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Cheilostomatida

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Cheilostomatida, also called Cheilostomata, is an order of Bryozoa in the class Gymnolaemata.[1]

They are exclusively marine, colonial invertebrate animals. Cheilostome colonies are composed of calcium carbonate and grow on a variety of surfaces, including rocks, shells, seagrass and kelps. The colony shapes range from simple encrusting sheets to erect branching and even unattached forms. As in other bryozoan groups, each colony is composed of a few to thousands of individual polypides. Each individual has a U-shaped gut, and no respiratory, circulatory, or nerve system. Unique among bryozoans, cheilostome polypides are housed in a box-shaped zooids, which do not grow larger once the zooid is mature. The opening of through which the polypide protrudes is protected by a calcareous or chitinous lidlike structure, an operculum. Cheilostomes possess avicularia, which have modified the operculum into a range of mandibles (possibly for defense) or hair-like setae (possibly for cleaning).

The cheilostomes are the most abundant and varied of modern bryozoans. The classification in suborders is based upon frontal calcification and the mechanism of lophophore protrusion.

Evolution

Cheilostomes first appeared in the Late Jurassic (Pyriporopsis) but diversified very slowly during the Early Cretaceous, with only 1 family known up to the Albian. During the Late Cretaceous, cheilostomes diversified rapidly to reach a level of more than 20 families in the Maastrichtian. This diversification is thought to be a consequence of the evolution of a new larval type.[2] Though the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event had some impact on genetic diversity, the rapid diversification continued into the Eocene, then apparently reaching a plateau of about 50 families up to the Recent.

References

  1. ^ WoRMS (2020). Cheilostomatida. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=110722 on 2020-02-12
  2. ^ Taylor, Paul D. (1988). "Major radiation of cheilostome bryozoans: Triggered by the evolution of a new larval type?". Historical Biology. 1: 45–64. doi:10.1080/08912968809386466.
  • Hayward, P.J. (2001). Bryozoa, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 325–333
  • Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M. (2003). Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review. 41: 47-114.
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Cheilostomatida: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Cheilostomatida, also called Cheilostomata, is an order of Bryozoa in the class Gymnolaemata.

They are exclusively marine, colonial invertebrate animals. Cheilostome colonies are composed of calcium carbonate and grow on a variety of surfaces, including rocks, shells, seagrass and kelps. The colony shapes range from simple encrusting sheets to erect branching and even unattached forms. As in other bryozoan groups, each colony is composed of a few to thousands of individual polypides. Each individual has a U-shaped gut, and no respiratory, circulatory, or nerve system. Unique among bryozoans, cheilostome polypides are housed in a box-shaped zooids, which do not grow larger once the zooid is mature. The opening of through which the polypide protrudes is protected by a calcareous or chitinous lidlike structure, an operculum. Cheilostomes possess avicularia, which have modified the operculum into a range of mandibles (possibly for defense) or hair-like setae (possibly for cleaning).

The cheilostomes are the most abundant and varied of modern bryozoans. The classification in suborders is based upon frontal calcification and the mechanism of lophophore protrusion.

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Cheilostomatida ( French )

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Les Cheilostomatida constituent un ordre de bryozoaires de la classe des Gymnolaemata.

Liste des sous-taxons

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Un Cheilostomatida marin de la famille des Microporidae à la Réunion.

Selon World Register of Marine Species (1er mars 2016)[1] :

Références taxinomiques

Historique

Les Cheilostomatida sont apparus au Jurassique supérieur. Ils forment des colonies calcaires, se développant sur des rochers, des coquilles, des algues allant de simples encroütements à des formes branchues ou libres. Ils se distinguent des autres bryozoaires par le fait que les polypides (essentiel des oragnes et tissus mous du zoïde) sont logés dans un exosquelette zoïdal en forme de boîte qui ne s'aacroit plus lorsque le zoïde est mature.

Notes et références

Sources

  • Fossiles, revue, n°30, 2017. Les fossiles oligocènes-miocènes des environs de Rennes.
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Cheilostomatida: Brief Summary ( French )

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Les Cheilostomatida constituent un ordre de bryozoaires de la classe des Gymnolaemata.

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Cheilostomatida ( Italian )

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Cheilostomatida: Brief Summary ( Italian )

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Cheilostomatida Busk, 1852 è un ordine di Briozoi.

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Cheilostomatida ( Dutch; Flemish )

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Cheilostomatida is een orde van kolonievormende mosdiertjes uit de klasse der Gymnolaemata van de stam der mosdiertjes (Bryozoa).

Taxonomie

De volgende taxa worden zijn bij de orde ingedeeld:

Buffonellodidae

Bronnen, noten en/of referenties
  1. a b c Harmer, S. F. (1900) A revision of the genus Steganoporella. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, New Series, 43, 225 - 297, pls. 12, 13.
  2. Gordon, D. P., Voje, K. L. & Taylor, P. D., (2017) Living and fossil Steginoporellidae (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata) from New Zealand, Zootaxa 4350 (2), pp. 345-362: 353-355
  3. Gordon, D. P., Voje, K. L. & Taylor, P. D., (2017) Living and fossil Steginoporellidae (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata) from New Zealand, Zootaxa 4350 (2), pp. 345-362: 356-357
  4. Gordon, D. P., Voje, K. L. & Taylor, P. D., (2017) Living and fossil Steginoporellidae (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata) from New Zealand, Zootaxa 4350 (2), pp. 345-362: 355-356
  5. Hincks, T. (1882) Contributions towards a general history of the marine Polyzoa. IX. Foreign Cheilostomata. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 5, 9, 116 - 127, pl. 5.
  6. Busk, G. (1861) Zoophytology. Descriptions of new and imperfectly known Polyzoa. No. 1. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, New Series, 1, 153 - 156, pls. 34, 35.
  7. Livingstone, A. A. (1929) Papers from Dr. Th. Mortensen's Pacific Expedition 1914 - 16. XLIX. Bryozoa Cheilostomata from New Zealand. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk naturhistorisk Forening i KjObenhavn, 87, 45 - 104, 2 pls.
  8. Gordon, D. P., Voje, K. L. & Taylor, P. D., (2017) Living and fossil Steginoporellidae (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata) from New Zealand, Zootaxa 4350 (2), pp. 345-362: 357
  9. Amui, A.; Kaselowsky, J. (2006). Bryozoa from the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. Part I: collections from the fifth expedition of the RV Meteor. Fauna of Arabia. 22: 7-22
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Cheilostomatida: Brief Summary ( Dutch; Flemish )

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Cheilostomatida is een orde van kolonievormende mosdiertjes uit de klasse der Gymnolaemata van de stam der mosdiertjes (Bryozoa).

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