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Iguanomorpha

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Iguania is an infraorder of squamate reptiles that includes iguanas, chameleons, agamids, and New World lizards like anoles and phrynosomatids. Using morphological features as a guide to evolutionary relationships, the Iguania are believed to form the sister group to the remainder of the Squamata, and comprise nearly 13,000 named species. However, molecular information has placed Iguania well within the Squamata as sister taxa to the Anguimorpha and closely related to snakes.[1] The order has been under debate and revisions after being classified by Charles Lewis Camp in 1923 due to difficulties finding adequate synapomorphic morphological characteristics.[2] Most Iguanias are arboreal but there are several terrestrial groups. They usually have primitive fleshy, non-prehensile tongues, although the tongue is highly modified in chameleons. The group has a fossil record that extends back to the Early Jurassic (the oldest known member is Bharatagama, which lived about 190 million years ago in what is now India).[3] Today they are scattered occurring in Madagascar, the Fiji and Friendly Islands and Western Hemisphere [4]

Classification

The Iguania currently include these extant families:[5][6]

Phylogeny

Below is a cladogram from the phylogenetic analysis of Daza et al. (2012) (a morphological analysis), showing the interrelationships of extinct and living iguanians:[7]

Iguanomorpha  

Hoyalacerta sanzi

       

Huehuecuetzpalli mixtecus

   

Pristiguana brasiliensis

    Iguania Chamaeleontiformes

Mimeosaurus crassus

     

Priscagama gobiensis

   

Phrynosomimus asper

      Acrodonta

Physignathus

       

Agama

     

Uromastyx

   

Leiolepis

         

Rhampholeon

   

Brookesia

          Iguanoidea (=Pleurodonta)  

Polrussia mongoliensis

   

Igua minuta

   

Isodontosaurus gracilis

     

Anchaurosaurus gilmorei

   

Zapsosaurus sceliphros

       

Saichangurvel davidsoni

     

Temujinia ellisoni

   

Ctenomastax parva

        Silvaiguana Hoplocercidae

Enyaloides

     

Morunasaurus

   

Hoplocercus

      Polychrotidae    

Polychrus gutturosus

     

Polychrus marmoratus

     

Polychrus femoralis

   

Afairiguana avius

             

Leiosaurus

     

Anisolepis

     

Enyalius

   

Pristidactylus

           

Anolis electrum

     

Anolis occultus

     

Anolis heterodermus

   

Anolis vermiculatus

                Euiguana Corytophanidae

Laemanctus

     

Basiliscus

   

Corytophanes

      Terraiguana    

Iguanidae

Crotaphytidae

Crotaphytus

   

Gambelia

        Phrynosomatidae

Phrynosoma

     

Uta

       

Petrosaurus

   

sand lizards

       

Sceloporus

   

Urosaurus

            Opluridae

Chalarodon madagascariensis

     

Oplurus quadrimaculatus B

     

Oplurus quadrimaculatus A

   

Oplurus cyclurus

           

Uquiasaurus

    Liolaemidae

Phymaturus

     

Ctenoblepharis

   

Liolaemus

         

Leiocephalus

Tropiduridae

Stenocercus

     

Tropidurus

   

Uranoscodon

                           

Conservation Status

As of 2020 The IUCN Red List of endangered species lists 63.3% of the species as Least concern, 6.7% Near Threatened, 8.2 vulnerable, 9.1% endangered, 3.1% critically endangered, 0.3 extinct and 9.2% data deficient. The major threats include agriculture , residential and commercial development {https://www.iucnredlist.org/}.

References

  1. ^ Vidal, N.; Hedges, S. B. (2005). "The phylogeny of squamate reptiles (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) inferred from nine nuclear protein-coding genes" (PDF). Comptes Rendus Biologies. 328 (10–11): 1000–1008. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2005.10.001. PMID 16286089. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-26.
  2. ^ Daza, J., Abdala, V., Arias, J., García-López, D., & Ortiz, P. (2012). Cladistic Analysis of Iguania and a Fossil Lizard from the Late Pliocene of Northwestern Argentina. Journal of Herpetology, 46(1), 104-119. Retrieved May 12, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/41515023
  3. ^ Evans, Susan E.; Prasad, G. V. R.; Manhas, B. K. (2002). "Fossil lizards from the Jurassic Kota Formation of India". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22 (2): 299. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2002)022[0299:FLFTJK]2.0.CO;2.
  4. ^ Moody, S. (1985). Charles L. Camp and His 1923 Classification of Lizards: An Early Cladist? Systematic Zoology, 34(2), 216-222. doi:10.2307/2413329
  5. ^ Wiens, J.J., C. R. Hutter, D. G. Mulcahy, B. P. Noonan, T. M. Townsend, J. W. Sites Jr., T. W. Reeder. (2012) Resolving the phylogeny of lizards and snakes (Squamata) with extensive sampling of genes and species. Archived 2018-08-05 at the Wayback Machine Biology Letters
  6. ^ Schulte II, J. A., J. P. Valladares, and A. Larson. (2003) [Phylogenetic relationships within Iguanidae inferred using molecular and morphological data and a phylogenetic taxonomy of iguanian lizards.] Herpetologica 59: 399-419
  7. ^ Daza, J. D.; Abdala, V.; Arias, J. S.; García-López, D.; Ortiz, P. (2012). "Cladistic Analysis of Iguania and a Fossil Lizard from the Late Pliocene of Northwestern Argentina". Journal of Herpetology. 46: 104–119. doi:10.1670/10-112. S2CID 85405843.
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Iguanomorpha: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Iguania is an infraorder of squamate reptiles that includes iguanas, chameleons, agamids, and New World lizards like anoles and phrynosomatids. Using morphological features as a guide to evolutionary relationships, the Iguania are believed to form the sister group to the remainder of the Squamata, and comprise nearly 13,000 named species. However, molecular information has placed Iguania well within the Squamata as sister taxa to the Anguimorpha and closely related to snakes. The order has been under debate and revisions after being classified by Charles Lewis Camp in 1923 due to difficulties finding adequate synapomorphic morphological characteristics. Most Iguanias are arboreal but there are several terrestrial groups. They usually have primitive fleshy, non-prehensile tongues, although the tongue is highly modified in chameleons. The group has a fossil record that extends back to the Early Jurassic (the oldest known member is Bharatagama, which lived about 190 million years ago in what is now India). Today they are scattered occurring in Madagascar, the Fiji and Friendly Islands and Western Hemisphere

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