary ( Korean )

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

서부붉은콜로부스 (Procolobus badius)는 세네갈부터 가나에 이르는 서아프리카에서 발견되는 구세계원숭이 중 하나이다. 현재 붉은콜로부스속에 속해 있는 모든 종들은 이전에는 서부붉은콜로부스(P. badius)의 아종으로 간주되었었다. 종종 침팬지에 의해 사냥당한다. 1994년에, 서부붉은콜로부스는 침팬지에 의해 잡아먹히거나 사냥당함으로써, 상당수의 침팬지들을 에볼라 바이러스에 감염시켰다.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia 작가 및 편집자