Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Lasioglossum paraforbesii

TYPE MATERIAL.—The female holotype of L. paraforbesii is deposited in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. It is in excellent condition and is labeled

SOUTH DAKOTA Hardy W.[ork] C.[enter] T3N.R 1 E, S30 [extreme southwest corner of Lawrence County, southwest of Cheyenne Crossing on Route 85] 2-July 1965 R.W. Hodges/HOLOTYPE Lasioglossum paraforbesii R.J. McGinley [red label].

One hundred paratypes (80, 20)listed in the “Specimens Examined” section are designated.

DISTRIBUTION (Figure 406).—Lasioglossum paraforbesii is the most common and widespread species in the forbesii group and one of the commonest species throughout much of the eastern and central United States. It is found from New Brunswick to Alberta and Idaho and south to central New Mexico, Nebraska, Illinois, Ohio, and northern Virginia.

DIAGNOSIS.—Among species of the forbesii group (see introductory diagnosis to the group) the females of L. paraforbesii can be distinguished by the structure of the acarinarium on the anterior surface of tergum I (Figure 409). The glabrous central area of the acarinarium is circular, not arrow-shaped as is that of L. acuminatum (Figure 407), and the hair fringe surrounding the glabrous area has a wide dorsal opening, the width of which is nearly subequal to that of the lateral hair fringe as seen from above (this opening is extremely narrow in L. forbesii, Figure 408). Females of L. paraforbesii lack the sharply edged posterolateral margins of the dorsal propodeal surface typical of L. forbesii and have longer heads than the latter species (Figure 434, length/width ratio x = 0.92, n= 20; compare with Figure 425, x = 0.89, n = 20).

The males of L. paraforbesii cannot be reliably separated from those of L. forbesii (see introductory diagnosis for the species group and the “Diagnosis” section for L. forbesii).

DESCRIPTION.—FEMALE: (1) Length 7.2–10.4 mm (x = 9.1, n = 20); (2) wing length 2.3–2.9 mm (x = 2.6, n = 20); (3) abdominal width 2.3–3.2 mm (x = 2.9, n = 20).

Structure: (4) Head moderately short to moderately elongate (Figure 434; length/width ratio 0.82–0.96, x = 0.92, n = 20). (7) Supraclypeal area evenly rounded, (8) moderately protuberant. (9) Clypeus projecting approximately 0.74 of its length below lower margin of eyes; (11) surface without median longitudinal sulcation. (14) Distance between lateral ocelli subequal to distance between lateral ocellus and eye. (23) Flagellomere 1 subequal in length to 2 along dorsal surface. Labrum as in Figure 436; (27) distal keel moderately broad as seen in frontal view, lateral edges evenly bowed; (28) distal lateral projections somewhat weakly developed, rounded; (29) some fimbrial setae bluntly rounded.

(32) Pronotal lateral angle broadly obtuse; (33) pronotal lateral ridge incomplete, interrupted by oblique lateral sulcus; (34) lower portion of lateral ridge sharply edged. (35) Mesoscutal lip weakly bilobed, (36) moderately elevated from pronotum. (40) Dorsal surface of propodeum about 0.73 the length of scutellum and about 1.4 times the length of metanotum, (41) slightly depressed centrally, (42) posterior margin broadly rounded; (43) propodeal triangle weakly defined laterally, evident medially as a V-shaped elevation with low lateral rims; (44) lateral carinae extending less than half the length of posterior surface. (45) Tibial spur as in Figure 46.

(46) Lateral edge of metasomal tergum II weakly sinuate, nearly straight.

Sculpture: (47) Face shiny, (48) densely punctate below ocelli, punctures contiguous, becoming larger and less dense near antennae. (51) Supraclypeal area polished, (51) punctures separated by 1–2 times their width laterally, becoming sparse centrally. (53) Clypeus polished; (54) punctures separated by their width basally, apical one-third virtually impunctate. (56) Mesoscutum shiny; (57) punctation as in Figure 439, punctures separated by their width or less laterally and anteriorly, less dense centrally, punctures 1–3 times their width apart. (58) Scutellum very sparsely punctate adjacent to median line with conspicuous impunctate areas. (63) Dorsal surface of propodeum (Figure 438) ruguloso-striate over basal two-thirds, posterior one-third smooth or obscurely striolate; (64) surface alveolated. (65) Metasomal tergum I moderately shiny; (66) punctation fine, dense, punctures slightly less than their width apart.

Coloration: (71) Wing membrane pale yellowish brown.

Vestiture: (74) Pubescence of head white. (75) Pubescence of thorax white to pale yellowish brown, white on pronotal lateral angle, pronotal lobe and metanotum; (76) mesoscutal hairs moderately sparse and plumose. (77) Hind tibial hairs concolorous, yellowish brown. (78) Anterior hairs of metasomal tergum I white to yellowish white, (79) basal hair bands of terga II–IV white. (80) Acarinarium present (Figure 409), a relatively small, circular, glabrous area surrounded laterally by elongate fringe hairs, dorsal opening of acarinarium moderately wide, width of opening slightly exceeded by width of lateral hair fringe as seen in dorsal view.

MALE: Similar to female except as follows: (1) length 6.9–9.0 mm (x = 8.0, n = 20); (2) wing length 1.8–2.3 mm (x = 2.6, n = 20); (3) abdominal width 1.8–2.3 mm (x = 2.1, n = 20). (4) Head as in Figure 435 (length/width ratio 0.88–0.96, x = 0.93, n = 20). (5) Gena subequal to eye in width, (6) moderately produced posteriorly. (10) Clypeal surface nearly flat, only faintly depressed ventrally. Labrum as in Figure 437; (24) distal process weakly developed as a short, acute projection; (25) basal area depressed medially; (26) basal lateral depressions absent. (30) Mandible moderately elongate, reaching slightly beyond opposing clypeal angle. (53) Clypeus polished; (54) punctures well formed and dense basally, very fine and scattered over apical two-thirds. (68) Clypeal maculation present (Figure 435). (69) Flagellum light brown ventrally, contrasting with dark dorsum. (72) Tarsi yellow to yellowish orange.

Vestiture: Sternal vestiture as in Figures 416, 417; (82) hairs on sternum IV erect, elongate, becoming shorter laterally; (83) sternum V with some inconspicuous erect hairs but without noticeable hair patterns or lobes.

Terminalia: Sterna VII–VIII as in Figure 440; (85) sternum VIII with moderately elongate, parallel-sided median process. Genitalia as in Figure 441; (86) gonobase moderately elongate (same as L. forbesii for other characters).

FLIGHT RECORDS (Figure 442).—Lasioglossum paraforbesii females have been collected from April through October. Of these records, 63% come from May and June, with a definite peak in May for specimens from the middle-eastern and southwestern regions. Females from the northwestern region peak in late June. Males have been taken from June through October, with 66% of the records coming from July and August.

FLOWER RECORDS.—Females (372): Rosaceae 46%; Compositae 13%. Males (42): Compositae 40%; Leguminosae 38%. Total: 414 in 24 families, 65 genera as follows:

Allonia 2; *Amelanchier 5(2); *Amorpha 6(3); Anemone 1; Asclepias 1; Aster 2, 2; Atriplex 2; Bidens 6; * Brassica 11(4); *Camassia 6(5); *Ceanothus 11(1); Centaurea 3; Chrysanthemum 1; Cichorium 1; *Cirsium 3(2) *Cornus 9(9) *Crataegus 3(1) Cymopterus 1; *Dracocephalum 2(2) *Erigeron 3(2) Eryngium 1; Euphorbia 1; Geranium 1; Gindelia 1, 2; Helianthus 1 Iva 1; *Lepidum 1(1) Lonicera 2; Medicago 6, 5; * Melilotus 10(2), 11 * Mirabilis 1(1) *Pentstemon 1(1) *Petalostemon 5(4) Physalis 1; Physostegia 1 Platycodon 1 Potentilla 1; * Prunus 119(54) *Pyrus 30(1) *Rhododendron 1(1) Rhus 3; *Ribes 6(5) *Rosa 5(4) Rubus 139, 1 Rudbeckia 1 * Salix 36(5) Sambucus 1 Sanícula 1; Scrophularia 1; Senecio 1; Sisymbrium 2; * Solanum 1(1) Solidago 1, 3; *Spirea 4(4) Symphoricarpus 1, 1 *Syringa 2(2) *Taraxacum 30(11) 5; Thalspi 1; Trifolium 1; Vaccinium 2; Verbena 2, 1 Viburnum 2; * Vicia 1(1).

SPECIMENS EXAMINED.—Paratypes (80, 20).

CANADA. ALBERTA: Calgary, V-7-1928, O. Bryant (3; CAS); Medicine Hat, 24-IV-26, F.S. Carr (1; CAS); Onefour, l-IV-1956, E.E. Stearns (2; CNC), 3-VI-1956, E.E. Stearns (1; CNC). MANITOBA; Aweme, 14-V-1925, 27-VI-1925, R.D. Bird (2; CNC), 28-VIII-1914, N. Criddle (1 CNC); Carberry, 16 Jun 1953, Brooks & Kelton (1; CNC); Virden, 9-VII-1953, Brooks & Kelton (1; CNC). SASKATCHEWAN: Carlton, 11-IX-1948, J.R. Vockeroth (1 CNC); Indian Head, 31-V-1924, J.J. deGryse (1; CNC); Torquay, 14-VIII-55, C.D. Miller (1 CNC). Province and locality not specified: #1902, #2042, collection C.F. Baker (2; USNM).

UNITED STATES. COLORADO: locality not specified, #2276, collection Baker (1; USNM). IDAHO: Oneida Co.: Holbrook, 5 mi NW, 16 May 1969, G.F. Knowlton, G.E. Bohart (1; CU). ILLINOIS: Boone Co.: Blaine, 1 mi N, taken on Prunus virginiana, 17-V-1970, J.C. Marlin (1; INHS). Bureau Co.: La Moille, 3 ml NW, taken on Salh sp., 12-V-1970, LaBerge and Molina (4; INHS). Jo Davies Co.: Stockton, taken on Cichorium intybus, 18-VII-1968, J.C. Marlin (1; INHS). Lee Co.: Sublette, taken on Brassica nigra, 11-VII-1968, J.C. Marlin (1; INHS). [McHenry Co.:] Algonquin, 4-23-94, collection C.F. Baker (1; USNM), #8407, 4-30-95 (1; USNM), #8377, #8379, #8380, #8382, #8383, #8384, #8386, 5-5-97 (7; USNM), #8390, 5-7-97 (1; USNM), #8392, 5-8-97 (1; USNM), #8408, 5-23-95 (1; USNM), #8431, 20 May 1905, W.A. Nason (1; USNM), #930, Nason (1, USNM), #885, collection C.F. (1; USNM), #1697, #1698, collection C.F. Baker (2; USNM). McLean Co.: 0.5 mi E Weston, Weston Cemetery Nat.[ure?] Pres.|erve?], 22-VII-1980, E. Miliczky (1; INHS). Woodford Co.: 3 mi W El Paso, 22-VII-1980, E. Miliczky (1; INHS). County not specified: N.[orthern] Ill[inois], Am.[erican] Mus.[eum] Nat.[ural] Hist.[ory] Dep[artment] Invert.[ebrate] Zool.[ogy] No. 23953, 10-1-93 (1; AMNH).

INDIANA: [Tippecanoe Co.:] Lafayette, on Solanum sp., 12 Jul 1942, H.E. Milliron (1; UCR), on Platycodon grandiflorium, 12 Jul 1942, H.E. Milliron (2; UCR). MICHIGAN: Barry Co.: Yankee Springs Game Area, R.L. Fischer slide no. 664, VII-13-1959, Roland L. Fischer (1; MSUEL). Cheboygan Co.: locality not specified, VII-16 or VIII-6-1953, Stuart E. Neff (1; MSUEL). Clinton Co.: Rose Lake, at flowers [of] Amelanchier canadensis, IV-23-1955, R.W. Hodges (1; MSUEL). Kalamazoo Co.: Gull Lake Biol.[ogical] Sta.[tion], 23 Jul 1956, R.W. Hodges (1; MSUEL). Lake Co.: locality not specified, R.L. Fischer slide no. 665, IV-17-55, W.A. Drew (1; MSUEL). [Oakland Co.:] Farmington, on willow, 2 May 1937, G. Steyskal (1; MSUEL). County not specified: Bath, 5 Jun 1954, R.L. Fischer (1; MSUEL). NEBRASKA: [Cuming Co.:] West Point, Crawford no. 2891, on Bidens, IX-24-03, J.C. Crawford (1; USNM).

NORTH DAKOTA: [Cass Co.:] Fargo, on Viola scabriuseulia, 30 May 1913, O.A. Stevens (1; CU), #14749, on Tamarix flowers, 2 Jun 1933, O.A. Stevens (1; AMNH), #5118, on Taraxacum taraxacum, 20 Jun 1913, E.M. Stevens (1; AMNH), #1784, on Dracocephalum parviflorum, 26 Jun 1910, O.A. Stevens (1; AMNH), #1815, on Asclepias syriaca, 3 Jul 1910, O.A. Stevens (1; AMNH), #2518, on Centaurea jacea (cult.), 26 Jul 1911, O.A. Stevens (1 AMNH), #2629, on Melilotus alba, 14 Aug 1911, O.A. Stevens (1 CU), #15208, on Rudbeckia laciniata, 15 Aug 1948, O.A. Stevens (1 AMNH), #10707, on Helianthus maximiliani, 20 Aug 1917, O.A. Stevens (1 AMNH), #9705, on Melilotus alba, 22 Aug 1916, O.A. Stevens (1 AMNH), #3889, on Melilotus alba, 24 Aug 1912, O.A. Stevens (1 AMNH), #4000, on Melilotus alba, 1 Sep 1912, O.A. Stevens (1 AMNH), #11148, on Solidago canadensis, and #11169, around aphids on Iva xanth.[ifolia], 11 Sep 1917, O.A. Stevens (2; AMNH). [Dickey Co.:] Oakes, #12238, Symphoricarpos occidentalis, 18 Jul 1919, O.A. Stevens (1 AMNH). [Morton Co.:] Mandan, #3357, on Rosa, and #3368, on Pentstemon gracilis, 16 Jun 1912, O.A. Stevens (2; AMNH). [Nelson Co.:] Lakota, #6725, on Aster paniculatus, 5 Sep 1913, O.A. Stevens (1 AMNH). [Pierce Co.:] Rugby, #10232, on Braissica arvensis, 7 Jul 1917, O.A. Stevens (1; AMNH). [Ransom Co.:] Enderlin, 7-4-17 (1; CU), [Rolette Co.?:] Turtle Mts., #10296, on Sanicula marylandica, #10306, 10307, on Rosa, #10321, on Erigeron philadelphicus, 8 Jul 1917, O.A. Stevens (4; AMNH). County not specified: Pleasant Lake, #6353, Helianthus petiolaris, 11 Aug 1913 (1 AMNH); Wales, #6254, on Grindelia squarrosa, 8 Aug 1912, O.A. Stevens (1 AMNH).

SOUTH DAKOTA: [Brookings Co.:] Brookings, 15 Oct 1944, H.C. Severin (2; UCR), 7–31, Jun H.C. Severin (1; UCR); Volga, Lot 230 (1; ANSP). [Minnehaha Co.:] Sioux Falls, #8011, on Taraxacum taraxacum, 14 May 1914, O.A. Stevens (1; AMNH). WISCONSIN: Dane Co.: Madison, IV-27-07, Hardenberg (1; USNM), VII-25-16 (1; UCR). [Milwaukee Co.: Milwaukee, collection W.H. Ashmead (1; USNM). Polk Co.: locality not specified, collection Baker, Baker (2; USNM). WYOMING: [Albany Co.:] Laramie, taken on Salix sp., 30-V-1968, D.W. Ribble (4; INHS). Platte Co.: locality not specified, VIII-8-1967, Dave Ribble Acc. (1; INHS).

Additional localities recorded: 959 specimens (868, 91).

CANADA. ALBERTA: Calmar; Drumheller; Engerton; Lethbridge. MANITOBA: Brandon, 6 mi NW; Onah. QUEBEC: Kazabazua. NEW BRUNSWICK: Kouchibouguac National Park; Charlotte Co. ONTARIO: Coldwater; Credit Forks; Delta; Edgar; Kendal; Leaside; Markham; Opinicon; Orangeville; Port Credit; Primrose; Strathroy; Toronto; Vandorf; Vivian Forest; Woodstock. SASKATCHEWAN: Canora; Estevan; Ft. QuAppelle; Love; Mortlatch; Prince Albert; Saskatoon; St. Victor; Zealandia.

UNITED STATES. COLORADO: Boulder Co.: Longmont; Custer Co.: Westcliffe; Delta Co.: Delta, Hotchkiss, Paonia; Denver Co.: Denver; El Paso Co.: Colorado Springs, Foster Ranch, Ramah; Garfield Co.: Rifle; La Plata Co.: Durango; Larimer Co.: Ft. Collins; Lincoln Co.: Limon; Mesa Co.: Palisade; Prowers Co.: Lamar, 10 mi N; Pueblo Co.: Pueblo. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. IDAHO: Bingham Co.: Bingham (7 mi NW), Grandview, Springfield; Boundary Co.: Bonners Ferry; Cassia Co.: Burley, Raft River Narrows; Jefferson Co.: Rigby; Jerome Co.: Hazelton (3 mi NE Hunt Project); Twin Falls Co.: Buhl, Rock Creek.

ILLILNOIS: Cook Co.: Chicago; Knox Co.: Galesburg. INDIANA: Carroll Co.: Delphi; Porter Co.: Valparaiso. IOWA: Black Hawk Co.; Dubuque Co.: Dubuque; Hamilton Co.: Webster City; Story Co.: Ames, 2, 4 mi NW; Woodbury Co.: Sioux City. KANSAS: Anderson Co.: Garnett; Doniphan Co.: Troy, 6 mi S; Douglas Co.: Baldwin, Lawrence; Jefferson Co.: Oskaloosa; Leavenworth Co.: Reno, Tonganoxie; Marshall Co.: Marysville; Pottawamie Co.: Little Gobi Desert; Riley Co.: Manhattan. MAINE: York Co.: Saco. MICHIGAN: Allegan Co.: Allegan, Fernville; Barry Co.: Hickory Corners. Cheboygan Co.: University of Michigan Biological Station; Chippewa Co.: Eaton Co.: Dimondale, Potterville; Ingham Co.: East Lansing; Jackson Co.: Jackson: Kalkaska Co.; Lake Co.; Lenawee Co.: Onsted; Mackinac Co.; Mecosta Co.; Midland Co.: Midland; Montcalm Co.; Newago Co.; Oakland Co.: Farmington; Oscoda Co.: Luzerne. MINNESOTA: Anoka Co.: Bunker Prarier, Fridley Sand Dunes; Beltrami Co.: Bemidji; Bigstone Co.; Carver Co.: Zumbra Heights; Chisago Co.; Clay Co.: Buffalo River State Park, Hitterdal (8 mi W), Moorhead; Clearwater or Hubbard Co.: Itasca State Park; Dakota Co.; Goodhue Co.; Hennepin Co.: Nine Mile Creek, St. Anthony Park; Houston Co.; Lac Qui Parle Co.: Lake Lac Qui Parle (5 mi S Milan); Lyon Co.: Camden State Park. Marshall; Murray Co.: Lake Shetek State Park; Otter Tail Co.; Pine Co.; Pipestone Co.: Pipestone (Olive Falls, Pipestone National Monument); Polk Co.: Crookston; Pope Co.: Glacial Lakes State Park; Ramsey Co.: New Brighton, St. Paul; Rice Co.: Circle Lake near Millersburg; Rock Co.: Blue Mounds State Park, Luverne; Roseau Co.: Warroad; Swift Co.; Wadena Co.; Waseca Co.: Waseca; Winona Co.

MONTANA: Flathead Co.: Big Fork; Gallatin Co.: Bozeman; Hill Co.: Fresno Dam. NEBRASKA: Adams Co.: Hastings; Antelope Co.: Neligh; Chase Co.: Enders, Wauneta, 2 mi E; Cherry Co.: Niobara River (10 mi S Nenzel); Harlan Co.: Republican City; Hall Co.: Alda, 4 mi W; Hooker Co.; Lancaster Co.: Lincoln; Saline Co.: Crete. NEVADA: Elko Co.: Elko. NEW MEXICO: Bernalillo Co.: Albuquerque; Socorro Co.: Bernardo; San Juan Co.: Aztec; San Miguel Co.: Las Vegas; Valencia Co.: Belen. NORTH DAKOTA: Billings Co.: Medora, 10 mi W; Burleigh Co.: Bismarck; Cass Co.: Kindred; Grand Forks Co.; La Moure Co.: Kulm; McKenzie Co.: Theodore Roosevelt National Park; Mountrail Co.: Stanley, 5 mi SW; Ramsey Co.: Devil's Lake (including 6 mi E); Ransom Co.: Lisbon, McLeod, 1 mi SE; Richland Co.: Mirror Pool, Walcott (11 mi W), Walcott Dunes; Stope Co.: Chalky Buttes; Stark Co.: Dickerson; Walsh Co.: Drayton, Minto, 12 mi SE.

OHIO: Franklin Co.: Columbus; Fulton Co.: Swanton; Lucas Co. SOUTH DAKOTA: Clark Co.: Clark; Hughes Co.: Pierre; Sioux Falls. UTAH: Duchesne Co.: Duchesne; Cache Co.; Emery Co.: Castle Dale; Grand Co.; Utah Co.: Provo environs. WISCONSIN: Burnett Co.: Grantsburg, 10 mi NE: Door Co.: Sturgeon Bay; Grant Co.: Lancaster: Jackson Co.: Millston; Marathon Co.: Wausau; Pierce Co.; Polk Co.: Gibson Lake, Nevers Dam; Rock Co.; Sauk Co.: Sauk City; Vernon Co.: Genoa; Washburn Co.: Spooner; Washington Co.: West Bend; Waupaca Co.; Wood Co.: Griffith State Nursery. WYOMING: Crook Co.: Devel's Tower; Goshen Co.: Jay Em; Park Co. or Teton Co.: Yellowstone National Park; Weston Co.: Newcastle, 22 mi W.
bibliographic citation
McGinley, R. J. 1986. "Studies of Halictinae (Apoidea: Halictidae), I: Revision of New World Lasioglossum Curtis." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-294. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.429