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Chaetoceros

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Phytoplankton – such as this colony of Chaetoceros socialis – naturally give off fluorescent light as they dissipate excess solar energy that they cannot consume through photosynthesis.
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Bright-field microscopy image of epiphytic cyanobacterial symbiont Calothrix rhizosoleniae SC01 9 (indicated by arrows) attached to a host diatom Chaetoceros sp. (c). Scale bar, 50 μm.

Chaetoceros is probably the largest genus of marine planktonic diatoms with approximately 400 species described, although many of these descriptions are no longer valid. It is often very difficult to distinguish between different Chaetoceros species.[1][2] Several attempts have been made to restructure this large genus into subgenera and this work is still in progress.[3][4] However, most of the effort to describe species has been focused in boreal areas, and the genus is cosmopolitan, so there are probably many tropical species still undescribed.[5] Some species are known from the fossil record, from the Quaternary of Sweden. It is the type genus of its family.

Description

The genus Chaetoceros were first described by Ehrenberg in 1844.
Cells are more or less rectangular in girdle view.
Cells are usually elliptical in valve view.
Opposite setae of adjacent cells touch near their origin.

Each frustule has four siliceous processes called mushrooms or thorns that allow them to stay together forming colonies.

Chaetoceros is primarily a marine genus, but there are also accounts of species within inland waters of the United States. It is a type of centric diatom that contains a frustrule or cell wall composed of silica that contain long, thin spines (setae). The spines connect the frustules together creating a colony of cells.[6] Cells colonies can form chains that are coiled, straight, or curved. Cell size can range from [7]

Environmental ranges

Depth range (m): 0 - 470
Temperature range (°C): -1.952 - 29.468
Nitrate (μmol L-1): 0.053 - 34.037
Salinity: 18.564 - 37.775
Oxygen (mL L-1): 4.139 - 9.192
Phosphate (μmol L-1): 0.046 - 2.358
Silicate (μmol L-1): 0.648 - 92.735
[8]

Beneficial effects

Due to its high growth rates, research has been conducted to potentially use of Chaetoceros in biotechnology.[6][9] Some Chaetoceros species are well-established commercial aquacultures.[10][11][12] Many of them are recognized as generally good producers of useful lipids and other biologically active products with high value-added. They have enormous potential for producing nutraceuticals and biofuel.[13][14]

Studies suggest that colonies of Chaetoceros serve as an important food source within the water column and major carbon contributor to the benthic environment. Within the North Water, located in northern Baffin Bay, Chaetoceros has been reported to contribute about 91% of total phytoplankton cells serving as an important primary producer within this area. Therefore, contributing to oxygen production in the North Water.[15] Overall, phytoplankton contributes to over half of Earth's oxygen production.[16]

Blooms

Chaetoceros blooms have been reported to reach concentrations of 30,100 cells/ml and can persist for multiple months.[15] Blooms are able to persist because individuals can survive at low nutrient levels. When present in large quantities, species with larger, thicker spines can damage organisms' gills.[17] Although, this defensive trait can help the species avoid predation and further promote bloom success. Overall, intensive development of the species of the genus Chaetoceros in the Arctic Ocean has a significant impact on the biogeochemical cycle of organic carbon and silicon, as well as on a wide range of macronutrients, trace and rare earth elements.[18]

Some currently accepted Chaetoceros species

See also

Viruses associated with Chaetoceros species

References

  1. ^ C.H. von Quillfeldt., (2001). Identification of Some Easily Confused Common Diatom Species in Arctic Spring Blooms. Botanica Marina Vol. 44: 375–389
  2. ^ Gogorev, R.M.; Samsonov, N.I. (2016). "The genus Chaetoceros (Bacillariophyta) in Arctic and Antarctic". Novosti Sist. Nizsh. Rast. 50: 56–111. doi:10.31111/nsnr/2016.50.56.
  3. ^ Tomas, C. R., Hasle G. R., Syvertsen, E. E., Steidinger, K. A., Tangen, K., Throndsen, J., Heimdal, B. R., (1997). Identifying Marine Phytoplankton, Academic Press.
  4. ^ Rines J. E. B., Theriot E. C., (2003). Systematics of Chaetocerotaceae (Bacillariophyceae). I. A phylogenetic analysis of the family, Phycological research 51: 83-98.
  5. ^ J.E.B. Rines, P. Boonruang and E.C. Theriot., (2000). Chaetoceros phuketensis sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae): a new species from the Andaman Sea. Phycological Research 48 (3): 161–168.
  6. ^ a b Spaulding, S., and Edlund, M. (2008). Chaetoceros. In Diatoms of the United States. Retrieved October 19, 2017, from http://westerndiatoms.colorado.edu/taxa/genus/Chaetoceros
  7. ^ "Chaetoceros".
  8. ^ Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). 2012. Chaetoceros. http://www.iobis.org/mapper/?taxon_id=611649. Accessed 18 Mar 2012.
  9. ^ McGinnis, K. M; Dempster, T. A; Sommerfeld, M. R (1997). "Characterization of the growth and lipid content of the diatom Chaetoceros muelleri". Journal of Applied Phycology. 9 (1): 19–24. doi:10.1023/A:1007972214462. S2CID 36589733.
  10. ^ Lebeau, T.; Robert, J.M. (2003). ". Diatom cultivation and biotechnologically relevant products. Part I: Cultivation at various scales". Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 60 (6): 612–623. doi:10.1007/s00253-002-1176-4. PMID 12664139. S2CID 19308785.
  11. ^ Napolitano, G.E.; Ackman, R.G.; Ratnayake, W.M.N. (1990). "Fatty Acid Composition of Three Cultured Algal Species (Isochvysis galbana, Chaetoceros gracilis and Chaetoceros calcitrans) Used as Food for Bivalve Larvae". J. World Aquac. Soc. 21 (2): 122–130. doi:10.1111/j.1749-7345.1990.tb00532.x.
  12. ^ Whyte, J.N.C. (1987). "Biochemical composition and energy content of six species of phytoplankton used in mariculture of bivalves". Aquaculture. 60 (3–4): 231–241. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(87)90290-0.
  13. ^ Palanisamy, K.M.; Paramasivam, P.; Maniam, G.P.; Rahim, M.H.A; Govindan, N.; Chisti, Y. (2021). "Production of lipids by Chaetoceros affinis in media based on palm oil mill effluent". J. Biotechnol. 327: 86–96. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2020.12.021. ISSN 0168-1656. PMID 33421508. S2CID 231437325.
  14. ^ Bhattacharjya, R.; Kiran Marella, T.; Tiwari, A.; Saxena, A.; Kumar Singh, P.; Mishra, B. (2020). "Bioprospecting of marine diatoms Thalassiosira, Skeletonema and Chaetoceros for lipids and other value-added products". Bioresour. Technol. 318: 124073. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124073. PMID 32916461. S2CID 221637790.
  15. ^ a b Booth, B.C; Larouche, P; Bélanger, S; Klein, B; Amiel, D; Mei, Z.-P (2002). "Dynamics of Chaetoceros socialis blooms in the North Water". Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 49 (22–23): 5003–25. Bibcode:2002DSRII..49.5003B. doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(02)00175-3.
  16. ^ "Save the Plankton, Breathe Freely". 28 February 2012.
  17. ^ Kraberg, A., Baumann, M. and Durselen, C. D. 2010. Coastal Phytoplankton: Photo Guide for Northern European Seas. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen, Germany. 204.
  18. ^ Lobus, N.V.; Kulikovskiy, M.S.; Maltsev, Y.I. (2021). "Multi-Element Composition of Diatom Chaetoceros spp. from Natural Phytoplankton Assemblages of the Russian Arctic Seas". Biology. 10 (10): 1009. doi:10.3390/biology10101009. PMC 8533213. PMID 34681108.
  19. ^ "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano, 1968". www.marinespecies.org. Retrieved 19 October 2021.

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Chaetoceros: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
 src= Phytoplankton – such as this colony of Chaetoceros socialis – naturally give off fluorescent light as they dissipate excess solar energy that they cannot consume through photosynthesis.  src= Bright-field microscopy image of epiphytic cyanobacterial symbiont Calothrix rhizosoleniae SC01 9 (indicated by arrows) attached to a host diatom Chaetoceros sp. (c). Scale bar, 50 μm.

Chaetoceros is probably the largest genus of marine planktonic diatoms with approximately 400 species described, although many of these descriptions are no longer valid. It is often very difficult to distinguish between different Chaetoceros species. Several attempts have been made to restructure this large genus into subgenera and this work is still in progress. However, most of the effort to describe species has been focused in boreal areas, and the genus is cosmopolitan, so there are probably many tropical species still undescribed. Some species are known from the fossil record, from the Quaternary of Sweden. It is the type genus of its family.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN