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Delta Arrowhead

Sagittaria platyphylla (Engelm.) J. G. Sm.

Comments

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Sagittaria platyphylla has been accepted at the variety level, i.e., Sagittaria graminea var. platyphylla (C. Bogin 1955; J. W. Wooten 1973; E. O. Beal et al. 1982). After studying dozens of populations in the field from much of its range and hundreds of herbarium specimens, we have concluded that this taxon should be recognized at the specific level instead, a conclusion supported by cladistic analyses of morphologic characters (R. M. Kortright 1998)
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Herbs, perennial, to 150 cm; rhizomes absent; stolons present; corms present. Leaves submersed and emersed; submersed sessile, phyllodial, flattened, to 26 ´ 0.5 cm; emersed with petiole ± triangular, 21--70.5 cm, blade linear-ovate to ovate, 4.6--16.4 ´ 0.7--6.1 cm. Inflorescences racemes, of 3--9 whorls, emersed, 2.5--10 ´ 2--4.5 cm; peduncles 22--60 cm; bracts connate more than ¼ total length, lanceolate, 3--5.5 mm, delicate, not papillose; fruiting pedicels spreading to recurved, cylindric, 0.5--3 cm. Flowers to 1.8 cm diam.; sepals spreading to recurved, not enclosing flower or fruiting head; filaments dilated, longer than anthers, pubescent; pistillate pedicellate, without ring of sterile stamens. Fruiting heads 0.7--1.2 cm diam.; achenes oblanceoloid, not abaxially keeled, 1.2--2 ´ 0.8--1.2 mm, beaked; faces tuberculate, wings absent, glands absent; beak lateral, horizontal to erect, 0.3--0.6 mm. 2n = 22.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ky., La., Miss., Mo., Ohio, Okla., Pa., Tenn., Tex., W.Va.; Mexico (Nuevo León, sw Mexico); Central America (Panama).
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering summer--fall.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Habitat

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Streams and lakes; 0--900m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Synonym

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Sagittaria graminea Michaux var. platyphylla Engelmann in A. Gray, Manual ed. 5, 494. 1867; Sagittaria. mohrii J. G. Smith
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Sagittaria mohrii J. G. Smith; C. Mohr, Bull. Torrey
Club 24 : 19. 1897.
Plants partially emersed, 3-7 dm. tall ; leaves erect or ascending, the blades linear to lanceolate, 5-15 cm. long, acuminate, often poorly developed or wanting, the phyllodia then stiff and three-sided ; scapes ascending, decumbent or declining, 3-angled, commonly shorter than the longer leaves ; whorls of the inflorescence six to twelve, the lower three or four pistillate, with pedicels somewhat longer than those of the staminate flowers ; bracts thin, 3-A mm. long, united to about the middle ; sepals oblong, becoming 5-8 mm. long, obtuse ; corolla hardly 1 cm. broad or sometimes 1.5 cm. broad; fruit-heads subglobose, 6-8 mm. in diameter; achenes cuneate, 2.5-3.5 mm. long, narrowly winged, with a low facial ridge, the slender beak horizontal.
Type locality : Mobile, Alabama.
Distribution : Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi.
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bibliographic citation
Percy Wilson, Per Axel Rydberg, Norman Taylor, Nathaniel Lord Britton, John Kunkel Small, George Valentine Nash. 1909. PANDANALES-POALES; TYPHACEAE, SPARGANACEAE, ELODEACEAE, HYDROCHARITACEAE, ZANNICHELLIACEAE, ZOSTERACEAE, CYMODOCEACEAE, NAIADACEAE, LILAEACEAE, SCHEUCHZERIACEAE, ALISMACEAE, BUTOMACEAE, POACEAE (pars). North American flora. vol 17(1). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Sagittaria platyphylla (Engelm.) J. G. Smith, Rep. Mo. Bot
Gard. 6 : 55. 1895.
Sagittaria graminea platyphylla Engelm. in A. Gray, Man. ed. 5. 494. 1867.
Plants emersed, erect ; leaves mostly with blad.es, but these sometimes accompanied by
narrow phyllodia, the blades thick and rather leathery, lanceolate, elliptic, or ovate, 5-15
cm. long, 5-7-nerved, acute or acuminate, gradually narrowed at the base or subcordate ;
scapes 2-5 dm. tall, usually overtopped by the leaves ; whorls of the inflorescence 3-8, the
2 or 4 lower ones pistillate; pedicels 1-2.5 cm. long ; bracts broadly ovate, 3-8 mm. long,
scarious-tipped ; sepals ovate or orbicular-ovate, becoming 4.5-6 mm. long; corolla 2.5-3
cm. wide; filaments pubescent; anthers oblong; fruit-heads fully 1 cm. in diameter;
achenes obliquely obovate, 2 mm. long, winged on both margins, the beak horizontal,
rather long.
Type locality : Not given.
Distribution : Missouri and Kansas to Alabama and Texas.
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bibliographic citation
Percy Wilson, Per Axel Rydberg, Norman Taylor, Nathaniel Lord Britton, John Kunkel Small, George Valentine Nash. 1909. PANDANALES-POALES; TYPHACEAE, SPARGANACEAE, ELODEACEAE, HYDROCHARITACEAE, ZANNICHELLIACEAE, ZOSTERACEAE, CYMODOCEACEAE, NAIADACEAE, LILAEACEAE, SCHEUCHZERIACEAE, ALISMACEAE, BUTOMACEAE, POACEAE (pars). North American flora. vol 17(1). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Sagittaria platyphylla

provided by wikipedia EN

Sagittaria platyphylla, the delta arrowhead,[2] broad-leaf arrowhead or delta duck-potato, is a plant species native to the eastern United States. The core of its range extends from central Texas to the Florida Panhandle north to southern Illinois.

As an ornamental it has also been spread to other locations.[3] Isolated populations have been reported from Washington state, Missouri, Kansas, Ohio, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, eastern Virginia, North and South Carolina and eastern Georgia, Nuevo León, Michoacán and Panamá. It has also become a noxious weed in Australia.[4] On August 6 2015 S. platyphylla was found for the first time in China, specifically in the Yangtze River Basin. This detection was in an irrigation ditch in Zhangjiashai, Wuhan, Hubei, PRC. Other detections have continued through at least 2019 demonstrating its establishment in provinces of the middle and lower Yangtze. It presents a significant threat to the ecology and economy of the Yangtze area, especially to agricultural irrigation.[3]

Morphology

The plant is an emergent aquatic found in ponds, lakes and slow-moving streams.[5][6][7] Sagittaria platyphylla is a perennial herb up to 150 centimetres (59 in) tall, producing underground corms (similar to tubers). The plant reproduces by means of stolons as well as seeds. Some leaves are totally submerged, others emergent (raising above the surface of the water). Submerged leaves have flattened petioles but no true blades. Emergent leaves have ovate to elliptical blades up to 17 centimetres (7 in) long. Inflorescence is a raceme with 3-9 whorls of flowers. Flowers are white, up to 2 centimetres (34 in) in diameter. [5][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]

References

  1. ^ Tropicos
  2. ^ "Sagittaria platyphylla". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  3. ^ a b Wang, Hui; Xiao, Keyan; Wu, Zhigang; Chen, Jianfeng; Xiong, Wen; Wang, Zhengxiang; Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Hong; Bowler, Peter (2020). "Delta arrowhead (Sagittaria platyphylla) in the Yangtze River: an invasive aquatic plant and the potential ecological consequences" (PDF). BioInvasions Records. Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre Oy (REABIC). 9 (3): 618–626. doi:10.3391/bir.2020.9.3.17. ISSN 2242-1300.
  4. ^ Australian Weeds Committee, Weed Identification Guide, Sagittaria platyphylla Archived 2014-03-10 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b "Sagittaria platyphylla in Flora of North America @ efloras.org". www.efloras.org. Retrieved 2017-01-30.
  6. ^ BONAP (Biota of North America Project) floristic synthesis, Sagittaria platyphylla
  7. ^ Correa A., M.D., C. Galdames & M. Stapf. 2004. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá 1–599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama.
  8. ^ Smith, Jared Gage. 1894. North American Species of Sagittaria and Lophotocarpus 29.
  9. ^ Asa, Gray (1867-01-01). "Manual of the botany of the northern United States". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. ^ "Image". www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 2017-01-30.
  11. ^ Haynes, R. R. & L.B. Holm-Nielsen. 1994. The Alismataceae. Flora Neotropica 64: 1–112.
  12. ^ Czerepanov, S. K. 1981. Sosudistye Rasteniia SSSR 509 pages. Nauka, Leningradskoe Otd-nie, Leningrad.
  13. ^ Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson
  14. ^ Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
  15. ^ Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States Monocotyledons 1–712. The University of Georgia Press, Athens
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Sagittaria platyphylla: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Sagittaria platyphylla, the delta arrowhead, broad-leaf arrowhead or delta duck-potato, is a plant species native to the eastern United States. The core of its range extends from central Texas to the Florida Panhandle north to southern Illinois.

As an ornamental it has also been spread to other locations. Isolated populations have been reported from Washington state, Missouri, Kansas, Ohio, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, eastern Virginia, North and South Carolina and eastern Georgia, Nuevo León, Michoacán and Panamá. It has also become a noxious weed in Australia. On August 6 2015 S. platyphylla was found for the first time in China, specifically in the Yangtze River Basin. This detection was in an irrigation ditch in Zhangjiashai, Wuhan, Hubei, PRC. Other detections have continued through at least 2019 demonstrating its establishment in provinces of the middle and lower Yangtze. It presents a significant threat to the ecology and economy of the Yangtze area, especially to agricultural irrigation.

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