dcsimg

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

provided by AnAge articles
Maximum longevity: 25.1 years (captivity)
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Joao Pedro de Magalhaes
editor
de Magalhaes, J. P.
partner site
AnAge articles

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The proboscis monkey has several sounds for communication. Growls are made by males and are used to calm the group members. Honks are made by males as a threat or to warn of predators. Shrieks are made by females and both sexes of juveniles to show aggitation or excitement, and screams are given during agonistic encounters. Social grooming is performed, usually between females. The grooming usually last 1 to 5 minutes and is performed by both individuals.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Woltanski, A. 2004. "Nasalis larvatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Nasalis_larvatus.html
author
Amy Woltanski, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Proboscis monkeys are protected from hunting and capture in Borneo but the destruction of the mangrove forest has limited the population. They are listed as Appendix I by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). (Appendix I is defined as a species threatened with extinction with trade allowed only in extreme circumstances.) They are listed as endangered by the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (IUCN). ('Endangered' is defined as an estimated 50% reduction in the population in the next 10 years.)

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Woltanski, A. 2004. "Nasalis larvatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Nasalis_larvatus.html
author
Amy Woltanski, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

There are no known adverse affects of N. larvatus on humans.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Woltanski, A. 2004. "Nasalis larvatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Nasalis_larvatus.html
author
Amy Woltanski, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Proboscis monkeys are considered a delicacy although they are not heavily hunted. They are also desired for zoos because of their unique appearance.

Positive Impacts: food ; research and education

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Woltanski, A. 2004. "Nasalis larvatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Nasalis_larvatus.html
author
Amy Woltanski, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The role of N. larvatus in the ecosystem is not well understood. As herbivores, they probably have some affect on plant populations. To the extent that predators rely on these animals for food, proboscis monkey populations may affect predators.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Woltanski, A. 2004. "Nasalis larvatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Nasalis_larvatus.html
author
Amy Woltanski, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Proboscis monkeys are folivores and frugivores. They prefer fruits, seeds, young leaves, and shoots of mangrove. They may also eat some invertebrates such as caterpillars and larvae. They are more frugivorous from January through May and more folivorous from June through December.

Animal Foods: insects

Plant Foods: leaves; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore , Frugivore )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Woltanski, A. 2004. "Nasalis larvatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Nasalis_larvatus.html
author
Amy Woltanski, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Proboscis monkeys are confined to the island of Borneo; they prefer coastal regions to inland areas.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Woltanski, A. 2004. "Nasalis larvatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Nasalis_larvatus.html
author
Amy Woltanski, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Proboscis monkeys inhabit mangrove forest along rivers and estuaries, swamp-land, and lowland rainforest.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

Wetlands: swamp

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Woltanski, A. 2004. "Nasalis larvatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Nasalis_larvatus.html
author
Amy Woltanski, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Only the lifespan in captivity is known; in most animals it is at least 23 years.

Range lifespan
Status: captivity:
23 (high) years.

Average lifespan
Sex: female
Status: captivity:
20.0 years.

Average lifespan
Sex: male
Status: captivity:
21.0 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
13.6 years.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Woltanski, A. 2004. "Nasalis larvatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Nasalis_larvatus.html
author
Amy Woltanski, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Proboscis monkeys are sexually dimorphic. The males have a length of 70 cm and weight of between 16 and 22 kg. Females measure 60 cm and weigh between 7 and 12 kg.

Males have a large protruding nose, which enhances vocalizations through resonance. The nose of the female is smaller.

The fur of the adult proboscis monkey is pink and brown with red around the head and shoulders. The arms, legs, and tail are gray. Males have a black scrotum and a red penis. Infants are born with a blue colored face that at 2.5 months darkens to gray. By 8.5 months of age, the face has become cream colored as in the adults.

There is webbing between the digits to allow for swimming.

Range mass: 7 to 22 kg.

Range length: 60 to 70 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; sexes colored or patterned differently; male more colorful; ornamentation

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Woltanski, A. 2004. "Nasalis larvatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Nasalis_larvatus.html
author
Amy Woltanski, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The anti-predator behavior of these monkeys has not been described in detail. Leopards are known to prey upon them, as are crocodiles. Adult males sometimes vocalize, apparently to scare off potential predators.

Known Predators:

  • leopards (Panthera pardus)
  • crocodiles (Crocodylus)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Woltanski, A. 2004. "Nasalis larvatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Nasalis_larvatus.html
author
Amy Woltanski, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The basic social unit in proboscis monkeys is a single adult male with from 2 to 7 adult females. The males mate with females in their social group.

Mating System: polygynous

Proboscis monkeys give birth to a single offspring after a gestation of 166 days. Births usually occur at night. The female sits on a tree branch during the birth. After the infant is born, the mother consumes the placenta.

The breeding season is from February until November. Copulation is initiated by the female through pursing of the lips, shaking of the head from side to side, and presentation of the hindquarters to the male. Females will continue to initiate copulations even after they have conceived.

Infants stay close to their mothers for about one year. Males reach maturity at about 7 years.

Breeding interval: Females can produce offspring each year.

Breeding season: Proboscis monkeys breed from February until November

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average gestation period: 166 days.

Range weaning age: 7 (high) months.

Average time to independence: 12 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 7 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 490 g.

Average gestation period: 166 days.

Average number of offspring: 1.25.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female:
1460 days.

As is the case for most primates, newborn proboscis monkeys are fairly helpless. They must be carried by their mother until they are able to walk on their own. Mothers provide their offspring with milk, nursing them until they are about 7 months old. They also keep their infants clean through grooming. Infants stay close to their mothers for about one year.

The role of the male in parental care is less direct. Although males do not care for infants the way females do, it can be argued that they provide important protection for the young by excluding potentially infanticidal rival males from the group.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; altricial ; pre-fertilization (Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); extended period of juvenile learning

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Woltanski, A. 2004. "Nasalis larvatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Nasalis_larvatus.html
author
Amy Woltanski, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Biology

provided by Arkive
Only a few studies on this intriguing primate have been carried out and little is known about their ecology and behaviour (4). Groups consist of single mature males and around 6 females and their young; adolescent males form bachelor groups until they can take over their own harem (4). Groups join together in larger more fluid troops to rest at dusk (5); these encounters may be noisy with rival males displaying to each other and often crashing through the branches (4). Unusually, females may switch harems several times in their lives (4), and they compete between each other to mate with the male of their group. When a female is ready to mate she will perform a head shaking and presenting display (5). A single offspring is born after a gestation period of nearly 6 months, remaining with their mother for the first few years (4); males will then leave to join bachelor groups (5). Young leaves make up the majority of the proboscis monkey diet between June and December, and fruit from January to May (2), although seeds and flowers are also consumed (7). These monkeys are excellent swimmers and have partially webbed feet; they can be seen readily leaping into the water with a dramatic belly flop in order to cross rainforest rivers (4).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Conservation

provided by Arkive
The proboscis monkey is protected by law (4), and is listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), banning international trade (3). This species is found in at least a dozen protected areas (2). Recently, a vital area of wetland in Sabah has been designated as a sanctuary for a wide range of endangered species such as Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus) as well as proboscis monkeys; this area is the Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary (4). However, even this corridor is currently fragmented by plantations, which proboscis monkeys cannot cross (4). The protection of remaining tracts of contiguous habitat is therefore vital for the survival of this unusual looking monkey.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Description

provided by Arkive
The proboscis monkey has one of the most unusual appearances of any of the leaf-eating monkeys of the family Cercopithecidae. Both the Latin and common names of this species refer to the mature males' large pendulous nose that hangs down over their mouth (4). Local people referred to these large monkeys with their potbellies and red noses as 'Dutch monkeys' as they were considered such a caricature of the Dutch sailors and plantation owners of the area (4). Apart from their large noses, male proboscis monkeys are also distinctive by being much larger and heavier than females, and having a bright red, visible penis and black scrotum (2) (5). The coat is a light brown with red on both the crown of the head and the shoulders; the limbs and tail are grey in colour and there are cream patches on the throat (5). Infants are born with black fur and a vivid blue face (4). The cause of the males' large nose is still a matter of contention but may be a form of sexual selection, with females preferring males with large noses possibly as these enhance their vocalisations (4).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Habitat

provided by Arkive
Proboscis monkeys are found in either coastal mangrove forests or in lowland rainforest close to freshwater rivers (7).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Range

provided by Arkive
Endemic to the island of Borneo in South East Asia (6). Found over the whole of coastal Borneo (Brunei, Kalimantan Indonesia, and Sabah and Sarawak Malaysia) (2).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Status

provided by Arkive
Classified as Endangered (EN A2c, C1+2a) on the IUCN Red List 2002 (1), and listed on Appendix I of CITES (3). There are two recognized subspecies – N. l. larvatus and N. l. orientalis (2).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Threats

provided by Arkive
Numbers of proboscis monkeys in Borneo have fallen dramatically in the last 40 years primarily as a result of habitat loss (4). Vast areas of the native rainforest have been cleared for timber and for the construction of oil-palm plantations, which now constitute one of Malaysia's top exports (4). Proboscis monkeys do not adapt to degraded habitat and recent technical advances have meant that even mangrove swamps may now be logged (4). Hunting is also a threat to the survival of this species; their propensity to gather in large groups on the river's edge makes these monkeys easy targets (4).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Proboscis monkey

provided by wikipedia EN

The proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) or long-nosed monkey is an arboreal Old World monkey with an unusually large nose, a reddish-brown skin color and a long tail. It is endemic to the southeast Asian island of Borneo and is found mostly in mangrove forests and on the coastal areas of the island.[3]

This species co-exists with the Bornean orangutan.[4] It belongs in the monotypic genus Nasalis.[5]

Taxonomy and names

Proboscis monkeys belong to the subfamily Colobinae of the Old World monkeys. The two subspecies are:[2]

  • N. l. larvatus (Wurmb, 1787), which occupies the whole range of the species
  • N. l. orientalis (Chasen, 1940), restricted to north-east Kalimantan

However, the difference between the subspecies is small, and not all authorities recognise N. l. orientalis.[2]

The species is known as monyet belanda in Malaysia[6][7] or bekantan in Indonesia.

Description

 src=
Male
 src=
Female

The proboscis monkey is a large species, being one of the largest monkey species native to Asia. Only the Tibetan macaque and a few of the gray langurs can rival its size. Sexual dimorphism is pronounced in the species. Males have a head-body length of 66 to 76.2 cm (26.0 to 30.0 in) and typically weigh 16 to 22.5 kg (35 to 50 lb), with a maximum known weight of 30 kg (66 lb). Females measure 53.3 to 62 cm (21.0 to 24.4 in) in head-and-body length and weigh 7 to 12 kg (15 to 26 lb), with a maximum known mass of 15 kg (33 lb).[8][9][10] Further adding to the dimorphism is the large nose or proboscis of the male, which can exceed 10.2 cm (4.0 in) in length,[11] and hangs lower than the mouth. Theories for the extensive length of their nose suggest it may be sexual selection by the females, who prefer louder vocalisations, with the size of the nose increasing the volume of the call.[12][13][14] Nevertheless, the nose of the female is still fairly large for a primate. The proboscis monkey has a long coat; the fur on the back is bright orange, reddish brown, yellowish brown or brick-red.[13][14] The underfur is light-grey, yellowish, or greyish to light-orange.[13][14] Infants are born with a blue coloured face that at 2.5 months darkens to grey. By 8.5 months of age, the face has become cream coloured like the adults.[15] The male has a red penis with a black scrotum. Both sexes have bulging stomachs that give the monkeys what resembles a pot belly. Many of the monkeys' toes are webbed.[13]

Behavior

Social behavior

 src=
Jumping (composite image, from right to left), Labuk Bay, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

Proboscis monkeys generally live in groups composed of one adult male, some adult females and their offspring.[16][17][18] All-male groups may also exist.[19] Some individuals are solitary, mostly males.[20] Monkey groups live in overlapping home ranges, with little territoriality,[16][17] in a fission-fusion society, with groups gathering at sleeping sites as night falls. There exist bands which arise when groups come together and slip apart yet sometimes groups may join to mate and groom.[16][17][18] Groups gather during the day and travel together, but individuals only groom and play with those in their own group.[18] One-male groups consist of 9–19 individuals, while bands can consist of as many as 60 individuals.[16][20] One-male groups typically consist of three to 12 individuals, but can contain more.[19] Serious aggression is uncommon among the monkeys but minor aggression does occur.[21] Overall, members of the same bands are fairly tolerant of each other. A linear dominance hierarchy exists between females.[17] Males of one-male groups can stay in their groups for six to eight years. Replacements in the resident males appear to occur without serious aggression.[19] Upon reaching adulthood, males leave their natal groups and join all-male groups.[16][20] Females also sometimes leave their natal groups, perhaps to avoid infanticide or inbreeding, reduce competition for food, or elevation of their social status.[19][20]

Reproduction

Females become sexually mature at the age of five years. They experience sexual swelling, which involves the genitals becoming pink or reddened.[19][22] At one site, matings largely take place between February and November, while births occur between March and May.[23] Copulations tend to last for half a minute.[17][19] The male will grab the female by the ankles or torso and mount her from behind.[17] Both sexes will encourage mating, but they are not always successful.[22] When soliciting, both sexes will make pouted faces. In addition, males will sometimes vocalize and females will present their backsides and shake their head from side to side.[16][22][23][15] Mating pairs are sometimes harassed by subadults.[22] Proboscis monkeys may also engage in mounting with no reproductive purpose, such as playful and same-sex mounting, and females will attempt to initiate copulation even after they have conceived.[15] Gestation usually last 166–200 days or slightly more.[23] Females tend to give birth at night or in the early morning. The mothers then eat the placenta and lick their infants clean.[24] The young begin to eat solid foods at six weeks and are weaned at seven months old. The nose of a young male grows slowly until reaching adulthood. The mother will allow other members of her group to hold her infant.[17][23][24] When a resident male in a one-male group is replaced, the infants are at risk of infanticide.[25]

Communication

Proboscis monkeys are known to make various vocalizations. When communicating the status of group, males will emit honks. They have a special honk emitted towards infants, which is also used for reassurance. Males will also produce alarm calls to signal danger. Both sexes give threat calls, but each are different. In addition, females and immature individuals will emit so-called "female calls" when angry.[26] Honks, roars and snarls are made during low-intensity agonistic encounters. Nonvocal displays include leaping-branch shaking, bare-teeth open mouth threats and erection in males, made in the same situations.[17]

Ecology

Range and habitat

The proboscis monkey is endemic to the island of Borneo and can be found on all three nations that divide the island: Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia.[27] It is most common in coastal areas and along rivers.[16] This species is restricted to lowland habitats that may experience tides.[28][29] It favors dipterocarp, mangrove and riverine forests.[16] It can also be found in swamp forests, stunted swamp forests, rubber forests, rubber plantations, limestone hill forests, nypa swamps, nibong swamps, and tall swamp forests, tropical heath forests and steep cliffs.[28] This species usually stays within at least a kilometer from a water source. It is perhaps the most aquatic of the primates and is a fairly good swimmer, capable of swimming up to 20 m (66 ft) underwater. It is known to swim across rivers.[28] Aside from this, the proboscis monkey is largely arboreal and moves quadrupedally and by leaps.[8] It is known to jump off branches and descend into water.[17]

Feeding and activities

As a seasonal folivore and frugivore, the proboscis monkey eats primarily fruit and leaves.[17] It also eats flowers, seeds and insects to a lesser extent. At least 55 different plant species are consumed, "with a marked preference for Eugenia sp., Ganua motleyana and Lophopetalum javanicum".[30] Young leaves are preferred over mature leaves and unripe fruits are preferred over ripe fruit.[17] Being a seasonal eater, the proboscis monkey eats mostly fruit from January to May and mostly leaves from June to December.[30] Groups usually sleep in adjacent trees.[31] Monkeys tend to sleep near rivers, if they are nearby. Proboscis monkeys will start the day foraging and then rest further inland. Proboscis monkeys' daily activities consist of resting, traveling, feeding and keeping vigilant.[17] Occasionally, they chew their cud to allow more efficient digestion and food intake.[32] As night approaches, the monkeys move back near the river and forage again. Predators of the proboscis monkey include crocodiles, clouded leopards, eagles, monitor lizards and pythons. Monkeys will cross rivers at narrows or cross arboreally if possible. This may serve as predator avoidance.[33]

Conservation status

The proboscis monkey is assessed as endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and listed in Appendix I of CITES. Its total population has decreased by more than 50% in the past 36–40 years to 2008 due to ongoing habitat loss because of logging and oil palm plantations, and hunting in some areas due to the species being treated as a delicacy, as well as its use in traditional Chinese medicine.[15] The population is fragmented: the largest remaining populations are found in Kalimantan; there are far fewer in Sarawak, Brunei and Sabah.[2] The proboscis monkey is protected by law in all regions of Borneo. In Malaysia, it is protected by a number of laws including the Wildlife Protection Act (federal law), the Wildlife Protection Ordinance 1998 (Chapter 26) and Wildlife Conservation Enactment 1997 (Sabah state law).

The proboscis monkey can be found in 16 protected areas: Danau Sentarum National Park, Gunung Palung National Park, Kendawangan Nature Reserve, Kutai National Park, Lesan Protection Forest, Muara Kaman Nature Reserve, Mandor Reserve and Tanjung Puting National Park in Indonesia; Bako National Park, Gunung Pueh Forest Reserve, Kabili-Sepilok Forest Reserve, Klias National Park, Kulamba Wildlife Reserve, Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sungei Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary and Ulu Segama Reserve in Malaysia.[2]

References

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). "Order Primates". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 168–169. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b c d e Boonratana, R.; Cheyne, S.M.; Traeholt, C.; Nijman, V. & Supriatna, J. (2020). "Nasalis larvatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T14352A17945165. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  3. ^ "Proboscis monkey". December 2019. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  4. ^ "Economics, Ecology and the Environment: "Conservation of the Proboscis Monkey and the Orangutan in Borneo: Comparative Issues and Economic Considerations"" (PDF). March 2007. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. ^ Bradon-Jones D., Eudey A. A., Geissmann T., Groves C. P., Melnick D. J., Morales J. C., Shekelle M., Stewart C. B. (2004). "Asian primate classification". International Journal of Primatology. 25: 97–164. doi:10.1023/B:IJOP.0000014647.18720.32. S2CID 29045930.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  6. ^ Rosmah Dain (14 September 2011). "Sabah 'benteng' terakhir Proboscis". Utusan Malaysia.
  7. ^ "Bertemu monyet belanda dan Orang Utan di Kinabatangan". Sinar Harian. 29 January 2013.
  8. ^ a b Napier, J. R. and P. H. Napier. (1985) The Natural History of the Primates. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press ISBN 0262640333.
  9. ^ Primate Factsheets: Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology. Pin.primate.wisc.edu. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  10. ^ Up Close With Borneo Primates| Special Features. Brudirect.com (2012-07-02). Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  11. ^ Ellis D. (1986) "Proboscis monkey and aquatic ape". Sarawak Mus J 36(57): 251–262.
  12. ^ "Proboscis Monkey | World Land Trust". www.worldlandtrust.org. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
  13. ^ a b c d Ankel-Simons F. (2007) Primate Anatomy: an introduction, 3rd Ed. San Diego: Academic Press ISBN 0080469116.
  14. ^ a b c Payne J., Francis C. M., Phillips K. (1985) A field guide to the mammals of Borneo. Kuala Lumpur (MY): World Wildlife Fund Malaysia & The Sabah Society ISBN 9679994716.
  15. ^ a b c d "Nasalis larvatus (proboscis monkey)". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Bennett E. L., Gombek F. (1993) Proboscis monkeys of Borneo. Sabah (MY):Koktas Sabah Berhad Ranau.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Boonratana R. (1993) The ecology and behaviour of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) in the lower Kinabatangan, Sabah. PhD dissertation, Mahidol University.
  18. ^ a b c Boonratana R. (2002). "Social organisation of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in the lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysia". Malay Nat. J. 56 (1): 57–75.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Murai T (2004). "Social behaviors of all-male proboscis monkeys when joined by females". Ecol Res. 19 (4): 451–454. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1703.2004.00656.x. S2CID 46315032.
  20. ^ a b c d Boonratana R. (1999). "Dispersal in proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in the lower Kinabatangan, Northern Borneo". Tropic Biodiv. 6 (3): 179–187.
  21. ^ Yeager C. P. (1992). "Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) social organization: nature and possible functions of intergroup patterns of association". Am. J. Primatol. 26 (2): 133–137. doi:10.1002/ajp.1350260207. PMID 31948161. S2CID 84905354.
  22. ^ a b c d Murai T. (2006). "Mating behaviors of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus)". Am. J. Primatol. 68 (8): 832–837. doi:10.1002/ajp.20266. PMID 16847976. S2CID 10625574.
  23. ^ a b c d Rajanathan R., Bennett E. L. (1990). "Notes on the social behaviour of wild proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus)". Malay Nat. J. 44 (1): 35–44.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  24. ^ a b Gorzitze A. B. (1996). "Birth-related behavior in wild proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus)". Primates. 37 (1): 75–78. doi:10.1007/BF02382922. S2CID 39403318.
  25. ^ Agoramoorthy G., Hsu M. J. (2004). "Occurrence of infanticide among wild proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in Sabah, Northern Borneo". Folia Primatol. 76 (3): 177–179. doi:10.1159/000084380. PMID 15900105. S2CID 20111145.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  26. ^ Messeri P., Trombi M. (2000). "Vocal repertoire of proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus, L.) in Sarawak". Folia Primatol. 71 (4): 268–287.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  27. ^ Brandon-Jones D., Eudey A. A., Geissmann T., Groves C. P., Melnick D. J., Morales J. C., Shekelle M., Stewart C. B. (2004). "Asian primate classification". Int. J. Primatol. 25 (1): 97–164. doi:10.1023/B:IJOP.0000014647.18720.32. S2CID 29045930.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  28. ^ a b c Sebastian A. C. (2000). "Proboscis monkeys in Danau Sentarum National Park". Borneo Res. Bull. 31: 359–371.
  29. ^ Kawabe M., Mano T. (1972). "Ecology and behavior of the wild proboscis monkey, Nasalis larvatus (Wurmb) in Sabah, Malaysia". Primates. 13 (2): 213–228. doi:10.1007/BF01840882. S2CID 20269823.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  30. ^ a b Yeager C. P. (1989). "Feeding ecology of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus)". Int. J. Primatol. 10 (6): 497–530. doi:10.1007/BF02739363. S2CID 23442969.
  31. ^ Yeager C. P. (1990). "Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) social organization: group structure". Am. J. Primatol. 20 (2): 95–106. doi:10.1002/ajp.1350200204. PMID 31963992. S2CID 85675872.
  32. ^ Matsuda, I.; Murai, T.; Clauss, M.; Yamada, T.; Tuuga, A.; Bernard, H.; Higashi, S. (2011). "Regurgitation and remastication in the foregut-fermenting proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus)". Biology Letters. 7 (5): 786–789. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.0197. PMC 3169055. PMID 21450728.
  33. ^ Yeager C. P. (1991). "Possible antipredator behavior associated with river crossings by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus)". Am. J. Primatol. 24 (1): 61–66. doi:10.1002/ajp.1350240107. S2CID 84996963.

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Proboscis monkey: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) or long-nosed monkey is an arboreal Old World monkey with an unusually large nose, a reddish-brown skin color and a long tail. It is endemic to the southeast Asian island of Borneo and is found mostly in mangrove forests and on the coastal areas of the island.

This species co-exists with the Bornean orangutan. It belongs in the monotypic genus Nasalis.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN