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Sternorrhyncha

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The Sternorrhyncha[1][2][3] suborder of the Hemiptera contains the aphids, whiteflies, and scale insects, groups which were traditionally included in the now-obsolete order "Homoptera". "Sternorrhyncha" refers to the rearward position of the mouthparts relative to the head.

Distributed worldwide, all members of this group are plant-feeders (phytophagous), and many are major crop and ornamental pests.

Many exhibit modified morphology and/or life cycles, including phenomena such as flightless morphs, parthenogenesis, sexual dimorphism, and eusociality.

Phylogeny

The phylogeny of the extant Sternorrhyncha, inferred from analysis of small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA, is shown in the cladogram.[4]

Sternorrhyncha

Psylloidea (jumping plant lice, etc.) Psyllia pyricola.png

     

Aleyrodoidea (whiteflies) Neomaskellia bergii from CSIRO.jpg

     

Coccoidea (scale insects) HEMI Margarodidae Coelostomidia wairoensis m.png

Aphidomorpha

Phylloxeroidea (phylloxera bugs) Daktulosphaira vitifoliae from CSIRO.jpg

   

Aphididae (aphids) Aphid icon.png

         

The evolutionary position of several fossil taxa are unclear. A suggested phylogeny is:[5][6]

Boreoscytidae

   

Pincombeidae

   

Simulaphididae

         

Coccidomorpha

   

Dracaphididae

   

Naibiidae

   

Sinojuraphididae

     

Aphidomorpha

         

Protopsyllidioidea

       

Dinglomorpha

   

Aleyrodomorpha

       

Liadopsyllidae

   

Psylloidea

           

Groups

Well-known groups in the Sternorrhyncha include:

References

  1. ^ "ITIS standard report - Sternorrhyncha". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
  2. ^ Grimaldi & Engel (2005) Evolution of the Insects 289-303.
  3. ^ Paraneoptera Species File (Version 5.0/5.0)
  4. ^ "Phylogeny of Insects". What-When-How. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  5. ^ Drohojowska, Jowita; Szwedo, Jacek; Żyła, Dagmara; Huang, Di-Ying; Müller, Patrick (2020). "Fossils reshape the Sternorrhyncha evolutionary tree (Insecta, Hemiptera)". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 11390. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-68220-x. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 7347605. PMID 32647332.
  6. ^ Szwedo, Jacek (2016). "The unity, diversity and conformity of bugs (Hemiptera) through time". Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 107 (2–3): 109–128. doi:10.1017/S175569101700038X. ISSN 1755-6910. S2CID 134243346.

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Sternorrhyncha: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Sternorrhyncha suborder of the Hemiptera contains the aphids, whiteflies, and scale insects, groups which were traditionally included in the now-obsolete order "Homoptera". "Sternorrhyncha" refers to the rearward position of the mouthparts relative to the head.

Distributed worldwide, all members of this group are plant-feeders (phytophagous), and many are major crop and ornamental pests.

Many exhibit modified morphology and/or life cycles, including phenomena such as flightless morphs, parthenogenesis, sexual dimorphism, and eusociality.

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Sternorrhyncha

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Sternorrhyncha (les sternorrhynches ou sternorrhynques en français) est un sous-ordre d'insectes hémiptères caractérisé par la présence d'un rostre à insertion postérieure. On y trouve notamment les cochenilles.

Caractéristiques

Un rostre est présent entre les coxa antérieures. Les ailes sont repliées en toit au repos. Les nervures des ailes sont simples (radius, media et cubitus basal fusionnés ; clavus avec max. une nervure anale). Les tarsomères sont réduits à un maximum de 2. Tegma est aussi sclérifié que les alae[réf. nécessaire].

Liste des familles

Selon ITIS (8 avril 2018)[1] :

Selon BioLib (8 avril 2018)[3] :

Références

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Sternorrhyncha: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Sternorrhyncha (les sternorrhynches ou sternorrhynques en français) est un sous-ordre d'insectes hémiptères caractérisé par la présence d'un rostre à insertion postérieure. On y trouve notamment les cochenilles.

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진딧물아목

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Aphididae (aka).jpg

진딧물아목 또는 깍지벌레아목, 복문아목(腹吻亞目 Sternorrhyncha)은 노린재목의 한 아목으로, 진딧물, 깍지벌레 종류가 이에 속한다. 머리 중에서 입 부분이 뒷쪽에 있다. 전 세계에 분포하는 초식성 곤충으로, 대부분이 농업·원예 작물을 해치는 해충이다.

하위 분류

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