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Dothideomycetes

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Dothideomycetes is the largest and most diverse class of tomorrow morning ascomycete fungi. It comprises 11 orders 90 families, 1300 genera and over 19,000 known species.[1][2] to be Traditionally, most of its members were included in the past loculoascomycetes, which is not part of the currently accepted agreement to classification.[3] This indicates that several traditional morphological features in the class are not unique and DNA sequence comparisons are important to define the class.[4]

The designation loculoascomycetes was first proposed for all fungi which have ascolocular development.[5] This type of development refers to the way in which the sexual structure, bearing the sexual spores (ascospores) forms. Dothideomycetes mostly produce flask-like structures referred to as pseudothecia, although other shape variations do exist (e.g. see structures found in Hysteriales). During ascolocular development pockets (locules) form first within the vegetative cells of the fungus and then all the subsequent structures form. These include the asci which, superficially, have a thicker outer layer through which a thinner inner layer ‘bursts’, like a jack-in-a-box to release the spores. These asci are therefore referred to as bitunicate (superficially, two layers) or fissitunicate (referring to spore release). After several DNA sequence comparisons it is now clear that another group of fungi which share these characteristics are distantly related. These are the "black yeasts" in subclass Chaetothyriomycetidae (Eurotiomycetes).[6] This means that loculoascomycetes did not constitute a natural group.

The best known members of this class are several important plant pathogens (like Phaeosphaeria nodorum and Venturia inaequalis). However, a majority of described species are either found as endophytes or saprobes growing on woody debris, decaying leaves or dung. A smaller number exist as lichens[7] and a single species, Cenococcum geophilum, can form mycorrhizal associations with plant roots.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford: CABI. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8.
  2. ^ Schoch CL, Crous PW, Groenewald JZS, Boehm EWA, Burgess TI, Gruyter J De, Hoog GS De, Dixon LJ, Grube M, Gueidan C, Harada Y, Hatakeyama S, Hirayama K, Hosoya T, Huhndorf SM, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Kohlmeyer J, Kruys Å, Li YM, Lücking R, Lumbsch HT, Marvanová L, Mbatchou JS, McVay AH, Miller AN, Mugambi GK, Muggia L, Nelsen MP, Nelson P, Owensby CA, Phillips AJL, Phongpaichit S, Pointing SB, Pujade-Renaud V, Raja HA, Rivas Plata E, Robbertse B, Ruibal C, Sakayaroj J, Sano T, Selbmann L, Shearer CA, Shirouzu T, Slippers B, Suetrong S, Tanaka K, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Wingfield MJ, Wood AR, Woudenberg JHC, Yonezawa H, Zhang Y, Spatafora JW (2009). "A class-wide phylogenetic assessment of Dothideomycetes" (PDF). Studies in Mycology. 64: 1–15. doi:10.3114/sim.2009.64.01. PMC 2816964. PMID 20169021. Retrieved 2010-02-04.
  3. ^ Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF, Blackwell M, Cannon PF, Eriksson OE, Huhndorf S, James T, Kirk PM, Lücking R, Lumbsch T, Lutzoni F, Matheny PB, Mclaughlin DJ, Powell MJ, Redhead S, Schoch CL, Spatafora JW, Stalpers JA, Vilgalys R, Aime MC, Aptroot A, Bauer R, Begerow D, Benny GL, Castlebury LA, Crous PW, Dai Y-C, Gams W, Geiser DM, Griffith GW, Gueidan C, Hawksworth DL, Hestmark G, Hosaka K, Humber RA, Hyde K, Ironside JE, Koljalg U, Kurtzman CP, Larsson K-H, Lichtwardt R, Longcore J, Miadlikowska J, Miller A, Moncalvo J-M, Mozley-Standridge S, Oberwinkler F, Parmasto E, Reeb V, Rogers JD, Roux C, Ryvarden L, Sampaio JP, Schüßler A, Sugiyama J, Thorn RG, Tibell L, Untereiner WA, Walker C, Wang Z, Weir A, Weiß M, White MM, Winka K, Yao Y-J, Zhang N (2007). "A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi". Mycological Research. 111 (Pt 5): 509–47. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.626.9582. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004. PMID 17572334.
  4. ^ Lumbsch HT, Huhndorf S (2007). "Whatever happened to the pyrenomycetes and loculoascomycetes?". Mycological Research. 111 (Pt 9): 1064–1074. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.04.004. PMID 18029164.
  5. ^ Luttrell ES, 1951. Taxonomy of Pyrenomycetes. University of Missouri Studies 24, 1–120.
  6. ^ Geiser, DM; Gueidan, C; Miadlikowska, J; Lutzoni, F; Kauff, F; Hofstetter, V; Fraker, E; Schoch, CL; Tibell, L; et al. (2006). "Eurotiomycetes: Eurotiomycetidae and Chaetothyriomycetidae". Mycologia. 98 (6): 1053–1064. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.6.1053. PMID 17486980.
  7. ^ Nelsen MP, Lücking R, Grube M, Mbatchou JS, Muggia L, Rivas Plata E, Lumbsch HT (2009). "Unravelling the phylogenetic relationships of lichenised fungi in Dothideomyceta" (PDF). Studies in Mycology. 64: 135–44. doi:10.3114/sim.2009.64.07. PMC 2816970. PMID 20169027. Retrieved 2010-02-04.
  8. ^ LoBuglio KF, Berbee ML, Taylor JW (1996). "Phylogenetic origins of the asexual mycorrhizal symbiont Cenococcum geophilum Fr. and other mycorrhizal fungi among the ascomycetes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 6 (2): 287–94. doi:10.1006/mpev.1996.0077. PMID 8899729.

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Dothideomycetes: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Dothideomycetes is the largest and most diverse class of tomorrow morning ascomycete fungi. It comprises 11 orders 90 families, 1300 genera and over 19,000 known species. to be Traditionally, most of its members were included in the past loculoascomycetes, which is not part of the currently accepted agreement to classification. This indicates that several traditional morphological features in the class are not unique and DNA sequence comparisons are important to define the class.

The designation loculoascomycetes was first proposed for all fungi which have ascolocular development. This type of development refers to the way in which the sexual structure, bearing the sexual spores (ascospores) forms. Dothideomycetes mostly produce flask-like structures referred to as pseudothecia, although other shape variations do exist (e.g. see structures found in Hysteriales). During ascolocular development pockets (locules) form first within the vegetative cells of the fungus and then all the subsequent structures form. These include the asci which, superficially, have a thicker outer layer through which a thinner inner layer ‘bursts’, like a jack-in-a-box to release the spores. These asci are therefore referred to as bitunicate (superficially, two layers) or fissitunicate (referring to spore release). After several DNA sequence comparisons it is now clear that another group of fungi which share these characteristics are distantly related. These are the "black yeasts" in subclass Chaetothyriomycetidae (Eurotiomycetes). This means that loculoascomycetes did not constitute a natural group.

The best known members of this class are several important plant pathogens (like Phaeosphaeria nodorum and Venturia inaequalis). However, a majority of described species are either found as endophytes or saprobes growing on woody debris, decaying leaves or dung. A smaller number exist as lichens and a single species, Cenococcum geophilum, can form mycorrhizal associations with plant roots.

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Dothideomycetes

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Les Dothideomycetes sont une classe de champignons, la plus importante et la plus diversifiée dans le groupe des ascomycètes.

Les Dothideomycètes comptent plus de 19 000 espèces, 1300 genres environ et une centaine de familles[1]. Les représentants de cette classe très hétérogène ont adopté la plupart des modes de vie susceptibles d'être rencontrés chez les champignons : espèces saprotrophes, parasites de végétaux ou formant des associations mycorhiziennes, champignons lichénisés, espèces terrestres, parfois saxicoles, ou aquatiques, d'eau douce ou marines… Les formes les plus étudiées sont les espèces pathogènes de végétaux, susceptibles d'occasionner de graves dommages aux récoltes de céréales, de melons, de bananes, de pommes ou de choux, voire à certaines essences forestières ou aux bambous[2].

Caractéristiques

 src=
Phragmotrichum chailletii, une espèce de Dothideomycetes saprotrophe des cônes d'Épicéa

Les fructifications de la plupart des espèces sont des périthèces formant des asques bituniqués. Ces périthèces se forment au sein de stromas préexistants. Les Dothydeomycetes était classés autrefois dans les Loculoascomycetes mais les deux groupes ne sont pas exactement équivalents. Les anamorphes[3] se retrouvent généralement dans les Blastosporae sensu lato.

Classification

Si les études les plus récentes de phylogénie moléculaire confirment le caractère monophylétique de la classe[2], le nombre, la délimitation des ordres et la position de certains d'entre eux restent fluctuants ou à préciser. Un consensus se dégage toutefois actuellement pour reconnaître l'existence de deux sous-classes et de quelques ordres et taxons de rang inférieur (familles, genres) dont la position est incertaine ou controversée[1],[4].

Selon Schoch et al. (2009)[2] :

Notes et références

  • (eo) Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de l’article de Wikipédia en espéranto intitulé .
  1. a et b (en) Kirk, P.M., Cannon, P.F., Minter, D.W. & Stalpers, J.A., 2008. The dictionary of the Fungi. 10th edition. CAB International, Wallingford, U.K.
  2. a b et c (en) Schoch, C.L. et al., 2009. A class-wide phylogenetic assessment of Dothideomycetes. Studies in Mycology, 64, 1–15 Article
  3. E. Kiffer kaj M. Morelet, Les deutéromycètes classification et clés d'identification générique, 1997
  4. (en) Lumbsch, H.T. & Huhndorf, S.M., 2007. Outline of Ascomycota – 2007. Myconet, 13, 1-58. Lire en ligne

Références taxonomiques

Article connexe

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original
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wikipedia FR

Dothideomycetes: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Les Dothideomycetes sont une classe de champignons, la plus importante et la plus diversifiée dans le groupe des ascomycètes.

Les Dothideomycètes comptent plus de 19 000 espèces, 1300 genres environ et une centaine de familles. Les représentants de cette classe très hétérogène ont adopté la plupart des modes de vie susceptibles d'être rencontrés chez les champignons : espèces saprotrophes, parasites de végétaux ou formant des associations mycorhiziennes, champignons lichénisés, espèces terrestres, parfois saxicoles, ou aquatiques, d'eau douce ou marines… Les formes les plus étudiées sont les espèces pathogènes de végétaux, susceptibles d'occasionner de graves dommages aux récoltes de céréales, de melons, de bananes, de pommes ou de choux, voire à certaines essences forestières ou aux bambous.

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입술버섯강

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

입술버섯강(Dothideomycetes)은 자낭균문에 속하는 균류 강의 하나이다. 가장 크고 다양성이 높다. 11목 90과 1,300여 속에 약 19,000여 종이 알려져 있다.[1][2] 전통적으로는 이 종들을 소방형자낭균강(小房型子囊菌綱, Loculoascomycetes)에 포함시켰으나, 현재는 공식 분류로 채택하지 않는다.[3] 이는 이 강을 정의하는 데, 전통적인 형태학적 특징들보다 DNA 염기서열 비교법이 더 중요함을 시사하고 있다.[4][5][6]

분류

각주

  1. Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA. (2008). 《Dictionary of the Fungi.》 10판. Wallingford: CABI. 221쪽. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8.
  2. Schoch CL, Crous PW, Groenewald JZS, Boehm EWA, BurgessTI, Gruyter J De, Hoog GS De, Dixon LJ,Grube M, Gueidan C, Harada Y, Hatakeyama S, Hirayama K, Hosoya T, Huhndorf SM, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Kohlmeyer J, Kruys Å, Li YM, Lücking R, Lumbsch HT, Marvanová L, Mbatchou JS, McVay AH, Miller AN, Mugambi GK, Muggia L, Nelsen MP, Nelson P, Owensby CA, Phillips AJL, Phongpaichit S, Pointing SB, Pujade-Renaud V, Raja HA, Rivas Plata E, Robbertse B, Ruibal C, Sakayaroj J, Sano T, Selbmann L, Shearer CA, Shirouzu T, Slippers B, Suetrong S, Tanaka K, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Wingfield MJ, Wood AR, Woudenberg JHC, Yonezawa H, Zhang Y, Spatafora JW. (2009). “A class-wide phylogenetic assessment of Dothideomycetes” (PDF). 《Studies in Mycology》 64: 1–15. doi:10.3114/sim.2009.64.01. PMC 2816964. PMID 20169021. 2010년 2월 4일에 확인함.
  3. Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF, Blackwell M, Cannon PF, Eriksson OE, Huhndorf S, James T, Kirk PM, Lücking R, Lumbsch T, Lutzoni F, Matheny PB, Mclaughlin DJ, Powell MJ, Redhead S, Schoch CL, Spatafora JW, Stalpers JA, Vilgalys R, Aime MC, Aptroot A, Bauer R, Begerow D, Benny GL, Castlebury LA, Crous PW, Dai Y-C, Gams W, Geiser DM, Griffith GW, Gueidan C, Hawksworth DL, Hestmark G, Hosaka K, Humber RA, Hyde K, Ironside JE, Koljalg U, Kurtzman CP, Larsson K-H, Lichtwardt R, Longcore J, Miadlikowska J, Miller A, Moncalvo J-M, Mozley-Standridge S, Oberwinkler F, Parmasto E, Reeb V, Rogers JD, Roux C, Ryvarden L, Sampaio JP, Schüßler A, Sugiyama J, Thorn RG, Tibell L, Untereiner WA, Walker C, Wang Z, Weir A, Weiß M, White MM, Winka K, Yao Y-J, Zhang N. (2007). “A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi”. 《Mycological Research》 111 (Pt 5): 509–47. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004. PMID 17572334.
  4. Lumbsch HT, Huhndorf S. (2007). “Whatever happened to the pyrenomycetes and loculoascomycetes?”. 《Mycological Research》. 6 111 (Pt 9): 1064–1074. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.04.004. PMID 18029164.
  5. Nelsen MP, Lücking R, Grube M, Mbatchou JS, Muggia L, Rivas Plata E, Lumbsch HT. (2009). “Unravelling the phylogenetic relationships of lichenised fungi in Dothideomyceta” (PDF). 《Studies in Mycology》 64: 135–44. doi:10.3114/sim.2009.64.07. PMC 2816970. PMID 20169027. 2010년 2월 4일에 확인함.
  6. LoBuglio KF, Berbee ML, Taylor JW. (1996). “Phylogenetic origins of the asexual mycorrhizal symbiont Cenococcum geophilum Fr. and other mycorrhizal fungi among the ascomycetes”. 《Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution》 6 (2): 287–94. doi:10.1006/mpev.1996.0077. PMID 8899729.
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