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West Indian Milkberry

Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc.

Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Chiococca pinetorum Britton; Milisp. Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 2:
171. 1906.
Chiococca racemosa var. parvifolia A. Gray, .Syn. Fl. 1-: 30, excluding synonym. 1884.
A diffuse or often prostrate shrub, the branches slender, elongate, grayish, the branchlets green, glabrous, the intemodes usually elongate; stipules 1-1.5 mm. long, the base broad, subulate-mucronate ; petioles stout, 1-4 mm. long ; leaf -blades ovate, elliptic, or oval-ovate, 1-4.5 cm. long, 0.5-2.3 cm. wide, obtuse or acute, rounded to acute at the base and short-decurrent, coriaceous, glabrous, green and lustrous above, the costa prominulous, the lateral nerves usually obsolete, sometimes prominulous, beneath paler, the costa prominent toward the base, the lateral nerves obsolete, the margin plane or revolute; inflorescence cymose or racemose, few289
flowered, shorl-pedunculatc, usually shorter than the leaves, the hranehes obseurely pubcrulcnt or glabrous, the pedicels 1-2 mm. long, the bracts minute; calyx and hypanthium 1.5 mm. long, glabrous, the caly.x shorter than the hypanthium, the lobes minute, broadly deltoid, acutish; corolla ochroleucous, 4 mm. long, glabrous, the lobes triangular, half as long as the tube or shorter; anthers 2 mm. long, included; fruit white, 4-4.5 mm. long, strongly compressed; seeds brown, 2-2.5 mm. long.
Type UOC.m.ity: Near Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas. Distribution: In pinelands. southern I'lorida; Bahamas.
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bibliographic citation
Paul Carpenter Standley. 1934. RUBIALES; RUBIACEAE (pars). North American flora. vol 32(4). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Chiococca parvifolia WuUschl.; Griseb. Fl. Brit. V. Ind. 337
1861.
Chiococca racemcsa var. parvifolia A. Gray, Syn. Fl. 1^: 30, in part. 1884. Chiococca alba var. parvifolia Urban, Symb. Ant. 8: 675. 1921.
A scandent shrub, glabrous throughout, the branches slender, dark-brown or grayish, the intemodes short or elongate; stipvdes 0.5-1 mm. long, mucronate; petioles slender, 3-8 mm. long; leaf-blades lanceolate, ovate, or oval-ovate, 4.5-7.5 cm. long, 1-2.8 cm. wide, attenuate to the apex or acute or short-acuminate, rounded to acutish at the base, chartaceous or subcoriaceous, almost concolorous, lustrous above, the costa prominent, the nerves evident, usually prominulous, the costa prominent beneath, slender, the lateral nerves prominulous, the margin subrevolute; inflorescence usually paniculate and many -flowered, slender-pedunculate, commonljlonger than the leaves, the pedicels slender, 1.5-3 mm. long, the bracts minute; calyx and hypanthiiun 1-1.3 mm. long, the caljTC shorter than the hypanthium, the lobes minute, broadly deltoid, acutish; corolla 3.5-4 mm. long, the lobes triangular-oblong, half as long as the tube or longer; anthers usually semi-exserted ; fruit about 4 mm. long, white.
T^TE locality: Jamaica.
Distribution: Jamaica, chiefly in mountain thickets or forest.
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bibliographic citation
Paul Carpenter Standley. 1934. RUBIALES; RUBIACEAE (pars). North American flora. vol 32(4). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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North American Flora

Comprehensive Description

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Chiococca capitata W'trnliam, Jotir. Rot. 51 : 323. 1913
Glabrous throughout, the branches grayish, the branchlets striate; petioles 6 mm. long or shorter; leaf-blades elliptic, 3-4.7 cm. long, 1.5-2 cm. wide, narrowed to each end and acute, chartaceous, the lateral nerves obscure; cymes subcapitate, sessile, many-flowered, about 1 cm. broad, the pedicels 1.5 mm. long or shorter; calyx-lobes narrowly lanceolate, less than 1 mm. long; corolla 5-6 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide in the throat, the lobes aliout 0.5 mm. long, reflexed; apices of the anthers exserted.
Type locality: Jamaica. Distribution: Jamaica.
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bibliographic citation
Paul Carpenter Standley. 1934. RUBIALES; RUBIACEAE (pars). North American flora. vol 32(4). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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North American Flora

Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4: 94. 1893
Lonicera alba L. Sp. PI. 175. 1753.
Chiococca racemose L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 917. 1759.
Chiococca racemosa var. scandens Pers. Syn. PI. 1: 209. 1805.
Chiococca racemosa var. longifolia DC. Prodr. 4: 482. 1830.
Chiococca racemosa var. floridana DC. Prodr. 4: 482. 1830.
Chiococca delist fcAia var. cubensis DC. Prodr. 4: 482. 1830.
Chiococca anguifuga DC. Prodr. 4: 482. 1830.
Chiococca lalifoUa Raf. Alsog. 75. 1838.
C/n'ococca ^or/t/awa Raf. Alsog. 75. 1838.
Chiococca macrocarpa Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. ll': 230. 1844.
Chiococca coriacea Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 11': 231. 184_4.
Chiococca racemosa var. Jacquiniana Griseh. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. iii. 1861.
Chiococca bermudiana S. Brown, Proc. Acad. Phila. 61: 493. 1910.
Chiococca racemosa var. yucalana Loesener, Repert. Sp. Nov. 18: 361. 19 —
A shrub or rarely a small tree, the branches usually spreading and often trailing or even high-scandent, grayish or brownish, lenticellate, the branchlets slender, green, glabrous or obscurely puberulent, the internodes short or elongate; stipules 1-2 mm. long, the base broad, mucronate or subulate-acuminate; petioles stout or slender, 2-10 mm. long; leaf-blades very variable, usually ovate or oval-ovate, sometimes lanceolate, elliptic, or rounded-oval, 2.5-9 cm. long, 1-4.5 cm. wide, or even larger, usually short-acuminate, sometimes acute, attenuate, or obtuse, rounded and short-decurrent at the base or acute or acuminate, chartaceous or coriaceous, glabrous, green above, lustrous, the costa prominent, the nerves often prominulous, paler beneath, the costa prominent, the lateral nerves usually prominulous but not conspicuous, sometimes obsolete, the margin plane or revolute ; inflorescence racemose or paniculate, pedunculate, fewor many-flowered, the branches glabrous or puberulent, the flowers pedicellate, the pedicels sometimes 1 mm. long, the bracts minute; calyx and hypanthium 2-2.5 mm. long, glabrous or obscurely puberulent, the cal^-x equaling or shorter than the hypanthium, the cah-x-lobes subulate to broadly deltoid, usually acutish; corolla 6-8 mm. long, white or yellowish, usually glabrous outside, rarely minutely pilose, the throat 2-3 mm. wide, the lobes triangular or narrowly triangular, obtuse or acutish, from one third to more than half as long as the tube; anthers about 3 mm. long, included, or the tips rarely exserted; fruit white, juicy, orbicular, 4—8 mm. long, strongly compressed, glabrous; seeds dark-brown, 3-4 mm. long, minutely puncticulate.
TPE locality: Jamaica.
Distribltion: Florida; southwestern Texas to Lower California, southward through most of tropical America to Bolivia and Argentina; Bermuda and the West Indies; growing chiefly at low elevations, and usuallv most plentiful in thickets near the seashore.
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bibliographic citation
Paul Carpenter Standley. 1934. RUBIALES; RUBIACEAE (pars). North American flora. vol 32(4). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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North American Flora

Chiococca alba

provided by wikipedia EN

Chiococca alba is a species of flowering plant in the coffee family (Rubiaceae) native to Florida and the extreme southern tip of Texas in the United States,[3] Bermuda,[2] Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, the Galápagos, and tropical South America. Common names include David's milkberry, West Indian milkberry, cahinca[4] and West Indian snowberry.[5] The specific epithet, alba, means "white" in Latin and refers to the color of its fruits.[6]

Description

West Indian milkberry is an evergreen[4] woody vine or scrambling shrub that often grows on other vegetation and may reach a height of 6 m (20 ft).[5] The opposite, simple leaves are 5–11 cm (2.0–4.3 in) long and may be elliptic to ovate or broadly lanceolate in shape. Yellow, bell-shaped flowers up to 1 cm (0.39 in) in length appear throughout the year[7] on racemes or panicles of six of to eight.[8] The fruit is a white drupe 4–7 mm (0.16–0.28 in) in diameter[7] that generally contains two dark brown seeds.[5]

Taxonomy

Lonicera alba was described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus.[9] It was moved to Chiococca in 1893 by A. S. Hitchcock,[1] and is considered the type species of that genus.[10] Stewardson Brown described the Bermuda population of the plant as a new species, C. bermudiana, in 1909 due to its lighter green and larger leaves, larger berries, and wider and longer pedicels. Many authorities consider C. bermudiana a synonym of C. alba.[2]

Uses

Chiococca alba is sometimes cultivated as an ornamental for its dark green, evergreen foliage and white drupes. It is used in espalier and grown on trellises.[8] The roots have several uses in herbal medicine, including as a laxative, diuretic, emetic, and antidiarrhoeal.[5] The plant was sold commercially in Europe and the United States for those purposes at one time.[11]

References

  1. ^ a b c "Chiococca alba". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  2. ^ a b c Sarkis, Samia (December 2009). "Recovery plan for eight species of flowering plants, Carex bermudia, Peperomia septentrionalis, Phaseolus lignosus, Erigeron darrellianus, Galium bermudense, Hypericum hypericoides, Psychotria lingustrifolia, in Bermuda" (PDF). Department of Conservation, Bermuda: 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-06. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ "David's Milkberry, Snowberry, Milkberry, David's Root, Perlilla, Canica, Cahinca, Cainea, Caninara, Aceitillo, Madreselva, Lagrimas de San Pedro, Lagrimas de Maria, Oreja de Raton, Suelda, Consuelda, Bejuco de Berac, Bejuco de Berraco, Xcanchac-che". Texas A&M University. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
  4. ^ a b "Chiococca alba (L.) A.S. Hitchc". Native Plant Information Network. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
  5. ^ a b c d "Chiococca alba (L.) A.S. Hitchc. West Indian snow-berry" (PDF). International Institute of Tropical Forestry. United States Forest Service. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
  6. ^ Hammer, Roger L. (2004). Florida Keys Wildflowers: A Field Guide to Wildflowers, Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of the Florida Keys. Globe Pequot. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-7627-2569-4.
  7. ^ a b Nelson, Gil (1996). The Shrubs and Woody Vines of Florida: a Reference and Field Guide. Pineapple Press Inc. p. 297. ISBN 978-1-56164-110-9.
  8. ^ a b Gilman, Edward F. (October 1999). "Chiococca alba" (PDF). Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. University of Florida. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 16, 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-12.
  9. ^ "Lonicera alba". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  10. ^ "Chiococca P. Browne". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
  11. ^ Austin, Daniel F. (2004). Florida Ethnobotany. CRC Press. pp. 200–202. ISBN 978-0-8493-2332-4.
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Chiococca alba: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Chiococca alba is a species of flowering plant in the coffee family (Rubiaceae) native to Florida and the extreme southern tip of Texas in the United States, Bermuda, Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, the Galápagos, and tropical South America. Common names include David's milkberry, West Indian milkberry, cahinca and West Indian snowberry. The specific epithet, alba, means "white" in Latin and refers to the color of its fruits.

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