dcsimg

Comments

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Found in Azad Kashmir and Murree Hills from 1000-2000 m. Also reported from Karachi and Sind by Hasanain & Rahman (Pl.Kar. & Sind.76.1957) but the record needs confirmation.

Roots and stems contain a heteroside, parillin and potassium nitrate. Medicinally used as a substitute for Indian sarsaparilla; also used as a diuretic.

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Description

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Shrubby climber, branches mostly with hooks and spines. Leaves 50-150 x 33-95 mm, broadly ovate to ovate or ovate-lanceolate, cordate, astate or cuneate at base; apex obtuse or acute, mucronate; margin entire or spiny ; leaf distinctly 3(-5)-nerved, midrib sometimes spiny below. Petiole c. 29 mm long, sometimes prickly with a pair of tendrils at the base. Flowers in umbellate racemes, white, fragrant. Peduncle c. 6 mm long. Pedicels c. 6 mm long, filiform. Bracteoles minute. Perianth segments 5 mm long, the outer linear-oblong, the inner linear, with a dark mid-portion. Male flower: filaments c. 3 mm long, anther 1 mm long. Female flower: staminodes 6; stigmas oblong. Berry globose. c. 5 mm long and broad, red, turning blue-black when ripe. Seed c. 4 mm long, dark brown.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Description

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Vines climbing. Stem and branches woody, ridged-angled, usually very sparsely prickly; prickles short, slightly compressed. Petiole often curved or twisted, 3--4 cm, sometimes sparsely prickly, wingless; abscission zone apical; tendrils rather long. Leaf blade cordate-deltoid to ovate-lanceolate, 6--15 × 5--9.5 cm. Inflorescence a spike of 5--25 umbels, 7--45 cm, basally prophyllate; umbels of both sexes sessile on elongate rachis, 3--6-flowered, base slightly thickened; bracteoles many, broadly ovate. Male flowers: tepals white, 4--5 × ca. 1 mm; stamens 2--2.5 mm. Female flowers: tepals slightly smaller than male ones; staminodes 6. Fl. Jan--Feb, fr. Nov--Dec. 2 n = 32*.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 24: 115 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Widespread from Mediterranean and E. Africa eastwards to India & Ceylon.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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Distribution

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Distribution: Throughout India, Kashmir, Sri Lanka, S. Europe, Syria, N. Africa.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
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eFloras

Distribution

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S Xizang, SW Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal; E and N Africa, SW Asia, C and S Europe].
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 24: 115 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Elevation Range

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1200-2600 m
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
author
K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
project
eFloras.org
original
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partner site
eFloras

Flower/Fruit

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Fl.Per.: Sept.-March. Fr.Per.: May-Aug.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
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eFloras

Habitat

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Forests; 1000--2000 m.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 24: 115 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Synonym

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Smilax maculata Roxburgh.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 24: 115 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Smilax aspera

provided by wikipedia EN

Smilax aspera, with common names common smilax,[2] rough bindweed,[3] sarsaparille,[4] and Mediterranean smilax, is a species of flowering vine in the greenbriar family.

Description

Smilax aspera is a perennial, evergreen climber with a flexible and delicate stem, with sharp thorns. The climbing stem is 1–4 metres (3 ft 3 in–13 ft 1 in) long.[5] The leaves are 8–10 centimetres (3.1–3.9 in) long,[5] petiolated, alternate, tough and leathery, heart-shaped, with toothed and spiny margins. It is the monocot with reticulate type of venation. Also the midrib of the underside of the leaves are provided with spines. The flowers, very fragrant, are small, yellowish or greenish, gathered in axillary racemes. The flowering period in Mediterranean regions extends from September to November. The fruits are globose berries, gathered in clusters, which ripen in Autumn. They are initially red, later turn black. They have a diameter of 8–10 millimetres (0.31–0.39 in)[5] and contain one to three tiny and round seeds. They're insipid and unpalatable to humans, but they are a source of nourishment for many species of birds.

Distribution

It is widespread in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia), Mediterranean Europe (Cyprus, Albania, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Malta, Montenegro, France, Portugal, Spain), temperate Asia ( Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey) and tropical Asia (India, Bhutan, Nepal). It is also naturalized in other regions.[6]

Habitat

It grows in the woods and scrubs, at an altitude of 0–1,200 metres (0–3,937 ft) above sea level.[5]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  2. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  3. ^ "Smilax aspera". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  4. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, salsapariglia, sarsaparille, rough bindweed, Smilax aspera includes photos and European distribution map
  5. ^ a b c d Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia – Edagricole – 1982. Vol. III, pag. 401
  6. ^ "Smilax aspera". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 6 August 2014.

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Smilax aspera: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Smilax aspera, with common names common smilax, rough bindweed, sarsaparille, and Mediterranean smilax, is a species of flowering vine in the greenbriar family.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN