dcsimg

Comments

provided by eFloras
Yucca glauca has the most extensive distribution of any North American Yucca. Its inflorescences are primarily racemose, but some plants exhibit branched inflorescences and varietal names have been given them. Yucca glauca and Y. arkansana are very similar. The leaves of Y. glauca are uniform in size, rigid, linear or linear-lanceolate, and up to 1.2 cm wide. In Y. arkansana, the young leaves immediately surrounding the peduncle are distinctly shorter than the outer leaves of the rosette, and mature leaves are generally somewhat flexible, lanceolate, and up to 2.5 cm wide. K. H. Clary’s (1997) DNA evidence does not indicate as close a relationship as the morphological characters suggest. J. M. Webber (1953) believed that Y. glauca forms hybrids with Y. baileyi, Y. elata, Y. constricta, and Y. angustissima.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 26: 426, 432, 436, 437 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Description

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Plants forming small to moderate colonies, acaulescent or caulescent and arborescent, occasionally branched; rosettes 1–15 per colony, usually small. Stems erect, to 0.4 m. Leaf blade linear to linear-lanceolate, concave to concavo-convex, widest near middle, 40–60 × 0.8–1.2 cm, rigid, margins entire, filiferous, white, apex blunt to acicular. Inflorescences racemose, occasionally paniculate proximally, arising within or just beyond rosettes, 5–10 dm; bracts erect, leaflike, 2–5 cm, reduced toward apex; peduncle scapelike, 0.2–0.5 m, less than 2.5 cm diam. Flowers pendent; tepals distinct, greenish white to white, elliptic, 5–5.3 × 2.6–3.5 cm, apex acute; filaments white, 1.7–1.9 cm; anthers yellow, 4 mm; pistil green, obovoid, 3–3.7 × 1.7 cm; style dark green, 10 mm; stigmas lobed. Fruits erect, capsular, dehiscent, cylindric to obovoid, rarely constricted, 5–8(–9) × 3–4.5(–5) cm, dehiscence septicidal. Seeds black, slightly glossy, thin, 9–12 × 8–9 mm.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 26: 426, 432, 436, 437 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Alta.; Colo., Iowa, Kans., Mo., Mont., Neb., N.Mex., N.Dak., Okla., S.Dak., Tex., Wyo.
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copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 26: 426, 432, 436, 437 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering spring.
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copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 26: 426, 432, 436, 437 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Habitat

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Prairies and waste areas in sandy or limestone soils; 500--2600m.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 26: 426, 432, 436, 437 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
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Synonym

provided by eFloras
Yucca angustifolia Pursh; Y. glauca var. gurneyi McKelvey; Y. glauca var. stricta (J. Sims) Trelease; Y. stricta J. Sims
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 26: 426, 432, 436, 437 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fuel, surface fire

Soapweed yucca populations were reduced by 13% after burning with a propane torch in a study to determine the effects of burning, shredding, and herbicide treatments. Surface fire temperatures simulated those previously recorded for combustion of fine fuel loads of 5,400 lb/ac [93].
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: cover, frequency, prescribed burn, seed, shrub

Soapweed yucca populations have been observed recovering from fire [160]. After
a prescribed burn in sand shinnery oak communities in Oklahoma, frequency and
occurrence of soapweed yucca was 0.41% and 0.08% after the 1st postfire growing season,
0.12% and 0.12% after the 2nd postfire growing season, 0.40% and 0.40% after the
3rd postfire growing season, and 0.82% and 0.40% after the 4th postfire growing season. No
significant differences were noted in shrub species composition after the
prescribed burn (P=0.55)
[60].

Soapweed yucca seeds exposed to various temperatures in a convection oven
indicate a reduced ability to germinate from seed exposed to high-temperature
fire [73]:

 

Control


2 hours of heat


5 minutes of heat
Temperature Room temperature 180 ºF
(80 ºC) 190
ºF (90 ºC) 190 ºF (90 ºC) 210 ºF (100 ºC) 230 ºF (110 ºC) 250 ºF (120 ºC)
Germination (%) 79 57 42 41 59 28 3

Soapweed yucca was monitored after spring, mid-summer, and fall fires on
hilltops, north-facing, and south-facing slopes in the Nebraska sandhills
prairie to determine its response to fire. Prefire canopy cover was measured in
1984 and postfire cover was measured each of
the 4 years following the prescribed burns, which took place on 1-2 May, 19 July, and
1 October [22]:

Topographic Location
Treatment

Mean Canopy Cover ±
1 s x, by year


1984 1985 1986 1987 1988
Hilltop Spring 1 ± 1.2 1 ± 0.5 1 ± 0.5 1 ± 0.5 1 ± 0.5
Summer 4 ± 1.8 3 ± 2.1 3 ± 2.2 2 ± 1.4 1 ± 1.2
Fall 5 ± 2.5 -- 1 ± 0.5 1 ± 0.5 1 ± 0.7
Unburned 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
North-facing Slope Spring 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Summer 2 ± 2.1 2 ± 1.3 1 ± 0.7 1 ± 0.7 2 ± 1.3
Fall 1 ± 0.7 -- 1 ± 0.5 1 ± 0.5 0.0
Unburned 3 ± 1.8 3 ± 1.8 2 ± 0.8 3 ± 1.8 2 ± 0.8
South-facing Slope Spring 3 ± 2.8 2 ± 2.1 3 ± 2.8 3 ± 2.8 3 ± 2.1
Summer 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Fall 4 ± 1.8 -- tr. 1 ± 0.5 2 ± 1.3
Unburned 2 ± 1.3 2 ± 1.4 2 ± 1.4 2 ± 1.4 1 ± 0.7
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
soapweed yucca

Great Plains yucca

small soapweed
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Conservation Status

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Soapweed yucca is listed as imperiled in Missouri [102].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Soapweed yucca is one of the most widespread of all the yuccas [134]. Its range extends throughout most of the Great Plains, from Alberta to southeastern New Mexico and the Texas panhandle, and east into Iowa and Arkansas [57,137,151]. Distribution of narrowleaf yucca encompasses the entire range of soapweed yucca. Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, and Oklahoma support populations of Gurney's yucca [151]. The Flora of North America provides a distributional map of soapweed yucca. Distributional maps for narrowleaf and Gurney's yucca can be found on Plants database.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Fire Ecology

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: caudex, fire frequency, fire regime, frequency, grassland, moderate-severity fire, seed, top-kill, woodland

Fire adaptations: Despite immediate adverse effects of fire on soapweed yucca [64], populations recover from fire [60,160]. Extensive rhizomatous mats 4 to 24 inches (10-60 cm) below the soil surface [160] are likely protected from fire damage. Vegetative reproduction (sprouting from the caudex and rhizomes) can be stimulated when soapweed yucca is top-killed [93]. Documented sprouting from the caudex after cutting [160] suggests that soapweed yucca can sprout following top-kill by low- to moderate-severity fire.

Recently disturbed sites provide an opportunity for soapweed to germinate; however, germination rates of soapweed yucca seed decreased after being exposed to high temperatures (180-250 ºF (80-120 ºC)) in a laboratory setting [73]. This suggests that on-site seeds require burial in the seed bank in order to germinate following fire. Wind and gravity dispersal [11] of off-site seed sources is also possible after fire. Further research is needed to explore fire adaptations of soapweed yucca.

FIRE REGIMES: Soapweed yucca is primarily associated with grassland environments. Historical fire return intervals within these vegetation types were probably dependant upon drought cycles, the prevalence of lightning strikes, and anthropogenic uses. Soapweed yucca is primarily found throughout ecosystems characterized by fire return intervals of less than 35 years [109]. Where fire has been excluded from sagebrush communities and desert grasslands, invasion of nonnative annual grasses such as red brome (Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens), lovegrass (Eragrostis spp.), and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has often occurred, enhancing the potential for fires to start and spread, and increasing fire frequency [14,28,164,169]. Fire return intervals have also been reduced as a result of overgrazing which can lead to dense overstories forming closed canopies that carry fire more efficiently. Exotic annual grasses are likely to invade these sites if a seed source is available [112].

The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where soapweed yucca is important. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find FIRE REGIMES".

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years) bluestem prairie Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 78,109] Nebraska sandhills prairie Andropogon gerardii var. paucipilus-Schizachyrium scoparium <10 bluestem-Sacahuista prairie Andropogon littoralis-Spartina spartinae 109] silver sagebrush steppe Artemisia cana 5-45 [63,118,167] sagebrush steppe Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 [109] basin big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata 12-43 [127] mountain big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana 15-40 [8,26,101] Wyoming big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis 10-70 (µ=40) [156,170] saltbush-greasewood Atriplex confertifolia-Sarcobatus vermiculatus <35 to <100 desert grasslands Bouteloua eriopoda and/or Pleuraphis mutica <35 to <100 [109] plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. 109,167] blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass Bouteloua gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii 109,126,167] blue grama-buffalo grass Bouteloua gracilis-Buchloe dactyloides 109,167] grama-galleta steppe Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis jamesii <35 to <100 blue grama-tobosa prairie Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis mutica <35 to <100 juniper-oak savanna Juniperus ashei-Quercus virginiana <35 Ashe juniper Juniperus ashei <35 western juniper Juniperus occidentalis 20-70 Rocky Mountain juniper Juniperus scopulorum <35 [109] cedar glades Juniperus virginiana 3-22 [59,109] wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii <5-47+ [109,118,167] pinyon-juniper Pinus-Juniperus spp. <35 [109] Colorado pinyon Pinus edulis 10-400+ [50,56,72,109] interior ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum 2-30 [7,10,84] galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe Pleuraphis jamesii-Aristida purpurea <35 to <100 [109] mesquite Prosopis glandulosa <35 to <100 [97,109] mesquite-buffalo grass Prosopis glandulosa-Buchloe dactyloides <35 Texas savanna Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa <10 [109] mountain grasslands Pseudoroegneria spicata 3-40 (µ=10) [6,7] oak-juniper woodland (Southwest) Quercus-Juniperus spp. <35 to <200 [109] oak savanna Quercus macrocarpa/Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 2-14 [109,157] shinnery Quercus mohriana <35 [109] live oak Quercus virginiana 10 to<100 little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. <35 [109] *fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species review
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bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Fire Management Considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: seed

Due to a system of netlike rhizomatous branches protected from the effects of heat by overlaying soil [160], fire will not likely eliminate soapweed yucca. Seeds that were exposed to temperatures of 230 ºF (110 ºC) and 250 ºF (120 ºC) for 5 minutes in a laboratory setting experienced 28% and 3% germination rates, respectively [73]. This may indicate that soapweed yucca establishment from on-site, soil-stored seed is possible except following fires of longer duration and/or higher temperatures.

In order to circumvent adverse effects to the prairie-obligate skipper butterfly, land managers in western Iowa should consider the extent of butterfly habitat in the Loess Hill prairies prior to conducting prescribed burns [128].
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bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: geophyte, phanerophyte

RAUNKIAER [119] LIFE FORM:
Phanerophyte
Geophyte
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bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Habitat characteristics

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: caliche

Climate/topography: Soapweed yucca is adapted to a wide range of environments. Average daily and annual variations in temperature can be great, such as in the deserts of New Mexico [33]. Air temperatures can drop to -44 ºF (-42 ºC) during winter months, and escalate to 106 ºF (41 ºC) in the summer. Yearly precipitation averages range from a low of 1.2 to 1.6 inches (300-400 mm) in Wyoming [48] to a high of 24.0 inches (610 mm) in Texas [136]. Humidity levels in Wyoming are at least 25% during July and August [48] while on the east slope of the Colorado Front Range, mean annual relative humidity is 69% [90]. Topography includes hills, plains [61,107], bluffs [69,83], rocky outcrops and ridges [134], and areas of shifting sands [96].

Soils: Soapweed yucca is most commonly found on sandy sites [27,32,65,134] or rocky areas with coarse-textured soils [43,146,161]. In the Great Plains it is associated with limestone soils [71,137] and alluvial terraces [105]. In New Mexico soapweed yucca is found in sandy soils underlain by caliche [33]. Soils in Texas are relatively deep clays or clay loams [98]. On the Colorado Front Range, soil pH is approximately 8.0 to 8.2 [105]. Soapweed yucca does best in well-drained soils with sunny exposures [135].

Elevation: Soapweed yucca tolerates a wide range of elevations:

CO 2,500 to > 8,500 feet (760-2,600 m) [38,92] MT 3,000 to 4,400 feet (900-1,300 m) [25] NM 3,600 to 6,500 feet (1,100-2,000 m) [86,91] UT 4,000 to 7,000 feet (1,200-2,100 m) [144] Great Plains 660 to 7,200 feet (200-2200 m) [73]
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bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Habitat: Cover Types

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: cover

SAF COVER TYPES [46]:




46 Eastern redcedar

66 Ashe juniper-redberry (Pinchot) juniper

67 Mohrs (shin) oak

68 Mesquite

220 Rocky Mountain juniper

237 Interior ponderosa pine

238 Western juniper

239 Pinyon-juniper

242 Mesquite
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bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Habitat: Ecosystem

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

More info for the term: shrub

ECOSYSTEMS [52]:





FRES15 Oak-hickory

FRES21 Ponderosa pine

FRES29 Sagebrush

FRES30 Desert shrub

FRES31 Shinnery

FRES32 Texas savanna

FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe

FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub

FRES35 Pinyon-juniper

FRES36 Mountain grasslands

FRES38 Plains grasslands

FRES39 Prairie

FRES40 Desert grasslands
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bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Habitat: Plant Associations

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the terms: forest, shrub, woodland

KUCHLER [79] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:




K016 Eastern ponderosa forest

K017 Black Hills pine forest

K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland

K024 Juniper steppe woodland

K031 Oak-juniper woodland

K032 Transition between K031 and K037

K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub

K038 Great Basin sagebrush

K040 Saltbush-greasewood

K051 Wheatgrass-bluegrass

K053 Grama-galleta steppe

K054 Grama-tobosa prairie

K055 Sagebrush steppe

K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe

K057 Galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe

K058 Grama-tobosa shrubsteppe

K059 Trans-Pecos shrub savanna

K060 Mesquite savanna

K061 Mesquite-acacia savanna

K062 Mesquite-live oak savanna

K063 Foothills prairie

K064 Grama-needlegrass-wheatgrass

K065 Grama-buffalo grass

K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass

K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass

K068 Wheatgrass-grama-buffalo grass

K069 Bluestem-grama prairie

K070 Sandsage-bluestem prairie

K071 Shinnery

K074 Bluestem prairie

K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie

K081 Oak savanna

K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100

K085 Mesquite-buffalo grass

K086 Juniper-oak savanna

K087 Mesquite-oak savanna
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bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the terms: cover, shrub, shrubland, woodland

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [132]:




101 Bluebunch wheatgrass

107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass

109 Ponderosa pine shrubland

209 Montane shrubland

301 Bluebunch wheatgrass-blue grama

303 Bluebunch wheatgrass-western wheatgrass

310 Needle-and-thread-blue grama

314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass

401 Basin big sagebrush

402 Mountain big sagebrush

403 Wyoming big sagebrush

408 Other sagebrush types

412 Juniper-pinyon woodland

414 Salt desert shrub

501 Saltbush-greasewood

502 Grama-galleta

503 Arizona chaparral

504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland

505 Grama-tobosa shrub

601 Bluestem prairie

602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed

603 Prairie sandreed-needlegrass

604 Bluestem-grama prairie

605 Sandsage prairie

606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass

607 Wheatgrass-needlegrass

608 Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass

609 Wheatgrass-grama

610 Wheatgrass

611 Blue grama-buffalo grass

612 Sagebrush-grass

703 Black grama-sideoats grama

704 Blue grama-western wheatgrass

705 Blue grama-galleta

706 Blue grama-sideoats grama

707 Blue grama-sideoats grama-black grama

709 Bluestem-grama

710 Bluestem prairie

713 Grama-muhly-threeawn

714 Grama-bluestem

715 Grama-buffalo grass

718 Mesquite-grama

720 Sand bluestem-little bluestem (dunes)

721 Sand bluestem-little bluestem (plains)

722 Sand sagebrush-mixed prairie

727 Mesquite-buffalo grass

729 Mesquite

730 Sand shinnery oak

733 Juniper-oak

734 Mesquite-oak

735 Sideoats grama-sumac-juniper

801 Savanna

802 Missouri prairie
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bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Immediate Effect of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: seed, top-kill

Soapweed yucca can suffer adverse effects from fire [64]. It is likely that sustained surface fires top-kill soapweed yucca while underground structures survive. Reduced germination rates of seed exposed to increasing temperatures in a laboratory setting [73] indicate soapweed yucca is unlikely to regenerate from seed following a sustained, high-temperature fire, but that seed will survive lower temperatures of short duration, such as those typical of grass fires.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: cover

Soapweed yucca is utilized by a variety of mammals, primarily during drought years when more desirable forage is not available. Livestock and big game browse flower and seedlings when accessible [107,165]. Cattle prefer the fleshy parts of the plant and can decrease soapweed yucca populations if allowed access to a single site for multiple years [143]. Soapweed yucca is considered poor forage for cattle by some [51]. It can be used as a feed supplement during severe drought years and will return after extensive harvest [160]. On the shortgrass ranges of Colorado, cattle feces revealed that soapweed yucca consumption was highest in April and August [133].

Mule deer consume soapweed yucca throughout the year [80] with heaviest use in spring [35]. Rumen samples in prairie habitat indicate consumption in summer, winter, and spring months [42]. In New Mexico, soapweed yucca makes up 0% to 3% of mule deer diets [88], accounting for 0.5% of their overall diet [103]. Bighorn sheep consume soapweed yucca in North Dakota [47] and the Colorado Rockies, where soapweed yucca constitutes an average of 5.3% of their diet [148]. Soapweed yucca is also utilized by mule deer in South Dakota [168], white-tailed deer in Montana [4], pronghorn [117,142], and bison [110].

Soapweed yucca provides food, shade, and nesting sites for birds and small mammals [143]. Seeds are an important food source to small mammals [137], and leaves are consumed during times of drought and snow [122,142]. Black-tailed jackrabbits in Colorado and Kansas and white-tailed jackrabbits in Colorado utilize soapweed yucca as a food source [41]. Soapweed yucca is used by the southern plains woodrat as construction material for houses built to shelter nests and store food [145]. It is found in areas that support cotton rat populations in New Mexico [104].

Palatability/nutritional value: A plant composition analysis was conducted on soapweed yucca in South Dakota. Moisture content throughout the year varied with 4 samples, from 55.7%-64.7%. Carotene had ranges of 18.0-43.5 mg/g, ash ranged from 1.5%-1.9%, crude fat from 0.73%-1.3%, crude protein from 3.6%-4.8%, and crude fiber from 14.6%-16.0% [53]. The average percentage of crude fiber, ash, and protein as measured in leaves from soapweed yucca plants in New Mexico was 42.3%, 4.86%, and 5.57%, respectively [19].

The nutritional value (%) of soapweed yucca in the Black Hills of South Dakota was as follows [53]:

  Moisture  Carotene Ash Crude fat Crude protein Crude fiber N-free extract Ca P Fe Mn 18 January 60.10 27.60 1.59 1.13 4.78 14.81 17.59 0.33 0.100 40.76 23.20 16 May 55.68 22.10 1.57 1.28 3.79 15.97 21.53 0.43 0.070 67.31 16.54 27 June 64.71 18.04 1.87 0.73 3.93 14.62 14.14 0.31 0.117 32.82 7.84 22 October 61.42 43.48 1.49 1.24 3.56 14.67 17.62 0.28 0.077 47.11 13.34

The chemical composition (%) of soapweed yucca from 3 sites in North Dakota was as follows [47]:

  January February March April May June July August September October November December

Plateau

Ca 0.79 1.33 0.96 1.00 1.14 1.17 0.99 1.10 1.09 1.18 0.66 1.18 Mg 0.43 0.42 0.36 0.52 0.57 0.77 0.62 0.69 0.78 0.53 0.60 0.69 K 0.96 0.56 1.08 0.67 0.65 1.12 1.23 1.22 0.94 0.84 0.74 0.59

Flat Top Ridge

Ca 1.56 2.12 1.90 1.18 1.45 1.66 1.11 1.18 1.18 1.39 1.31 1.24 Mg 0.32 0.23 0.33 0.47 0.26 0.38 0.35 0.48 0.43 0.46 0.40 0.67 K 0.39 0.37 0.44 0.55 0.61 1.23 1.63 1.04 0.94 0.77 0.68 0.57

Side hill

Ca 1.13 1.20 1.40 1.10 0.87 1.75 0.80 1.25 1.38 0.82 1.05 1.24 Mg 0.23 0.19 0.35 0.42 0.33 0.58 0.51 0.47 0.49 0.77 0.45 0.60 K 0.50 0.48 0.42 0.59 0.80 1.26 0.99 1.04 0.80 0.93 0.60 0.42

A study conducted in eastern Colorado to determine the effect of geologic refuges on the occurrence of species found that areas inaccessible to cattle supported 1.96% soapweed yucca cover as opposed to 1.45% in browsed areas. Soapweed yucca was listed as having relatively low palatability with the potential to become more palatable at different times in the season [100].

Cover value: Dittberner and Olson [37] report the cover value of soapweed yucca for wildlife species as follows:

  MT ND WY Pronghorn poor   fair Elk     poor Mule deer poor fair poor White-tailed deer     poor Small mammals fair   poor Small nongame birds fair   poor Upland game birds poor   poor Waterfowl     poor

Birds, small mammals, and reptiles utilize soapweed yucca for shade and nesting sites [137]. Scaled quail in Texas utilize it for night roosting [141] and sharp-tailed grouse broods use it for cover [58]

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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Key Plant Community Associations

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Throughout its range in Colorado soapweed yucca can often be found
in plains grasslands in association with
blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) [32,96,105,121], needle-and-thread grass (Hesperostipa
comata) [32,105], and in a variety of sagebrush (Artemisia
spp.) communities including Bigelow sagebrush (Artemisia bigelovii) [130] and mountain big sagebrush
(A. tridentata var. vaseyana) [31]. In 1906 it was reported as one
of the most prominent plants in the region east of Pike's Peak and could be found alongside horned
spurge (Euphorbia brachycera),
mountain bladderpod (Lesquerella montana), nylon hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus
viridiflorus), and prairie bluebells (Mertensia lanceolata
var. lanceolata) in what was termed the "Yucca glauca society" [129]. It is often found among sandhill
communities with prairie sandreed (Calamovilfa
longifolia), sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia), and sandhill muhly
(Muhlenbergia pungens) [96].

In the central Rocky Mountains of Colorado soapweed yucca is found in
areas dominated by interior ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var.
scopulorum). Other shrubs include fivepetal cliffbush (Jamesia americana),
common juniper (Juniperus communis), bearberry (Arctostaphylos
uva-ursi), wax currant (Ribes cereum), shrubby cinquefoil (Dasiphora
floribunda), and Wood's rose (Rosa woodsii) [120]. Along the Colorado Front Range it is associated with the New
Mexico feathergrass (Hesperostipa neomexicana) community, where it is
present with purple threeawn (Aristida
purpurea), foothill milkvetch (Astragalus
tridactylicus), Front Range twinpod (Physaria bellii), and
shortstem buckwheat (Eriogonum brevicaule) [105]. Soapweed yucca
is also found in tree cholla (Opuntia imbricata) associations with blue
grama, sand dropseed (Sporobolus cryptandrus), and ring muhly (Muhlenbergia
torreyi) [77], and in Colorado pinyon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus
spp.) dominated systems [31].

Throughout Kansas soapweed yucca can be found with prairie graminoids such as
little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), blue grama, and
needle-and-thread grass. Shrub associates include sand sagebrush and
fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) [83]. Soapweed yucca is found with velvetweed (Gaura mollis),
nineanther prairie clover (Dalea
enneandra), and hairy grama (Bouteloua hirsuta) in
shortgrass prairie habitats [2] and with little bluestem, big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var.
gerardii), purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea), azure blue sage
(Salvia azurea), and western ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya) in
tallgrass prairie habitats [114].


Soapweed yucca is associated with open, dry habitat types in Montana.
It occurs in interior ponderosa pine and limber pine (Pinus flexilis)
stands with blue grama, sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), and plains
prickly-pear (Opuntia polyacantha) [5], and can be found with
skunkbush sumac (Rhus trilobata) and creeping juniper (Juniperus
horizontalis) in the interior ponderosa pine/bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria
spicata) vegetation type [45].
In the badlands of southeastern Montana, soapweed yucca is found with greatest
frequency in the
mountain big sagebrush-western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) community type and greatest
abundance in the skunkbush sumac-western wheatgrass community type [25].

Soapweed yucca is found throughout most of Nebraska and is important for the
ground coverage it provides in the Nebraska sandhill range [51].
It is commonly associated with sandy substrates, occurring on blowouts with sand
bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var.
paucipilus) and little bluestem [116], and on dune ridges and upper slopes with
stiff sunflower (Helianthus pauciflorus),
leadplant (Amorpha canescens), prairie rose (Rosa arkansana) [13],
western sandcherry (Prunus pumila var. besseyi), and manystem pea (Lathyrus
polymorphus) [12]. Soapweed yucca is found with western
snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis) and skunkbush sumac [149] on scattered
and open woodlands and with blue grama, threadleaf sedge (Carex filifolia),
and western wheatgrass in mixed-prairie habitat types [163].


In the high plains of Nebraska, soapweed yucca was found on 8 out of 9
surveyed plots. Relative abundance of soapweed yucca was highest on isolated canyon slopes, where
it could be found with Rocky Mountain
juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), eastern redcedar (Juniperus
virginiana), and little bluestem. Soapweed yucca was also found on sand talus with big
bluestem, little bluestem, needle-and-thread grass, and sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) [71].


In the middle Rio Grande valley of New Mexico, soapweed yucca occurs
with soaptree yucca, tree cholla,
and broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae). Grasses in these desert
grassland plant communities include black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda), big galleta (Pleuraphis
rigida), burrograss (Scleropogon brevifolius),
and threeawns (Aristida spp.) [86].
In the shrub-grassland areas, soapweed yucca occurs with velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina),
broom snakeweed, and sand shinnery oak (Quercus
havardii). In the desert grasslands of northeastern New Mexico it is found primarily with blue grama,
sideoats grama, and galleta
(Pleuraphis jamesii) [44].


Soapweed yucca in the Dakotas can be found at the easternmost edge of
interior ponderosa pine habitat with skunkbush sumac,
western poison-ivy (Toxicodendron rydbergii), and chokecherry (Prunus
virginiana) [66]. It occurs with prairie sandreed
on less than 3 acres (1 ha) in Badlands National Park [36], and
is associated with the sand bluestem-prairie sandreed habitat type in southwestern North Dakota
[65]

Throughout its distribution in Texas, soapweed yucca is broadly associated with sand
sagebrush and prickly-pear (Opuntia spp.) [9,154,155] and can also be found with
redberry juniper (Juniperus
erythrocarpa), Ashe juniper (J. ashei), sideoats grama, hairy
grama, and blue grama [136]. It occurs with honey
mesquite (Prosopis
glandulosa), catclaw acacia (Acacia greggii), wait-a-minute (Mimosa
aculeaticarpa var. biuncifera), and lotebush (Ziziphus obtusifolia)
[98], and can reach densities exceeding 2,000 plants per
acre on the panhandle of northern Texas [93].
Its occurrence in western Texas is not significantly (P<0.05) affected by the
occurrence of Pinchot juniper (Juniperus
pinchotii) [99].


In western Missouri soapweed yucca is found in prairie habitats with
hairy grama, blue grama, large beardtongue (Penstemon grandiflorus), and downy
paintbrush (Castilleja sessiliflora) [147]. In western
Iowa it occurs with little bluestem, big bluestem, and purple coneflower
(Echinacea angustifolia) [128].


Soapweed yucca can be found on east-facing slopes of the Big Horn mountains
of Wyoming with little bluestem and bluebunch wheatgrass [34]. It
can be found in the Powder River Basin with Wyoming big
sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis), western
wheatgrass, blue grama, and birdfoot sagebrush (Artemisia
pedatifida) [48]. Soapweed yucca is often found
with blue grama and sagebrush, with highest coverage and
constancy percentages in shrub-steppe vegetation types [146]. At the Great
Sand Dunes National Monument, it was found on 21% of research plots located on
active and stabilized dunes [94].


Soapweed yucca is found with Rocky Mountain juniper and Colorado pinyon in juniper-pinyon woodlands
that occur throughout the Great Basin. Other associates include
Stansbury cliffrose (Purshia mexicana var. stansburiana),
Apache-plume (Fallugia paradoxa), green ephedra (Ephedra viridis),
Fremont's mahonia (Mahonia fremontii), fourwing saltbush, and
banana yucca (Yucca baccata) [23]. In the Great Basin grasslands soapweed
yucca is found with sacahuista (Nolina microcarpa), skunkbush sumac,
wait-a-minute, and fourwing saltbush [123].



Shrubs such as soapweed yucca, fourwing saltbush, winterfat (Krascheninnikovia
lanata), prairie sumac (Rhus copallinum var. lanceolata),
rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus spp.), and
snakeweed (Gutierrezia spp.) are scattered throughout the plains
grasslands
. In areas subjected to heavy grazing, soapweed yucca is found
with honey mesquite, sand shinnery oak, and sand sagebrush [24].
In the northern prairie wetlands region it can be found on blowouts with sand
bluestem, hairy grama, and needle-and-thread grass in areas where there is no
contact with the water table [108].
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Life Form

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Shrub
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Management considerations

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The response of soapweed yucca to browsing is variable. Reports have been made
of its increases [27,81,143] and decreases [21,71,85] following grazing
practices. The amount of soapweed yucca consumed by cows in eastern Montana was
influenced by pregnancy [113].

Eradication of soapweed yucca from rangelands
in favor of more palatable species has been achieved through various methods.
One study found repeated aerial applications of the herbicide silvex controlled
soapweed yucca [20], while another achieved control through the burning or
cutting of plant tops in combination with the use of tebuthiuron, picloram, and
2,4,5-T [93] (2,4,5-T is now banned by the E.P.A. [152]). Grazing forage was increased by 37% and
soil water content significantly reduced (P=0.05) on a site where chemical
control of soapweed yucca was achieved [136].


Soapweed yucca populations increased significantly (P<0.05) after
aboveground portions were crushed by off-road vehicles, and the plants
sprouted from belowground portions [131]. Fluoride and sulfur from
coal-fired plant emissions could have adverse effects on soapweed yucca, but
damage to plants would likely not be detected prior to overstory effects such as
reduced needle length and tissue necrosis [55].



When inoculated with mycorrhizae in a laboratory setting, the mean dry
mass of inoculated soapweed yucca plants was 87% greater than nonmycorrhizal control
plants [166].
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Other uses and values

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Soapweed yucca has been utilized by Native Americans for nearly 10,000 years [75]. Both the fruiting portion and flower stalks are consumed [15,29,30,143], and various plant parts are processed for medicinal uses [62,153]. Soapweed yucca is also used to produce items such as paper [19], rope, baskets, brushes, soaps [15,143], dyes, poison for arrows [153], and sticks for fire [62].
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Phenology

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Soapweed yucca flowers in May and June in New Mexico [91] and May through July in the Great Plains region [57]. The fruit ripens in July and August, and seed disperses in September [3]. Ramets are produced from lateral buds or rhizomes near rosettes that have senesced in late summer [76].
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Plant Response to Fire

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Wright and Bailey [167] report that Yucca spp. are weak sprouters after fire, but are able to hold their position in plant communities due to sprouting ability. As a result of burning with a propane plant burner, soapweed yucca suffered an 85% reduction in total biomass and sent out an average of 1.5 new shoots per plant at postfire month 18 [93]. Observations suggest that when damage from a burn is too great or rodent populations too high, soapweed yucca is not able to recover [160]. Populations in the Nebraska sandhills prairie declined as a result of wildfires in late spring [21].

Soapweed yucca seeds gathered from the Texas-Oklahoma border were exposed to heat treatments in a laboratory setting. Results indicate that soapweed yucca seeds are susceptible to heat and may not provide a viable regeneration source if exposed to temperatures over 250 ºF (120 ºC) [73].

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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Post-fire Regeneration

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More info for the terms: rhizome, root crown, secondary colonizer, seed, shrub

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [138]:
Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)
Caudex/herbaceous root crown, growing points in soil
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Regeneration Processes

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More info for the terms: caudex, fruit, natural, rhizome, seed, stratification, top-kill

Soapweed yucca reproduces by seed [142] and rhizomes [165]. The rates at which soapweed yucca can reproduce through rhizomes is likely dependant upon mechanisms such as rates of branching, rhizome length, and the number of rhizomes. Soapweed yucca rhizomes form from the seedling rhizome in a rebranching pattern, spreading horizontally. After 4 to 6 years, buds grow above the rhizomes and produce leaves after reaching the soil surface. Connections with the mother plant eventually become dormant and decay [160]. In a study conducted on cloned soapweed yucca plants, total number of flowering days was not an indication of reproductive success and was less important than the time at which flowering occurs. It was also beneficial for the plant to have branched flower stalks for reproductive success [106].

Pollination: Pollination of soapweed yucca is dependent upon the yucca moth (Pronuba yuccasella) [165] or other pollinating insects such as small flies (Pseudocalliope spp.) [38]. The yucca moth transfers pollen from the anther, depositing it deep into the style and leading to the production of many seeds, some of which are fed upon by the larvae [38]. The number of yucca moths available for pollination is related to the abundance of open flowers [106].

Soapweed yucca benefits from wood ants (Formica spp.). They are natural predators of the nonpollinating yucca moth (Tegeticula corruptrix), which feeds on soapweed yucca seeds while in the larval stage [111].

Breeding system: Moth pollination [165] assures that soapweed yucca is mostly outcrossing. Anthers are remote from the cavity encapsulated stigma and sticky pollen [11], assuring that autogamous pollination of soapweed yucca is rare. Pollen is viable for a minimum of 4 days, as are the flowers. Autogamous pollination occurs as the flower begins to wilt and stamens come into direct contact with the stigma [38].

Seed production: The number of viable soapweed yucca seeds is dependant upon the transfer of high quality pollen, sufficient resources for development, and ovules that are not damaged by the insertion of the yucca moth's ovipositor during the transfer of pollen [1]. It can take several years for rosettes to bloom [79]. Despite the high number of seeds consumed by moth larvae, large numbers are left unharmed for dispersal [11].

In a study to determine the relationship between soapweed yucca and the yucca moth, 124 plants with a mean of 291 ovules per plant had 138 viable seeds after consumption by adult and larval yucca moths. The maximum number of larvae per fruit was 19 [1]. In Colorado, the number of surviving seeds increased with elevation despite fewer fruits. This was likely due to decreased predation by the yucca moth, which prefers the warmer temperatures of the Great Plains over those experienced at higher elevations [38].

Seed dispersal: Seed pods become erect and split longitudinally, exposing seeds to dispersal by wind and gravity [11].

Seed banking: Laboratory studies exploring germination rates of soapweed yucca suggest that seed banking is likely [38,149,160]. Further research is needed to determine longevity and viability of soapweed yucca seeds in a field setting.

Germination: Soapweed yucca experiences higher rates of germination when stratified. In a laboratory setting soapweed yucca successfully germinated under a variety of stratification treatments. Following 1 to 3 months of stratification, germination occurred after exposing seed to a constant 70 ºF (20 ºC) or alternating temperatures between 70 ºF (20 ºC) and 40 ºF (5 ºC). Germination also occurred after seed was stored at 40 ºF (4 ºC) and then exposed to 70 ºF (20 ºC) temperatures. A maximum of 27% of seeds germinated after being exposed to 90 ºF (30 ºC) or by alternating 90 ºF (30 ºC) and 70 ºF (20 ºC). Sixty-seven percent germination was achieved at 50 ºF (10 ºC) with 3 months stratification. The highest germination rates (91%) were experienced when 4-month-old seed was dry stored at 70 ºF (20 ºC) and then wet treated for 3 months at 70 ºF (20 ºC). Six days were required for 50% germination. See Emerson [43] for further seed germination information.

A study on the germination of Nebraska sandhill plants revealed 67.1% germination rates for soapweed yucca seed that had been dry stored, 44% germination for seeds vernalized for 1 month, and 86.6% germination for seeds vernalized for 2 months. Seed vernalized for 3 months sprouted while in storage under winter temperatures [149]. Soapweed yucca germinated in 4 days after being soaked in water for 24 hours and kept at temperatures between 80 ºF and 90 ºF (28 ºC and 32 ºC) in moist cotton [160]. Seeds from low-elevation soapweed yucca plants are thought to have stronger tendencies towards dormancy than those found at high elevations [38].

Seedling establishment/growth: Reproduction of soapweed yucca by seed is limited to the percentage of viable seeds remaining after seed predation by larvae. Soapweed yucca had the highest number of seedlings of 19 observed yucca species over a 4-year period, with 72 seedlings observed [160]. Soapweed yucca seedlings have reduced growth rates compared to ramets. Seedlings are important for colonizing new sites, after which clones take over as primary reproducers. As the carrying capacity is reached, seed production increases in order that new populations may emerge outside the range of vegetative reproduction. The ratio of seedlings produced vegetatively versus those produced by seed varies across populations [76].

Asexual regeneration: Soapweed yucca reproduces vegetatively through sprouting from the caudex and from horizontal rhizomes [38,160], which yield rosette-baring offshoots [11]. Projecting from the upper portion of one or two large diameter rhizomes are horizontal branches forming a netlike pattern from which sprouts emerge. Depriving the plant of shoots through fire or mechanical means results in regeneration rates that equal or exceed previous regeneration rates within a year or 2. In a study to confirm successful vegetative propagation, sprouts were separated from the mother plant by removing 2- to 4-inch (5-10 cm) sections of rhizome while in the field. Normal growth of the sprouts continued during the following year [160]. Vegetative reproduction can be stimulated after top-kill of soapweed yucca [93].

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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [17]:





8 Northern Rocky Mountains

9 Middle Rocky Mountains

10 Wyoming Basin

11 Southern Rocky Mountains

12 Colorado Plateau

13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont

14 Great Plains

15 Black Hills Uplift

16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

States or Provinces

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(key to state/province abbreviations)
UNITED STATES AR CO IA KS MO MT NE NM ND OK SD TX UT WY
CANADA AB
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Successional Status

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Soapweed yucca occurs in all stages of succession [76,125]. In a blowout that occurred in eastern Colorado, vegetational succession data revealed that soapweed yucca returns during stage 4 of a 6-stage process. Sandhill muhly was the primary species to return before soapweed yucca. Once it became established, soapweed yucca persisted on the site [96].

Soapweed yucca can be found on undisturbed sites [32] and sites affected by land management activities [160] such as plowing [96]. It is a late-seral species on sandy range sites and in grassland associations (50% cover) in Montana [125]. In southeastern Montana, soapweed yucca is considered an understory species in the interior ponderosa pine/skunkbush sumac vegetation type [55], indicating possible shade tolerance. It also occurs on open sites [135].

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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Synonyms

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Yucca angustifolia Pursh [70]
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Taxonomy

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The currently accepted scientific name for soapweed yucca is Yucca glauca
Nutt. (Agavaceae) [39,40,49,57,70,91,137,161]. Varieties accepted by some authorities
include:

Y. g. var. glauca, narrowleaf yucca

Y. g. var.gurneyi McKelvey [70], Gurney's yucca


Throughout this review, soapweed yucca refers to all varieties of Y. glauca.
A distinction between the varieties will only be made in the Distribution and
occurrence section. The Flora of North America [49] does not recognize soapweed
yucca varieties.


Hybrids: Soapweed yucca hybridizes with soaptree yucca (Y. elata)
in eastern Colorado, central New Mexico, and Arizona [160,161]. Soapweed yucca
is also believed to hybridize with Buckley's yucca (Y. constricta),
Navajo yucca (Y. baileyi), and narrowleaf yucca (Y. angustissima) [160].

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bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: dehiscent, density, natural, reclamation, rhizome, seed

The use of soapweed yucca for disturbed site rehabilitation has yielded varying results. Soapweed yucca is considered a "common plant" by the USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service and can be purchased from suppliers for conservation purposes [150]. It responds favorably to propagation, experiencing shoot proliferation and rooting from explants of the shoot tip, flower bud, and rhizome [16]. Instructions on producing soapweed yucca as container seedlings can be found in [82].

Soapweed yucca seeds obtained from mid-October through early spring were used for reclamation in southeastern Montana. Seeds were harvested from dehiscent capsules while they were still intact or after being dried. Best results were obtained from seed stored at 40 ºF (4 ºC) over winter and planted in spring and seed planted immediately after being collected in the fall [43]. On previously mined land in southeastern Montana, reseeding occurred with either 4-species or 16-species mixtures to determine rates of perennial plant regeneration under various treatments. Soapweed yucca returned to plots seeded with the 4-species mixture at a density of 0.3 plant/m² 5 years after seeding, and did not return on plots seeded with the 16-species mixture. For additional information on methods utilized in this project see [67].

Of 28 soapweed yucca plants planted in 1988 on a prairie reconstruction site in Kansas, 79% survived the 1st year and 64% survived the 2nd year. None of the plants flowered within that 2-year period. Of 19 plants planted in 1985, 100% survived the 1st year. No record was made beyond 1986 [115].

Viable soapweed yucca seeds are black. Seeds with a white seed coat lack an endosperm and are not viable [1].

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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Yucca glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/yucgla/all.html

Yucca glauca

provided by wikipedia EN

Yucca glauca (syn. Yucca angustifolia) is a species of perennial evergreen plant, adapted to xeric (dry)growth conditions. It is also known as small soapweed,[3] soapweed yucca, Spanish bayonet,[4] and Great Plains yucca.

Yucca glauca forms colonies of rosettes. Leaves are long and narrow, up to 60 cm long but rarely more than 12 mm across. Inflorescence is up to 100 cm tall, sometimes branched sometimes not. Flowers are pendent (drooping, hanging downward), white to very pale green. Fruit is a dry capsule with shiny black seeds.[5][6]

Distribution

Yucca glauca is native to central North America: occurring from the Canadian Prairies of Alberta and Saskatchewan in Canada; south through the Great Plains to Texas and New Mexico in the United States.[7][8]

Pollinators

The "honey ant" (Myrmecocystus mexicanus), among other species, has been observed collecting nectar from Y. glauca.[9]

Uses

Soapweed yucca was a traditional Native American medical plant, used by the Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Lakota, and other tribes.[3]

Among the Zuni people, the seed pods are boiled and used for food.[10] Leaves are made into brushes and used for decorating pottery, ceremonial masks, altars and other objects.[11] Leaves are also soaked in water to soften them and made into rope by knotting them together.[12] Dried leaves are split, plaited and made into water-carrying head pads.[13] Leaves are also used for making mats, cincture pads and other articles.[12] The peeled roots are pounded, made into suds and used for washing the head, wool garments and blankets.[14]

The young flower stalks and unripe fruits can be cooked and eaten.[15]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Rowe, H.; Puente, R. (2020). "Yucca glauca". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  2. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species".
  3. ^ a b "Native American Ethnobotany". University of Michigan–Dearborn. Retrieved 2012-09-17.
  4. ^ Schiemann, Donald Anthony. Wildflowers of Montana. page 140. Mountain Press Publishing Company. Missoula. 2005.
  5. ^ Flora of North America v 26 p 437, Yucca glauca
  6. ^ Nuttall, Thomas. 1813. Catalogue of New and Interesting Plants Collected in Upper Louisiana no. 89.
  7. ^ "Yucca glauca Nutt". Plants Profile. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2012-09-17.
  8. ^ "Yucca glauca Nutt". Native Plant Database - Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 2012-09-17.
  9. ^ Conway, John R. "The Biology of Honey Ants."The American Biology Teacher. , Vol. 48, No. 6 (Sep., 1986), pp. 335–343.
  10. ^ Stevenson, Matilda Coxe 1915 Ethnobotany of the Zuni Indians. SI-BAE Annual Report #30 p.73
  11. ^ Stevenson, p.82
  12. ^ a b Stevenson, p.79
  13. ^ Bell, Willis H and Edward F. Castetter 1941 Ethnobiological Studies in the Southwest VII. The Utilization of Yucca, Sotol and Beargrass by the Aborigines in the American Southwest. University of New Mexico Bulletin 5(5):1-74 (p. 47)
  14. ^ Stevenson, p.83
  15. ^ Elias, Thomas S.; Dykeman, Peter A. (2009) [1982]. Edible Wild Plants: A North American Field Guide to Over 200 Natural Foods. New York: Sterling. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-4027-6715-9. OCLC 244766414.

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Yucca glauca: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Yucca glauca (syn. Yucca angustifolia) is a species of perennial evergreen plant, adapted to xeric (dry)growth conditions. It is also known as small soapweed, soapweed yucca, Spanish bayonet, and Great Plains yucca.

Yucca glauca forms colonies of rosettes. Leaves are long and narrow, up to 60 cm long but rarely more than 12 mm across. Inflorescence is up to 100 cm tall, sometimes branched sometimes not. Flowers are pendent (drooping, hanging downward), white to very pale green. Fruit is a dry capsule with shiny black seeds.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN