dcsimg

Behavior

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Communication Channels: tactile ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: pheromones

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Brown, A. 2000. "Polygonia comma" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Polygonia_comma.html
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Conservation Status

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Polygonia comma is not listed as endangered or threatened.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

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Brown, A. 2000. "Polygonia comma" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Polygonia_comma.html
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Benefits

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Since P. comma larvae feed on plants, they are often serious pests of cultivated plants and stored grain or meal. In addition, however, the members of this species have also been known to occasionally feed on various fabrics.

Negative Impacts: crop pest

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Brown, A. 2000. "Polygonia comma" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Polygonia_comma.html
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Ashlie Brown, Southwestern University
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Benefits

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The adults of this species are quite beautiful and are therefore sought after by collectors. These butterflies also produce silk and often serve as inspiration for art and designs.

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Brown, A. 2000. "Polygonia comma" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Polygonia_comma.html
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Ashlie Brown, Southwestern University
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Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
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Trophic Strategy

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Some of the larvae feed on nettles or hop-vine while others feed on elms, willows, or hazels. However, adults feed on rotting fruit, tree sap, and only rarely nectar.

Plant Foods: leaves; wood, bark, or stems; sap or other plant fluids

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore , Lignivore, Eats sap or other plant foods)

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Brown, A. 2000. "Polygonia comma" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Polygonia_comma.html
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Ashlie Brown, Southwestern University
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Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
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Distribution

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Polygonia comma lives in the eastern half of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains from southeast Canada to central Texas and the Gulf Coast.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

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Brown, A. 2000. "Polygonia comma" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Polygonia_comma.html
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Ashlie Brown, Southwestern University
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Habitat

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Polygonia comma can be found in deciduous woodlands; woods near rivers, marshes, swamps, and other water sources.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

Wetlands: swamp

Other Habitat Features: riparian

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Brown, A. 2000. "Polygonia comma" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Polygonia_comma.html
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Ashlie Brown, Southwestern University
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Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
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Morphology

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The eggs of P. comma are pale green and the larva can be a variety of color combinations, such as; greenish-white or cream-white, greenish-brown or black with yellow black-tipped spines, or red-brown with a dull pink or black head. The pupa is dark mottled brown (with yellower patches) or brown (with a dark lateral line and greenish streaks) or white (with a little yellow-brown coloring); all with gold or silver spots in the saddle. The actual butterflies of this species are characterized by their small to medium-sized and irregularly notched anglewings, the concave curvature and deeply indented outer margin of the forewing, and the taillike extensions on the hindwing. The dorsal forewing and dorsal hindwing are brownish orange with black markings, while the underside of the wings are darker and closely resemble a dead leaf. Polygonia comma are distinguished from the others in the genus by the small C-shaped silvery spot on the underside of the hind wing.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Brown, A. 2000. "Polygonia comma" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Polygonia_comma.html
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Ashlie Brown, Southwestern University
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Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
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Associations

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Known Predators:

  • birds (Aves)

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

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Brown, A. 2000. "Polygonia comma" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Polygonia_comma.html
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Ashlie Brown, Southwestern University
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Reproduction

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Overwintered adults emerge in early spring and lay quickly maturing eggs that produce a "summer" generation of darker-colored adults. The new generation will in turn lay eggs that mature even more quickly to produce the lighter-colored adults. These adults emerge in the fall and, crawling beneath a piece of bark, hibernate to re-emerge as the "spring" adults. In warmer climates it is common for the species to try and squeeze a third, or perhaps even a fourth, generation into the summer cycle. However, not all the offspring of a "spring" female in a bivoltine species develop into "summer" adults. Some will skip the double-hatching cycle entirely and emerge as "spring/fall" adults ready to go into hibernation. On the other hand, if the weather is too cold and there is too little sunshine, a larger proportion of the butterflies will opt for a single hatching. This often occurs in the more northerly latitudes.

During the second summer generation of -commas-, it is important that the caterpillars mature quickly to avoid potential frost and inclement weather. When the eggs are laid on the plants that the caterpillars feed on, they tend to mature more rapidly. Therefore, the female P. comma prefer to lay their eggs on those plants on which the caterpillars feed. The caterpillars on the "preferred" plants usually mature in 21-23 days with a 89-100% survival rate. However, on the "not preferred" plants the caterpillars usually take approximately 31-42 days to mature with only a 0-60% survival rate.

Key Reproductive Features: semelparous ; sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous

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Brown, A. 2000. "Polygonia comma" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Polygonia_comma.html
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Ashlie Brown, Southwestern University
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North American Ecology (US and Canada)

provided by North American Butterfly Knowledge Network
Polygonia comma is a resident of the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, and is somewhat migratory outside that range (Scott 1986). Habitats are woods and suburbs. Host plants are vines and herbs and known hosts are limited to a few species from several families including Moraceae, Ulmaceae, and Urticaceae. Eggs are laid on the host plant singly or in stacks up to nine in a pile. Individuals overwinter as adults. There are variable numbers of flights each year depending on latitude, there are one or two flights, between late June and Late Aug., in the southern part of their range there are probably three flights (Scott 1986).
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Behavior

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Adults feed on sap and fruit, rarely flower nectar. Males perch for females (Scott, 1986).
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Polygonia comma ( German )

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Wissenschaftlicher Name Polygonia comma (Harris, 1842)
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Flügelunterseite von Polygonia comma
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Raupe von Polygonia comma
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Verbreitung von Polygonia comma in Nordamerika

Polygonia comma (Syn.: Nymphalis comma) ist ein Schmetterling (Tagfalter) aus der Familie der Edelfalter (Nymphalidae).

Merkmale

Falter

Die Falter erreichen eine Flügelspannweite von 45 bis 64 Millimetern. Die Flügel sind am Außenrand gezackt und farblich sehr variabel. Die Grundfarbe hängt in erster Linie von der Jahreszeit ab. Die so genannte „Sommer-Generation“ ist auf den Vorderflügeln bräunlich und auf den Hinterflügeln nahezu schwarz gefärbt. Die „Herbst-/Wintergeneration“ zeigt hingegen eine orange bis braunrote Grundfarbe. Alle Falter sind mit einem schwarzen, braunen und gelben Fleckmuster gezeichnet. Die Flügelunterseiten sind in abgestuften Brauntönen marmoriert. Auffällig ist das weiße C-Zeichen in der Mitte.

Raupe

Erwachsene Raupen können in einer Vielzahl von Farbkombinationen erscheinen. So zeigen sie beispielsweise grünweiße oder gelbweiße, grünbraune, rotbraune, rosa oder schwarze Tönungen. Dazu sind die über den ganzen Körper verteilten Dornen weiß oder gelb. Jüngere Raupenstadien sind im Grundton schwarz gefärbt.

Ähnliche Arten

Polygonia comma ähnelt vielen Polygonia-Arten, insbesondere zählen dazu:

  • Der C-Falter (Polygonia c-album), der in Europa, Nordafrika und Asien heimisch ist und somit keine geographische Überlappung bildet.
  • Polygonia faunus unterscheidet sich durch eine Reihe grüner Punkte auf den Hinterflügelunterseiten.
  • Polygonia interrogationis ist durch ein meist unterbrochenes C-Zeichen und eine schwächere Marmorierung auf den Hinterflügelunterseiten zu unterscheiden.
  • Polygonia satyrus zeigt eine mehr gelbbraune Färbung auf der Flügeloberseite und besiedelt überwiegend westliche und nördliche Gebiete Nordamerikas.

Geographische Verbreitung und Lebensraum

Polygonia comma kommt in den südöstlichen Bundesstaaten Kanadas und im Osten der USA vor und wird deshalb dort auch als „Eastern Comma“ bezeichnet. Die Verbreitung erstreckt sich von den Rocky Mountains in Richtung Osten sowie Richtung Süden von Kanada bis nach Texas und zur Golfküste.[1][2]. Die Tiere bevorzugen feuchtes Gelände, beispielsweise Ufergebiete, schattige Wälder und Moorlandschaften.

Lebensweise

Die Art bildet mehrere Generationen pro Jahr. Die letzte Generation überwintert als Falter. In Ruhestellung sitzen sie gerne am Boden und klappen ihre Flügel aufrecht zusammen. Sie wirken dann wie ein verwelktes Blatt. Dadurch sind sie für Fressfeinde kaum zu erkennen. Die Falter besuchen nur selten Blüten. Stattdessen bevorzugen sie Wasserstellen, überreife Früchte und Dung zur Aufnahme von Nahrung und Mineralien. Die Weibchen legen die grünen Eier oftmals aufeinander getürmt an den Nahrungspflanzen ab. Die Raupen leben gerne in versponnenen Nestern und ernähren sich von einer Vielzahl verschiedener Pflanzen, beispielsweise von Brennnesselgewächsen (Urticaceae), Ulmengewächsen (Ulmaceae) oder Hanfgewächsen (Cannabaceae). An Hopfen (Humulus) werden sie nur selten schädlich.[3]

Quellen

Einzelnachweise

  1. animaldiversity
  2. Butterflies of Canada
  3. hop-pest-eastern-comma

Literatur

  • James A. Scott: The Butterflies of North America , Stanford University Press, Stanford CA., 1992, ISBN 0-8047-2013-4

Weblinks

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Polygonia comma: Brief Summary ( German )

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 src= Flügelunterseite von Polygonia comma  src= Raupe von Polygonia comma  src= Verbreitung von Polygonia comma in Nordamerika

Polygonia comma (Syn.: Nymphalis comma) ist ein Schmetterling (Tagfalter) aus der Familie der Edelfalter (Nymphalidae).

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Polygonia comma

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Polygonia comma, the eastern comma, is a North American butterfly in the family Nymphalidae, subfamily Nymphalinae.

Description

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Upperside of wings

This butterfly is seasonally variable. The upperside of the summer form's hindwings are all black, whereas the winter forms hindwings are reddish orange. The underside of both forms is striped with dark and light brown. There is a silvery comma mark in the middle of the hindwing in both forms. Its wingspan is 4.5–6.4 cm (1.8–2.5 in).

Habitat

The eastern comma may be spotted in woods near rivers, ponds, marshes, swamps, and other water sources.

Nectar plants

This butterfly seldom visits flowers, but rather feeds on sap, rotting fruit, salts and minerals from puddling, and dung.

Host plants

False nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica), hops (Humulus), wood nettle (Laportea canadensis) American elm (Ulmus americana), and nettle (Urtica).

Life cycle

The green eggs are laid singly or in stacks under host plant leaves and stems. The spiny larva varies in color from pale green to yellow to white and to even black. The solitary larva feeds on leaves at night. Older larvae construct daytime leaf shelters by pulling a single leaf together with silk. The chrysalis is brown and covered with spines. Winter-form adults overwinter;[2] some will also migrate south for the winter.

Similar species

The dark form of comma is frequently confused with the dark form of the question mark (P. interrogationis), but the two can readily be distinguished by the shape of the comma mark on the underside. The pale form is easily confused with the satyr comma (P. satyrus), which usually occurs north and west of the eastern comma's range. They can be distinguished by the upperside color, which is orange brown in the comma and tawny yellowish brown in P. satyrus; by the underside pattern, which tends to be mottled in the comma but appears to be more longitudinally streaked in P. satyrus; and by the row of pale submarginal spots on the hindwing upperside, which tend to be separate and surrounded by dark shading in comma, but are larger and tend to run together into a pale band in P. satyrus.

References

  1. ^ "NatureServe Explorer 2.0 Polygonia comma Eastern Comma". explorer.natureserve.org. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  2. ^ Scott, J. A. (1999). Hibernal diapause of North American Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea. Archived 2018-10-08 at the Wayback Machine Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 18(3):171-200.

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Polygonia comma: Brief Summary

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Polygonia comma, the eastern comma, is a North American butterfly in the family Nymphalidae, subfamily Nymphalinae.

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Polygone virgule ( French )

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Polygonia comma

Le Polygone virgule (Polygonia comma) est une espèce de lépidoptères de la famille des Nymphalidae, de la sous-famille des Nymphalinae, de la tribu des Nymphalini et du genre Polygonia.

Dénomination

Polygonia comma a été nommé par Thaddeus William Harris en 1842.

Synonymes : Nymphalis comma (Harris, 1842) ; Grapta dryas Edwards, 1870 ; Grapta harrisii Edwards, 1873[1].

 src=
Revers d'un Polygone virgule.

Noms vernaculaires

Le Polygone virgule se nomme Comma ou Eastern Comma en anglais[1].

Description

Le Polygone virgule est un papillon aux ailes très découpées comme toutes les espèces de Polygonia. Le dessus est de couleur orange avec quelques ornementations marron aux antérieures et presque totalement marron noir aux postérieures dans le forme estivale, orange ornementé de marron dans la forme hivernale

Le revers, marron terne, est une livrée cryptique, faisant passer le Polygone virgule pour une feuille morte.

Son envergure est comprise entre 45 et 64 mm[2],[3],[4]

Chenille

La chenille est soit blanc verdâtre, soit marron verdâtre. Les deux formes sont ornées d'épines jaunes et blanches[2].

Biologie

Période de vol et hivernation

Le Polygone virgule vole d'avril à octobre en deux générations[3],[2].

C'est l'adulte qui a émergé en septembre ou octobre qui hiverne, certains après avoir migré vers le sud. Il vole à nouveau dès avril. En mai émergent ceux qui volent jusqu'en septembre[3],[4].

Plantes hôtes

Les plantes hôtes des chenilles sont diverses : Ulmus, Urtica dont Urtica dioica, Humulus lupulus, Laportea canadensis et Boehmeria cylindrica[1],[2].

Distribution et écologie

Il est présent en Amérique du Nord, dans l'est du Canada, à Terre-Neuve et en Saskatchewan et dans tout l'est des USA à partir du Dakota du Nord, du Dakota du Sud, du Nebraska, du Kansas, de l'Oklahoma et de l'est du Texas[2],[4].

Biotope

Le Polygone virgule réside en lisière de forêt et dans les clairières.

Protection

Pas de statut de protection particulier[4].

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Forme estivale d'un Polygone virgule.

Notes et références

Annexes

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Polygone virgule: Brief Summary ( French )

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Polygonia comma

Le Polygone virgule (Polygonia comma) est une espèce de lépidoptères de la famille des Nymphalidae, de la sous-famille des Nymphalinae, de la tribu des Nymphalini et du genre Polygonia.

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Polygonia comma ( Dutch; Flemish )

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Insecten

Polygonia comma is een vlinder uit de onderfamilie Nymphalinae van de familie Nymphalidae.

Beschrijving

De spanwijdte bedraagt 37 tot 56 millimeter. De vleugels zijn oranje met bruine tekening en langs de vleugelrand een rij gele stippen. Er is een verschil in de generaties: bij de zomervorm is de achtervleugel vrijwel geheel bruin.

Voorkomen

De soort komt voor in de oostelijke helft van Noord-Amerika. De soort vliegt in twee generaties. De zomergeneratie vliegt van mei tot september, de wintergeneratie eerst in september en oktober, dan overwinteren ze, en dan in het voorjaar tot in mei.

Waardplanten

De waardplanten van Polygonia comma zijn brandnetel, Boehmeria cylindrica, Laportea canadensis, hop en iep.

Externe link

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Polygonia comma: Brief Summary ( Dutch; Flemish )

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Polygonia comma is een vlinder uit de onderfamilie Nymphalinae van de familie Nymphalidae.

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Polygonia comma ( Russian )

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 src=
Нижняя сторона крыльев Polygonia comma
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Гусеница Polygonia comma

Polygonia comma (лат.) — вид бабочек рода Polygonia семейства Нимфалиды.

Этимология названия

Посередине заднего крыла, на его нижней стороне находится серая полоска напоминающая «запятую», откуда и происходит латинское видовое название — «comma».

Ареал

Polygonia comma обитает в восточной части Северной Америки, в частности, в центральной и восточной части США.

Описание

Размах крыльев 45—64 мм.[1] Задний край переднего крыла с характерной полукруглой вырезкой. Центральная ячейка на задних крыльях не замкнута. Внешний край крыльев сильно изрезан. Нижняя сторона крылья покрыта чёрными и коричневыми полосами.

Внешне Polygonia comma схожа с Polygonia interrogationis (Fabricius, 1798), однако они отличаются по форме пятна в виде запятых на нижней стороне крыла.

Другой внешне похожий вид Polygonia satyrus отличается более жёлтой окраской крыльев, пятна у него более крупные и обитают она севернее и западнее ареала Polygonia comma.

Биология

Бабочки встречаются обычно на опушках лесов в районе рек, прудов, озёр и других водоёмов. Редко питается нектаром цветов, чаще её можно встретить собирающей сок с гниющих фруктов. Яйца зелёного цвета. Откладываются самкой по одному с нижней стороны листьев, которыми питаются гусеницы. По мере роста гусеницы меняют окраску от бледно-зелёного до жёлтого или даже чёрного. Гусеницы покрыты колючками. Кормятся в ночное время. Куколки коричневого цвета, покрытые шипами. Кормовые растения гусениц: Boehmeria cylindrica, хмель (Humulus), Laportea canadensis вяз американский, вида рода крапива.

Примечания

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Polygonia comma: Brief Summary ( Russian )

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 src= Нижняя сторона крыльев Polygonia comma  src= Гусеница Polygonia comma

Polygonia comma (лат.) — вид бабочек рода Polygonia семейства Нимфалиды.

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