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Polynoidae

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Polynoidae is a family of scaled Polychaete worms known as "scale worms". More than 900 species are currently recognised belonging to 18 subfamilies and 167 genera [1]. They are active hunters, but generally dwell in protected environments such as under stones. The group is widely distributed from shallow intertidal waters to hadal trenches [2]. They are the most diverse group of polychaetes in terms of genus number and second most diverse in terms of species number which is over 10% of all segmented worm species [2].

Description

Most species are short and flattened, but can reach as much as 20 cm in length and 10 cm width in Eulagisca gigantea. Individuals are covered almost entirely by scales known as elytra, which can be shed and regenerated as a means of defence in many species. The scales of some species are faintly bioluminescent, and leave glowing traces around the mouthparts of their predators, making those predators more likely to be attacked in turn.[3]

Deep sea

The first deep-sea species was collected at 1230m during the Challenger Expedition and at least 13 of the 18 known subfamilies appear to be fully restricted to the deep sea below 500m [2]. Species have colonised submarine caves and hydrothermal vents. Deep sea species are characterised by a partial or complete loss of antennae, a reduction in jaws and delicate elytra [2].

Phylogenetic relationships

The phylogeny of the Polynoidea is still contentious and has been understudied, with most studies only considering the group as part of the larger phylogeny of the Annelida[4]. One of the main deep sea subfamilies, the Marcellicephalinae has been consistently recovered as paraphyletic [5] and Bonifácio & Menot found that ten Polynoid subfamilies could be synonymized with it to create a homogeneous clade characterised by a lack of lateral antennae [2].

Genera

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

References

  1. ^ Read, G; Fauchald, K. "World Polychaeta database. Polynoidae Kinberg, 1856". World Register of Marine Species.
  2. ^ a b c d e Bonifácio, Paulo; Menot, Lénaïck (14 November 2018). "New genera and species from the Equatorial Pacific provide phylogenetic insights into deep-sea Polynoidae (Annelida)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 185 (3): 555–635. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zly063.
  3. ^ Frost, Emily; Waters, Hannah (1 July 2015). "14 Fun Facts About Marine Bristle Worms". Smithsonian.com. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  4. ^ Zrzavy, J; Riha, P; Pialek, L; Janouskovec, J (2009). "Phylogeny of Annelida (Lophotrochozoa): total-evidence analysis of morphology and six genes". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9 (189). doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-189. PMC 2732625. PMID 19660115.
  5. ^ Norlinder, E; Nygren, A; Wiklund, H; Pleijel, F (2012). "Phylogeny of scale-worms (Aphroditiformia, Annelida), assessed from 18SrRNA, 28SrRNA, 16SrRNA, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and morphology". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 65 (2): 490–500. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.07.002. PMID 22789762.
  6. ^ Herring, Peter J. (1987). "Systematic distribution of bioluminescence in living organisms". Journal of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence. 1 (3): 147–163. doi:10.1002/bio.1170010303. PMID 3503524.

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Polynoidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Polynoidae is a family of scaled Polychaete worms known as "scale worms". More than 900 species are currently recognised belonging to 18 subfamilies and 167 genera . They are active hunters, but generally dwell in protected environments such as under stones. The group is widely distributed from shallow intertidal waters to hadal trenches . They are the most diverse group of polychaetes in terms of genus number and second most diverse in terms of species number which is over 10% of all segmented worm species .

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Classification

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Remarkable for the number of small subfamilies which have been erected. The total is twenty one, or twenty two including the nominal subfamily (Polynoinae), and Hanley (1989) lists 17 to that date. As an example Pettibone (1985) had established subfamily Branchinotogluminae for a single new genus Branchinotogluma with three new species, and earlier (1976) she had created five new subfamilies (Macellicephaloidinae, Macelloidinae, Bathyedithinae, Polaruschakovinae, Bathymacellinae). She has created 12 subfamilies in Polynoidae. The latest subfamily is Uncopolynoinae Wehe, 2006, for one genus, with one species imperfectly known. The validity of all these subfamilies needs re-evaluation. Polynoidae sub-families in chronological order (updated from Hanley, 1989) Polynoinae Kinberg, 1856 [nominal] Iphioninae Baird 1865 Lepidonotinae Willey 1902 Harmothoinae Willey 1902 [= Polynoinae Kinberg] Macellicephalinae Hartmann-Schroder 1971 Bathyedithinae Pettibone 1976 Polaruschakovinae Pettibone 1976 Macelloidinae Pettibone 1976 Macellicephaloidinae Pettibone 1976 Bathymacellinae Pettibone 1976 Admetellinae Uschakov 1977 Polyodontinae Muir 1982 [= family Acoetidae] Gesiellinae Muir 1982 Lepidonotopodinae Pettibone 1983 Branchipolynoinae Pettibone 1984 Branchiplicatinae Pettibone 1985a Branchinotogluminae Pettibone 1985b Lepidastheniinae Pettibone 1989 Acholoinae Pettibone, 1996 [= Polynoinae Kinberg] Eulagiscinae Pettibone, 1997 Vampiropolynoinae Marcus & Hourdez, 2002 Uncopolynoinae Wehe, 2006
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bibliographic citation
Hanley, J. Russell 1989. Revision of the scaleworm genera Arctonoe Chamberlin and Gastolepidia Schmarda (Polychaeta: Polynoidae) with the erection of a new subfamily Arctonoinae. The Beagle, Records of the Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences, 6(1): 1-34.
Contributor
Read, Geoffrey, G.B.