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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Observations: Little is known about the longevity of these animals, but one specimen lived 15.3 years in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Golden langurs are a species that has had multiple scientific names. For now, they are associated with the genus Trachypithecus, but when they were first discovered in 1956, they were placed under the genus Presbytis. They have also been placed in the genus Semnopithecus. Golden langurs' scientific name comes from the man who discovered them, E. P. Gee. All three of the genus names fall under the subfamily Colobinae and the family Cercopithecidae.

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Raval, S. 2004. "Trachypithecus geei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trachypithecus_geei.html
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Shivani Raval, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Behavior

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Again, little is known about the communication between golden langurs. What is certain is that vocal communication does exist between members of the species, including loud “whooping” noises heard from the male langurs.

In spite of a paucity of information on these animals, we can assume that like other primates tactile communication (such as grooming, mating, aggressive behaviors) and visual signals (such as body postures and facial expressions) play some role in communication also.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Raval, S. 2004. "Trachypithecus geei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trachypithecus_geei.html
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Shivani Raval, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Conservation Status

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Golden langurs as a species are in trouble, and this is reflected by their status on various environmental lists. In 2003, they were considered engendered by the IUCN Red List, and listed as Appendix I on the CITES website. They were first listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List in 1976. In the Indo-US Primate Project Survey, which looked at the species from 1994 to 1999, they were listed as critically endangered.

The main reason for low numbers of golden langurs is because of their localized habitat and the rapid loss of this habitat due to deforestation. Although the forests are supposedly protected, until recently their protection was not strictly enforced and it is estimated that approximately 50% of their habitat was lost from India in a span of 10 to 12 years. In 1998, approximately 4,500 golden langurs remained in both Assam and Bhutan. In spite of the need for immediate action, it was reported that the area the species inhabited shrunk again from 1998 to 2002.

Although at current rates of decline, the survival of these animals seems bleak, there has been some efforts to save them. Almost all of the land they occupy in Bhutan is part of four different wildlife preserves and national parks that have been set up to protect them. The Royal Manas National Park, Black Mountain National Park, Trumsingla Wildlife Sanctuary and Phipsoo WLS are home to more than half of the total number of golden langurs living today. While this is good news, in India, only approximately 95 square km of their habitat is protected by the two WLS in Assam: the Manas WLS and Chakrasilla WLS. Most of the golden langurs' habitat falls into forest reserves and proposed forest reserves or other fragmented areas where many trees have been cut down. In the past these areas were not well protected but certain conservation groups, along with the Indo-US Primate Project are working together to assure the future of these forests. Aside from protecting the forest reserves, they are also working with local residents to rebuild the forests. With all this work being done to save golden langurs, hopefully their populations will grow.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered

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Raval, S. 2004. "Trachypithecus geei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trachypithecus_geei.html
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Shivani Raval, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits

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Although the limited contact between humans and golden langurs restricts the amount of information available on their economic importance, the continued destruction of their habitat may lead to more encounters. In areas where their habitat is being destroyed golden langurs may be forced to move to unfamiliar places, resulting in the destruction of crops as they search for food.

Negative Impacts: crop pest

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Raval, S. 2004. "Trachypithecus geei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trachypithecus_geei.html
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Shivani Raval, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits

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Because golden langurs tend to avoid human contact, little is known about the economic importance they provide for humans.

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Raval, S. 2004. "Trachypithecus geei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trachypithecus_geei.html
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Shivani Raval, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Due to the lack of research, the role that golden langurs play in the ecosystem is unknown. Researchers do suspect however, that like most primates, they are important for seed dispersal, seed predation, and pollination.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds; pollinates

Species Used as Host:

  • Unknown

Mutualist Species:

  • Unknown

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • Unknown
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Raval, S. 2004. "Trachypithecus geei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trachypithecus_geei.html
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Shivani Raval, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Trophic Strategy

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Golden langurs are both folivores and frugivores. Their diets consist of ripe and unripe fruits, young and mature leaves, leaf buds, flower buds, seeds, twigs, and flowers. Although they eat a variety of food, they mostly prefer to eat young leaves. The most popular vegetation among golden langurs are Ficus racemosa, Salmalia malabarica, and Adenanthera peuonina. Most langurs, Trachypithecus geei included, are also known as leaf monkeys; a name derived from their exclusively vegetarian diet. Due to the large amounts of leafy material that the golden langurs consume, they have a sacculated stomach, which is a common characteristic in the subfamily Colobinae. A sacculated stomach is made up of different compartments and helps to break down the cellulose in the leaves. It is a very important feature that is necessary to obtain the maximum possible nutrition from innutritious leaves.

Plant Foods: leaves; fruit; flowers

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore , Frugivore )

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Raval, S. 2004. "Trachypithecus geei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trachypithecus_geei.html
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Shivani Raval, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Distribution

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The geographic range of golden langurs is limited to Assam, India and neighboring Bhutan where they live year-round. The area they inhabit is restricted to the region surrounded by four geographical landmarks: the foothills of Bhutan (north), Manas river (east), Sankosh river (west), and Brahmaputra river (south).

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

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Raval, S. 2004. "Trachypithecus geei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trachypithecus_geei.html
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Shivani Raval, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Habitat

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Golden langurs occupy moist evergreen and tropical deciduous forests as well as some riverine areas and savannas in Assam and Bhutan. They are very much dependent on trees, living in the upper canopy of sub-tropical forests in the south and in more temperate forests in the north. The elevations they inhabit also vary according to their geographic range. They may be found at elevations close to sea level in the south and up to 3000 m at the foothills of Bhutan in the north. Aside from their natural habitats, golden langurs can also be found in wildlife reserves in both India and Bhutan. In Bhutan, a combination of four different national parks and wildlife sanctuaries comprise most of the area in which golden langurs are found. In Assam, they inhabit the two wildlife sanctuaries there, as well as parts of fragmented reserve forests, proposed reserve forests, and other non-forested areas.

Range elevation: 0 to 3000 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; rainforest

Other Habitat Features: riparian

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Raval, S. 2004. "Trachypithecus geei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trachypithecus_geei.html
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Shivani Raval, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Life Expectancy

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Due to their rarity and fairly recent discovery, golden langurs have not been well studied, and as a result little is known about their lifespan.

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Raval, S. 2004. "Trachypithecus geei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trachypithecus_geei.html
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Shivani Raval, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Morphology

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Golden langurs can be most easily recognized by the color of their fur, after which they are named. Their hair ranges from dark golden to creamy buff and their faces are black and hairless except for a long pale beard. The color of their fur differs across their bodies with a slightly darker red on the top and sides and a lighter color underneath. It has been noted that their fur changes colors according to the seasons. In the winter it is dark golden chestnut and in the summer it is more cream colored. The color of the young also differs from adults in that they are almost pure white. Color varies geographically. Golden langurs in the south tend to be more uniform in color and smaller than those in the northern regions.

The overall shape of this monkey is slim, with long limbs and tail. The tail has a tassle on the end and is notably larger in males than in females. Males also tend to be slightly larger than females, although no weights have been recorded. The head and body measures from 50 to 75 cm and the tail ranges from 70 to 100 cm.

Range length: 120 to 175 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; ornamentation

Average mass: 8100 g.

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Raval, S. 2004. "Trachypithecus geei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trachypithecus_geei.html
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Shivani Raval, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Predation by other animals is negligible, most likely due to the highly arboreal lifestyle of golden langurs. Their numbers are mainly threatened by humans through fragmentation and the eventual degradation of their habitats.

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Raval, S. 2004. "Trachypithecus geei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trachypithecus_geei.html
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Shivani Raval, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Reproduction

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Because they have been studied relatiely little, there is little known information on the reproduction of golden langurs. Scientists believe that their reproduction is similar to a close relative of golden langurs, hanuman langurs.

Mating System: cooperative breeder

Although not much is known about the reproduction of golden langurs, it has been observed that births occur almost year-round. There may be a period of a few months where more births are concentrated, corresponding to a change in the climate and vegetation. Golden langurs give birth to a single offspring at a time.

Breeding interval: The breeding interval is unknown.

Breeding season: The breeding season is year-round.

Range number of offspring: 1 (high) .

Average number of offspring: 1.

Key Reproductive Features: year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Average number of offspring: 1.

While parental care of the offspring has not been observed for golden langurs, it is presumed to be similar to that of hanuman langurs. In this species, all of the care for the young is provided by the mother and other females in the group. The father has no contact with his offspring.

Parental Investment: precocial ; pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); extended period of juvenile learning

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Raval, S. 2004. "Trachypithecus geei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trachypithecus_geei.html
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Shivani Raval, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Biology

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Very little is known about these elusive monkeys. Groups of between 2 and 12 individuals have been observed, and these are normally made up of one or two mature males with a number of females and their offspring. Active during the day, these monkeys are particularly arboreal, only rarely alighting on the ground. After a gestation period of around 6 months, females will give birth to a single young; male offspring tend to disperse from their natal group (4). Groups of golden langurs are more active in the morning and evening, resting during the heat of midday. These monkeys feed predominantly on leaves but will also eat fruit and seeds (4). The mating season is in January and February, and a single offspring is born in July or August (8).
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Conservation

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International trade in this species is banned by its listing on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) (3). Golden langurs are protected within a number of reserves such as the Manas National Park in Assam; a World Heritage Site that has suffered from conflict in the past but which is now undergoing a rehabilitation programme (6). The American-based conservation organisation Community Conservation is working with the Assam government on reforestation programmes and also on improving community education on the issues involved (5).
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Description

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The golden langur is a particularly attractive leaf-eating monkey found in northeastern India and Bhutan. As its name suggests, the coat is a beautiful golden to creamy white, gaining a more reddish tinge in winter. Infants are orange-brown to grey when newborn (4).
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Habitat

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Inhabits evergreen and deciduous tropical forests (4).
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Range

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This monkey was only 'discovered' as recently as 1956, it is found in Bhutan and in the state of Assam in northeast India (1). A new subspecies (T. g. bhutanensis) was officially described in 2003 from northern Bhutan, leaving the rest of the population classified as T. g. geei (7).
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Status

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Classified as Endangered (EN - A1acd, C2a) on the IUCN Red List 2002 (1), and listed on Appendix I of CITES (3).
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Threats

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Currently there is little information on the population size and distribution of the golden langur. Large areas of forest in this part of Asia have been cleared for timber and to make way for developments and agriculture, and it may be that these monkeys are now mainly restricted to forest reserves, which are themselves under threat from illegal logging (5).
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Gee's golden langur

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Gee's golden langur (Trachypithecus geei), also known as simply the golden langur, is an Old World monkey found in a small region of western Assam, India and in the neighboring foothills of the Black Mountains of Bhutan. Long considered sacred by many Himalayan people, the golden langur was first brought to the attention of the western world by the naturalist E. P. Gee in the 1950s. Adult males have a cream to golden coat with darker flanks while the females are juveniles are lighter. It has a black face and a long tail up to 50 cm (19.69 in) in length. It lives in high trees and has a herbivorous diet of ripe and unripe fruits, mature and young leaves, seeds, buds and flowers. The average group size is eight individuals, with a ratio of several females to each adult male. It is one of the most endangered primate species of India and Bhutan.

Discovery and etymology

The earliest record of the golden langur is in an 1838 paper by Robert Boileau Pemberton which states that "Griffith observed these monkeys near Tongso in Central Bhutan."[3][4] However, since Pemberton's work was lost and not rediscovered until the 1970s, the scientific discovery of the golden langur unfolded differently. In 1907, Edward Oswald Shebbeare—who was out with some hunters and forest rangers—reported seeing a "cream coloured langur" in the vicinity of the Jamduar.[5][nb 1] However, neither a photograph nor a live or dead specimen was presented at that time. The first reference to the golden langur in print, as an animal of unidentified taxonomic status, was in a 1919 publication that stated: "Pithecus sp? – A pale yellow coloured langur is common in the adjoining district of Goalpara (Assam). Jerdon reported one from Terai, the adjacent district on the (west) side, which Blanford suggested might be P. entellus."[6][7]

In February 1947, in the Forest Rest House visitors' book in Raimona, a few miles south of Jamduar, C. G. Baron reported seeing some langurs whose "whole body and tail is one colour – a light silvery-gold, somewhat like the hair of a blonde." A year later, back in Jamduar, H. E. Tyndale, a tea planter, reported seeing "Sankosh cream langurs."[7] However, it wasn't until a few years later that a focused effort to identify the golden langur was mounted by Gee, who traveled back to Jamduar in November 1953. His team were able to observe three groups of golden langurs, all on the east bank of the Sankosh river. The first group was observed on the Bhutan side of the border; the second group, a large one of 30 to 40 individuals, a mile north of Jamduar on the Indian side; and a third group four to five miles (6.44 km to 8.05 km) south near Raimona. Colour movies of the second group were made by Gee.[7]

In August 1954, Gee reported his findings to an expert at the Zoological Society of London, who advised that the golden langur might be a new species. In January 1955, Gee also reported his results to the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) and, after showing his movies of the golden langurs, suggested that Jamduar be included in the then-upcoming ZSI-survey of that region.[8] The suggestion received the support of Dr. Sunder Lal Hora, then Director of ZSI, and later that year six specimens of the golden langur were collected by the survey party.[7] The following year, Dr. H. Khajuria, a taxonomist who studied the specimens, described the new species naming it Presbystis geei in honour of Gee.[9][nb 2]

Taxonomy

There are two subspecies of this species:[1]

  • Trachypithecus geei geei Khajuria, 1956
  • Trachypithecus geei bhutanensis Wangchuk, 2003[10]

The subspecies are separated by a geological fault in the Himalayas called the Main Frontal Thrust. T. g. bhutanensis occurs in the northern part of the species range in Bhutan and T. g. geei is found in the south of Bhutan and in Assam in northern India.

In Bhutan, it has hybridised with T. pileatus, the capped langur.[11][12] This is believed to be due to the construction of permanent bridges across the Chamkar river, a tributary of the Mangde river which separates the two species.[13]

Physical description

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Gee's golden langur.

The coat of the adult golden langur ranges from cream to golden; on its flanks and chest the hairs are darker and often rust coloured; the coats of the juveniles and females are lighter, silvery white to light buff.[14] The coat changes color seasonally, from white or cream coloured in the summer to dark golden or chestnut in the winter. Their long whiskers to protect their eyes from rain during monsoon.[15] The golden langur has a black face and large whorl of hair on its crown.[9]

Gee's golden langur exhibits sexual dimorphism. Males are larger and more robust than females. Adult males weigh 10.8 kilograms (24 lb) on average and adult females weigh 9.5 kilograms (21 lb).[16] The length of the head and body ranges from 50–75 centimetres (20–30 in),[17] while the relatively long tail is 70–100 centimetres (28–39 in) in length.[18][17]

Distribution

Gee's golden langur is found in an area of approximately 30,000 square kilometres (12,000 sq mi), much of which is unsuitable habitat,[19] bounded on the south by the Brahmaputra River, on the east by the Manas River, on the west by the Sankosh River, in Assam, India, and on the north by the Black Mountains of Bhutan.[20] These biogeographical barriers are believed to have led to the radiation of species from the closely-related capped langur (Trachypithecus pileatus).[21] In 1988, two captive groups of Gee's golden langur were released into the wild in Tripura state in north-eastern India, an area outside of their natural range.[22] One of the groups, released into Sepahijala Wildlife Sanctuary, survives and has adapted to the wild.[23]

Behavior and ecology

For the most part, the langur is confined to high trees where its long tail serves as a balancer when it leaps across branches. During the rainy season it obtains water from dew and rain drenched leaves. Its diet is herbivorous, consisting of ripe and unripe fruits, mature and young leaves, seeds, buds and flowers. It generally lives in troops of about 8, with a ratio of several females to each adult male. The smallest golden langur troop was composed of four individuals, while the largest had 22, giving an average value of 8.2 individuals per troop. The adult gender ratio was 2.3 females to every male, although the majority of groups had only one adult male.[24]

Conservation

Gee's golden langur is currently endangered with a decreasing population trend; the total population of mature adults has been estimated as 6000–6500.[25] It is one of the most endangered primate species of India and Bhutan.[26] In India 93% of the population is found in forest reserves (Chirang, Manas and Ripu) and the western part of Manas National Park, and the remaining occur in several small isolated fragments.[12] The population has declined by more than 30% in the last 30 years, and is expected to decline further in the near future. Golden langurs are protected by law in their range. The species is listed in Appendix I of CITES,[27] and in Schedule I of both, the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 of India,[28] and the Forest and Nature Conservation Act of Bhutan, 1995.[29]

Within India

On 5 June 2019, the district authorities of Bongaigaon district in Assam launched a project under the MGNREGA to plant guava, mango, blackberry and other fruit trees to ensure that the resident golden langurs of the Kakoijana reserved forest do not have to risk their lives to find food. Several golden langurs have died due to electrocution and in road accidents while looking for food beyond the reserve forests.[30] In 1988, two captive groups of golden langurs were released into two protected areas of the western region of the state of Tripura, India. As of 2000, one of these groups, consisting of six (and possibly eight) individuals in the Sepahijala Wildlife Sanctuary, had survived.[22] The relative death of infants and juveniles indicate a declining population with the habitat being degraded by human activity. A fragmented but protected population in a rubber plantation in the Nayakgaon, Kokrajhar, district of Assam increased in population from 38 individuals in 1997 to 52 in 2002. The population has also adapted to feeding on dry rubber seeds.[31]

Notes

  1. ^ Jamduar was a village in the early 1900s, which is now a part of the town of Kokrajhar
  2. ^ The new name, Presbystis geei, came to be inadvertently included in Gee's 1955 short note which was published two months before Khajuria's 1956 paper proposing the name.[5]

References

  1. ^ a b c Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 176. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ Das, J.; Medhi, R. & Molur, S. (2008). "Trachypithecus geei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T22037A9348940. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T22037A9348940.en.
  3. ^ Pemberton 1838.
  4. ^ Khajuria 1978.
  5. ^ a b Gee 1961.
  6. ^ Inglis et al. 1919.
  7. ^ a b c d Gee 1961, pp. 1-4.
  8. ^ Gee 1955.
  9. ^ a b Khajuria 1956.
  10. ^ Wangchuk, Inouye & Hare 2003.
  11. ^ Choudhury 2008.
  12. ^ a b Ram et al. 2016.
  13. ^ Wangchuk 2005, p. 4.
  14. ^ Prater 1971, p. 42.
  15. ^ Khajuria 1977. sfn error: no target: CITEREFKhajuria1977 (help)
  16. ^ Fleagle 1999.
  17. ^ a b Gurung & Singh 1996.
  18. ^ Wangchuk 2003. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWangchuk2003 (help)
  19. ^ Srivastava 2001. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSrivastava2001 (help)
  20. ^ Srivastava et al. 2001, p. 15.
  21. ^ Wangchuk, Inouye & Hare 2008.
  22. ^ a b Gupta & Chivers 2000.
  23. ^ Gupta & Mukherjee 1994.
  24. ^ Srivastava et al. 2001, p. 18.
  25. ^ "Gee's golden langur". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  26. ^ Srivastava et al. 2001, pp. 15–23.
  27. ^ "CITES Appendices I, II and III". Archived from the original on 19 January 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  28. ^ Government of India (Ministry of Law). "Wildlife (Protection) Act (1972)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 March 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  29. ^ Government of Bhutan (1995). "Forest and Nature Conservation Act of Bhutan 1995". www.asianlii.org. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  30. ^ Rahul Karmakar (9 June 2019). "Golden langur to get fruits of MGNREGA". The Hindu.
  31. ^ Medhi et al. 2004.

Literature cited

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Gee's golden langur: Brief Summary

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Gee's golden langur (Trachypithecus geei), also known as simply the golden langur, is an Old World monkey found in a small region of western Assam, India and in the neighboring foothills of the Black Mountains of Bhutan. Long considered sacred by many Himalayan people, the golden langur was first brought to the attention of the western world by the naturalist E. P. Gee in the 1950s. Adult males have a cream to golden coat with darker flanks while the females are juveniles are lighter. It has a black face and a long tail up to 50 cm (19.69 in) in length. It lives in high trees and has a herbivorous diet of ripe and unripe fruits, mature and young leaves, seeds, buds and flowers. The average group size is eight individuals, with a ratio of several females to each adult male. It is one of the most endangered primate species of India and Bhutan.

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