dcsimg

Untitled

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The earliest known spalacine fossil is about 25 million years old, from the lower Miocene of Greece. This makes Spalacinae the oldest subfamily within Spalacidae, at least in the fossil record. Molecular work is needed to clarify the divergence times between spalacines and other spalacid groups. The earliest known Spalax fossils are from the late Pliocene. Spalax arose in Eurasia, and did not colonize North Africa until the Pleistocene, between 70,000 and 35,000 years ago.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Poor, A. 2005. "Spalacinae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spalacinae.html
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Mole rats navigate their pitch-black subterranean environment by touch, and they also have acute hearing. Their middle ears are specially adapted to perceive low-frequency sounds, which travel well underground. Their sense of smell is thought to be relatively weak, but they do use pheromones to communicate and they can sniff out their food. They make a variety of grunting and hissing noises, especially when threatened. They locate one another during the mating season by rapidly drumming their heads against the ceilings of their burrows, creating seismic vibrations.

Communication Channels: acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: pheromones ; vibrations

Perception Channels: tactile ; acoustic ; vibrations ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Poor, A. 2005. "Spalacinae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spalacinae.html
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The IUCN currently lists five of the 13 species in this family as vulnerable: sandy blind mole rats (Spalax arenarius), giant blind mole rats (or Russian blind mole rats, Spalax giganteus), Balkan blind mole rats (or Bukovin blind mole rats, Spalax graecus), greater blind mole rats (Spalax microphthalmus), and lesser blind mole rats (Spalax leucodon).

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Poor, A. 2005. "Spalacinae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spalacinae.html
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Comprehensive Description

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Eurasian or Ukrainian blind mole-rats, the Spalacinae, comprise a relatively small subfamily of Old-World fossorial muroid rodents. There are 13 species in 1 genus, Spalax.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Poor, A. 2005. "Spalacinae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spalacinae.html
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Spalacines can become serious agricultural pests.

Negative Impacts: crop pest

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Poor, A. 2005. "Spalacinae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spalacinae.html
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

There are no known positive impacts of spalacines on humans, except in their roles in healthy ecosystems they inhabit.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Poor, A. 2005. "Spalacinae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spalacinae.html
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Mole rats probably help to aerate the soil with their extensive digging activity, and they are consumers of various plant species as well as prey for owls.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Poor, A. 2005. "Spalacinae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spalacinae.html
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Spalacines are herbivores that eat mainly roots, bulbs and tubers. When they forage on the surface from time to time, they consume grasses, seeds, stems, acorns, and a few insects. They store large amounts of plant material in their underground chambers.

Foraging Behavior: stores or caches food

Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore ); herbivore (Folivore , Granivore )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Poor, A. 2005. "Spalacinae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spalacinae.html
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The range of Spalacinae extends around the eastern portion of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, from the Balkans through Ukraine, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, and into Egypt and Libya.

Biogeographic Regions: palearctic (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Poor, A. 2005. "Spalacinae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spalacinae.html
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Spalacines live in moderately dense sandy or loamy soils that receive more than 100 mm of annual rainfall. They range from below sea level to above 2,600 meters, and they inhabit upland steppes, mountain valleys, agricultural fields, orchards, woodlands, river and lake basins, grasslands, and brushy areas.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; chaparral ; forest ; scrub forest

Other Habitat Features: agricultural ; riparian

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Poor, A. 2005. "Spalacinae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spalacinae.html
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Spalacines have a maximum lifespan of four and half years in the wild, and an average lifespan of about three years. In captivity, mole rats have been known to live as long as 15 years.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Poor, A. 2005. "Spalacinae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spalacinae.html
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Spalacines are chunky, molelike animals with short legs, small feet and claws, subcutaneous eyes, and external ears that have been reduced to tiny ridges. They range in length from 130 to 350 mm, and weigh 100 to 570 grams. There is no visibile tail. Mole rats have thick, soft fur that is nearly reversible, allowing the animals to easily back down tunnels. They have broad, cushioned snouts with which they pack earth into the walls of their burrows. There are stiff rows of tactile bristles running down either side of a mole rat's face. The fur color is brown, reddish, or yellowish gray, and the ventral parts are generally grayish or straw-brown. The front of a mole rat's head is paler than the rest of the body. The feet have a silvery sheen to them, and there are five digits on each foot.

The spalacine dental formula is 1/1, 0/0, 0/0, 3/3 = 16. The broad incisors are orthodont and project forward in front of the lips. The cylindrical cheekteeth are rooted and have an enamel pattern in the shape of a Z or an S. The rows of molars converge slightly posteriorly. The first two molars are about equal in size, and the third is slightly smaller. The jaw muscles, on which mole rats rely for digging, are extremely strong. Mole rats have heavy skulls and a wide rostrum, but the zygomatic arches are quite thin and delicate. The frontals are small and there are no supraorbital ridges. Adults usually have a sagittal crest. The thick-walled auditory bullae are somewhat inflated. Spalacines have 13 thoracic vertebrae and six lumbar vertebrae. The spalacine stomach is two-chambered and the cecum is divided into 18 to 20 chambers. There is no stapedial artery; rather, the infraorbital artery provides circulation to the orbits. Mole rats have a diploid chromosome number ranging from 38 to 62.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Poor, A. 2005. "Spalacinae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spalacinae.html
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Owls are the most important predators on mole rats. To avoid predation, mole rats spend most of their time underground, and they can be aggressive when cornered. Also, their fur color is often correlated with soil color: mole rats in darker soils have darker fur, those in lighter soils have lighter fur. This suggests that visual predators exert a fair degree of selective pressure on mole rat populations.

Known Predators:

  • owls (Strigiformes)

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Poor, A. 2005. "Spalacinae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spalacinae.html
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

During the mating season, several males construct peripheral mounds around each female's breeding mound, and mating takes place within the breeding mound. Mole rats have elaborate courtship rituals. When a male and female encounter one another, they each assume a defensive posture and make a series of rushes at the other, attacking and then quickly retreating. The male emits a low-pitched growl, while the female gives a high-pitched cry. Then, if both animals are ready to mate, they begin licking and stroking one another, giving off soft trills. Finally, the male mounts the female from behind, and copulation begins. Copulation can last up to 90 minutes. However, when copulation is finished, the animals go their separate ways; spalacines are promiscuous and do not associate with the opposite sex for long.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Mole rats usually breed just once a year, from November to March, and have their litters from January to April. Female mole rats breed for the first time when they are about two years old, and most females only have a single litter in their lifetime. Some do not breed at all. For those that do reproduce, gestation is about a month long. The litter size ranges from one to six, but is usually between two and four. The young grow fur when they are about two weeks old and leave their mother's nest at about four to six weeks.

Key Reproductive Features: semelparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous

Female mole rats build breeding mounds in which they mate and rear their young. Each mound can be up to 160 cm long by 135 cm wide and 40 cm high. Each has a nest chamber in the center. Inside, the female nurses her altricial young for about a month. Other than providing sperm, male mole rats make no investment in their offspring.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Poor, A. 2005. "Spalacinae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spalacinae.html
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Espalacins ( Catalan; Valencian )

provided by wikipedia CA

Els espalacins (Spalacinae) són una subfamília de muroïdeus. Es tracta de rosegadors de vida subterrània molt ben adaptats a la vida sota terra. Tenen una capa de pell a sobre dels ulls que els deixa sense funcionalitat. Els espalacins manquen de cua i d'orelles externes. Tenen el cos en forma de cilindre. Gairebé no hi ha transició entre el cap i el cos. Tenen els peus petits. Els únics espalacins vivents avui en dia són els del gènere Spalax, tot i que el grup també inclou el gènere extint Pliospalax, que visqué a la zona dels Balcans i Anatòlia entre el Miocè i el Plistocè.[1]

Referències

 src= A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Espalacins Modifica l'enllaç a Wikidata
  1. 1,0 1,1 Entrada «Spalacinae» de la Paleobiology Database (en anglès).
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Autors i editors de Wikipedia
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia CA

Espalacins: Brief Summary ( Catalan; Valencian )

provided by wikipedia CA

Els espalacins (Spalacinae) són una subfamília de muroïdeus. Es tracta de rosegadors de vida subterrània molt ben adaptats a la vida sota terra. Tenen una capa de pell a sobre dels ulls que els deixa sense funcionalitat. Els espalacins manquen de cua i d'orelles externes. Tenen el cos en forma de cilindre. Gairebé no hi ha transició entre el cap i el cos. Tenen els peus petits. Els únics espalacins vivents avui en dia són els del gènere Spalax, tot i que el grup també inclou el gènere extint Pliospalax, que visqué a la zona dels Balcans i Anatòlia entre el Miocè i el Plistocè.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Autors i editors de Wikipedia
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia CA

Blindmäuse ( German )

provided by wikipedia DE
Wissenschaftlicher Name Spalacinae J. E. Gray, 1821

Die Blindmäuse (Spalacinae) sind eine Unterfamilie der Mäuseartigen. Es handelt sich um unterirdisch lebende Nagetiere, die vortrefflich an ein Leben unter der Erde angepasst sind.

Über die Augen ist Haut gewachsen, wodurch sie vollkommen funktionslos sind. Die Tiere haben weder Ohrmuscheln noch einen Schwanz. Der Körper ist walzenförmig, Kopf und Leib gehen nahezu übergangslos ineinander über. Die Füße sind klein. An den Seiten des Kopfes befinden sich braungelbe Tastborsten. Aus der breiten, hornigen Schnauze ragen breite Schneidezähne, auch wenn das Maul geschlossen ist. Diese Zähne benutzen die Blindmäuse zum Graben. Die Kopf-Rumpf-Länge liegt zwischen 15 und 30 Zentimeter.

Blindmäuse verbringen ihr ganzes Leben unter der Erde in einem verzweigten Gangsystem. Sie ernähren sich meist rein vegetarisch, manchmal ziehen sie ganze Pflanzen an ihren Wurzeln in die Erde.

Das Verbreitungsgebiet umfasst den östlichen Mittelmeerraum sowie die Umgebung des Schwarzen Meeres. Hier bewohnen Blindmäuse vor allem steppenartige Habitate.

Man unterteilt die Blindmäuse meistens in folgende zwei Gattungen mit insgesamt acht Arten:

Andere Systematiken haben bis zu sechs Gattungen unterschieden und je nach Lehrmeinung drei bis vierzehn Arten. Selbst zwischen morphologisch scheinbar völlig gleichen Tieren unterschiedlicher Populationen gibt es nach neueren Untersuchungen von Savic und Nevo beträchtliche chromosomale Unterschiede. Eine Analyse der Chromosomen mehrerer Blindmaus-Populationen ergab eine wahrscheinliche Artenzahl von über dreißig. Allerdings nennen auch Savic und Nevo die acht Arten in zwei Gattungen, da erst eine umfassende phylogenetische Analyse Auskunft über die tatsächliche Einteilung geben könne.

Forschung

Amerikanische Forscher haben im Immunsystem der Blindmäuse eine Besonderheit entdeckt. Blindmäuse können nicht an Krebs erkranken, da sie ab einem gewissen Stadium einen kollektiven Zelltod einleiten, der alle Krebszellen in kürzester Zeit zerstört. Die Ursache für dieses Phänomen wird dem Hormon IFN-Beta zugeschrieben, welches zur Gruppe der Interferone gehört.[1]

Literatur

  • Bernhard Grzimek: Grzimeks Tierleben. Enzyklopädie des Tierreichs. Band 11: Säugetiere. Teil 2. Weltbild Verlag, Augsburg 2000, ISBN 3-8289-1603-1.
  • Ido R. Savic, Eviatar Nevo: The Spalacidae: evolutionary history, speciation and population biology. In: Progress in Clinical and Biological Research. Nr. 335, 1990, ISSN 0361-7742, S. 129–153.

Referenzen

  1. Thomas Wagner-Nagy: Forscher finden Anti-Krebs-Hormon in Blindmäusen. Spiegel.de, 7. November 2012

Weblinks

 src= Commons: Spalacinae – Sammlung von Bildern, Videos und Audiodateien
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia Autoren und Herausgeber
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia DE

Blindmäuse: Brief Summary ( German )

provided by wikipedia DE

Die Blindmäuse (Spalacinae) sind eine Unterfamilie der Mäuseartigen. Es handelt sich um unterirdisch lebende Nagetiere, die vortrefflich an ein Leben unter der Erde angepasst sind.

Über die Augen ist Haut gewachsen, wodurch sie vollkommen funktionslos sind. Die Tiere haben weder Ohrmuscheln noch einen Schwanz. Der Körper ist walzenförmig, Kopf und Leib gehen nahezu übergangslos ineinander über. Die Füße sind klein. An den Seiten des Kopfes befinden sich braungelbe Tastborsten. Aus der breiten, hornigen Schnauze ragen breite Schneidezähne, auch wenn das Maul geschlossen ist. Diese Zähne benutzen die Blindmäuse zum Graben. Die Kopf-Rumpf-Länge liegt zwischen 15 und 30 Zentimeter.

Blindmäuse verbringen ihr ganzes Leben unter der Erde in einem verzweigten Gangsystem. Sie ernähren sich meist rein vegetarisch, manchmal ziehen sie ganze Pflanzen an ihren Wurzeln in die Erde.

Das Verbreitungsgebiet umfasst den östlichen Mittelmeerraum sowie die Umgebung des Schwarzen Meeres. Hier bewohnen Blindmäuse vor allem steppenartige Habitate.

Man unterteilt die Blindmäuse meistens in folgende zwei Gattungen mit insgesamt acht Arten:

Ostblindmäuse (Spalax), darunter die Ostblindmaus (Spalax microphthalmus) Westblindmäuse (Nannospalax), darunter die Westblindmaus (N. leucodon)

Andere Systematiken haben bis zu sechs Gattungen unterschieden und je nach Lehrmeinung drei bis vierzehn Arten. Selbst zwischen morphologisch scheinbar völlig gleichen Tieren unterschiedlicher Populationen gibt es nach neueren Untersuchungen von Savic und Nevo beträchtliche chromosomale Unterschiede. Eine Analyse der Chromosomen mehrerer Blindmaus-Populationen ergab eine wahrscheinliche Artenzahl von über dreißig. Allerdings nennen auch Savic und Nevo die acht Arten in zwei Gattungen, da erst eine umfassende phylogenetische Analyse Auskunft über die tatsächliche Einteilung geben könne.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia Autoren und Herausgeber
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia DE

Spalacinae ( French )

provided by wikipedia FR

Les rats taupes (Spalacinae) sont des rongeurs pratiquement aveugles vivant dans des souterrains et se nourrissant de racines. Ils diffèrent morphologiquement nettement des taupes (insectivores) par la présence de grandes incisives et l'absence de trompe.

Liste des genres

Cette sous-famille de spalacidés comprend les genres suivants de rats-taupes aveugles:

Selon Mammal Species of the World (version 3, 2005) (31 mai 2016)[1] et ITIS (31 mai 2016)[2] :

  • genre Spalax Guldenstaedt, 1770 - rats-taupes d'Ukraine

Répartition

On rencontre les spalacinés autour de la partie est de la Méditerranée et de la Mer Noire, depuis les Balkans en passant par l'Ukraine, le sud de la Russie, l'Asie Mineure, la Syrie, la Palestine, ainsi qu'en Égypte et Libye[3].

À ne pas confondre

Les rats taupes nus (Heterocephalus glaber) ont un comportement social sans équivalent chez les mammifères. Appartenant à la famille des Bathyergidae, c'est la seule espèce du genre Heterocephalus.

Notes et références

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Auteurs et éditeurs de Wikipedia
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia FR

Spalacinae: Brief Summary ( French )

provided by wikipedia FR

Les rats taupes (Spalacinae) sont des rongeurs pratiquement aveugles vivant dans des souterrains et se nourrissant de racines. Ils diffèrent morphologiquement nettement des taupes (insectivores) par la présence de grandes incisives et l'absence de trompe.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Auteurs et éditeurs de Wikipedia
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia FR

Blindmuizen ( Dutch; Flemish )

provided by wikipedia NL

Blindmuizen (Spalacinae) vormen een kleine groep knaagdieren binnen de familie Spalacidae. De groep bestaat uit twaalf soorten, waarvan er enkele in Europa voorkomen. De dieren leven vooral onder de grond en hebben daarom geen goed gezichtsvermogen nodig om te overleven. Ze hebben veel weg van mollen en hebben een korte snuit. Met deze snuit graven ze door de aarde en werpen vervolgens met de achterpoten de losgemaakte aarde achteruit. Van ogen en staart is uitwendig niets te zien.

De onderfamilie omvat de volgende geslachten:

In moderne indelingen onderscheidt men nog een tweede hedendaags geslacht: Westblindmuizen (Nannospalax) naast Oostblindmuizen (Spalax).

Wikimedia Commons Zie de categorie Spalacinae van Wikimedia Commons voor mediabestanden over dit onderwerp.
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia-auteurs en -editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia NL

鼴形鼠亞科 ( Chinese )

provided by wikipedia 中文维基百科

鼴形鼠亞科Spalacinae),哺乳綱囓齒目鼴形鼠科的一亞科,而與鼴形鼠亞科(白小鼴形鼠)同科的動物尚有鼴形鼠屬(大鼴形鼠)、鱗尾松鼠科、莖鼠屬(短尾莖鼠)等之數種哺乳動物

參考文獻

  • 中國科學院,《中國科學院動物研究所的世界動物名稱資料庫》,[1]
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
维基百科作者和编辑

鼴形鼠亞科: Brief Summary ( Chinese )

provided by wikipedia 中文维基百科

鼴形鼠亞科(Spalacinae),哺乳綱囓齒目鼴形鼠科的一亞科,而與鼴形鼠亞科(白小鼴形鼠)同科的動物尚有鼴形鼠屬(大鼴形鼠)、鱗尾松鼠科、莖鼠屬(短尾莖鼠)等之數種哺乳動物

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
维基百科作者和编辑