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Description

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A stocky, large-bodied salamander. Dorsal coloration varies from light brown to blackish brown. The venter is light yellow to orangish red. Upper and lower eyelids are dark. The iris is yellow and the eyes are relatively small. This species has a dry, warty skin, except in mating season when adult males develop a smooth, even slimy, skin. The skin of both males and females is lighter colored during the mating season. Adults are 5.6-8.7 cm snout to vent length (12.5-22 cm total length). Some populations have adults which retain gills (Stebbins 1985; Petranka 1998). Hatchlings are 8-12 mm total length (Stebbins 1951; Riemer 1958). Larvae are pond type with busy gills ande a tail fin which extends foward to the shoulder area. Young larvae have a weak dorsal stripe which becomes diffuse a few weeks after hatching. The color pattern of older larvae is a mottled or reticulate pattern of pigmentation, usually with two rows of light spots on the sides of the body. A dark stripe extends from the nostril to the eye. Populations of T. granulosa in and around Crater Lake, Oregon, are sometimes treated as a distinct subspecies (T. g. mazamae) based on the presence of dark blotching on the venter (Nussbaum and Brodie 1981; Stebbins 1985; Petranka 1998).

Taricha granulosa may be distinguished from T. torosa by the V-shaped pattern of the palatine teeth (compared to Y-shaped), dark lower eyelid, and less protruberant eyes. These species also differ in their defensive posture (see below) (Stebbins 1985).

This species was featured as News of the Week on 28 September 2020:

Dangerously poisonous newts (Taricha granulosa), which sequester the toxin tetrodotoxin (TTX), and predatory garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), which can evolve TTX resistance, are engaged in a classic coevolutionary arms race. While generally roughly matched, in western Oregon and Washington other factors are important. While local adaptation dominates, a study (Hague et al. 2020) of geographic variation found that toxin levels are clearly predicted by the phylogeographic population genetic structure of newts and by factors in local environments. Still, predators have higher levels of resistance than the toxins of co-existing newts, suggesting intense selection. What at first seems to be intense arm race coevolution is shown to be a landscape level pattern-- a geographic mosaic of coevolution based on a mixture of often intense natural selection as well as demographic and environmental effects. This study enriches our understanding of this fascinating phenomenon, which is taking place over a large expanse of time and space (Written by David B. Wake).

This species was featured in the News of the Week, 11 May 2020:

Many salamandrids possess tetrodotoxin (TTX), the same neurotoxin found in pufferfish. Although TTX in marine animals derives from symbiotic bacteria or diet, the source in amphibians has been controversial. Populations of rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) possess different amounts of TTX due to the evolution of TTX resistance in populations of predatory garter snakes. Vaelli et al. (2020) examined the skin microbiome in high- and low-TTX populations of newts and found that bacterial diversity was lower in the highly toxic population, suggesting their skin microbiota is tightly regulated. Several strains of bacteria, particularly Pseudomonas, cultured from the skin of toxic newts were shown to produce TTX in the lab, and Pseudomonas were significantly more abundant in toxic than non-toxic newts. The ability of rough-skinned newts to resist TTX appears to derive from mutations in the target of the toxin, voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs); all six NaV genes possess mutations in the TTX-binding region of the channel, and electrophysiological experiments with the most widely expressed channel (NaV1.6) verify the mutations confer resistance to almost infinite concentrations of TTX. They show an important role that symbiotic microbes play in the physiology and evolution of their multicellular hosts. (Heather Eisthen and Patric Vaelli)

This species was featured in the News of the Week, 4 April 2016:

The Rough-skinned Newt, Taricha granulosa, is engaged in an evolutionary arms race with its only known significant predator, the Common Garter Snake, Thamnophis sirtalis. In regions where snakes are absent (such as some islands near Vancouver Island, Canada), newt toxicity is low to absent, whereas in sites where toxicity-resistant snakes are common (various sites in California and Oregon), newt toxicity is high to very high. The authors of a new paper (Hague et al. 2016) studied newts in southeast Alaska, where snakes are absent, and as expected, toxicity levels were low at most sites examined. However, puzzling variation was found. In one lake on Wrangell Island, no toxicity was found, but newts from another lake on the same island displayed surprisingly high levels, rivaling those in some areas where snake predators have high toxin resistance. Various explanations are offered, but reciprocal selection does not fully explain the toxicity variation in newts (David B. Wake).

March of the Newts from Freshwaters Illustrated on Vimeo.

See another account at californiaherps.com.

References

  • Brodie, E. D., III, and Brodie, E. D., Jr. (). ''Tetrodotoxin resistance in garter snakes: An evolutionary response of predators to dangerous prey.'' Evolution, , -.
  • Brodie, E. D., Jr., Hensel, J. L., and Johnson, J. A. (). ''Toxicity of the urodele amphibians Taricha, Notophthalmus, Cynops, and Paramesotriton (Family Salamandridae).'' Copeia, (), -.
  • Motychak, J. E., E. D. Brodie, Jr., and E. D. Brodie, III (). "Evolutionary response of predators to dangerous prey: Preadaptation and the evolution of tetrodotoxin resistance in garter snakes." Evolution, , -.
  • Nussbaum, R. A., and Brodie, E. D., Jr. (). ''Taricha granulosa (Skilton). Rough-skinned Newt.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, .-..
  • Riemer, W. J. (). "Variation and systematic relationships within the salamander genus Taricha." University of California Publications in Zoology, (), -.

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Distribution and Habitat

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This species ranges from southwestern Alaska, along the coast of North America through British Columbia, Canada, Washington, Oregon, and California to the San Francisco Bay area. Terrestrial habitat is forests in hilly or mountainous areas, occasionally grasslands or pastures. Aquatic habitat includes seasonally ephemeral ponds, as well as lakes and sluggish areas of streams. Rarely found in fast-flowing water (Riemer 1958; Stebbins 1985; Petranka 1998).

Populations in Idaho are considered introduced by the Idaho State Department of Fish and Game (https://idfg.idaho.gov/species/taxa/15503).

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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

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Rough-skinned newts migrate annually to and from their aquatic breeding sites. Migration occurs primarily in rainy weather when the temperature is >5º. Breeding season varies with latitude, and has been recorded over most months of the year with a peak from March to early May. Courtship includes a period of amplexus of the female by the male. During amplexus, the male rubs his head over the females. Fertilization is internal by means of a spermatophore, deposited by the male on the substrate and picked up by the female in her cloaca. Oviposition takes place shortly after mating. Eggs are layed singly, attached to submerged vegetation, rootlets, or detritus. (Nussbaum and Brodie 1981; Petranka 1998). Development time and length of the larval period vary geographically. Larvae eat small aquatic invertebrates. Prey of adults includes aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, and also amphibian larvae and eggs (Petranka 1998).

While T. granulosa is the most toxic newt in North America, all species of Taricha possess the potent neurotoxin known as tetrodotoxin. This serves the newt as an antipredator defense, and is also harmful to humans (Brodie et al. 1974; Petranka 1998). Despite their toxicity, newts are subject to predation by racoons and garter snakes (Thamnophis.) Thamnophis sirtalis is a specialist predator on newts and has evolved resistance to the tetrodotoxin (Brodie and Brodie 1990; Petranka 1998; Motychak et al. 1999). When harassed, Taricha assume the “unken reflex” where the head is raised, the tail is turned up and held straight over the body, the limbs are extended, and the eyes are closed (Riemer 1958; Brodie 1977). This action exposes the bright aposomatic coloration found on the newt's belly. The exact pattern of this reflex is a species-specific character, distinguishable from sympatric T. torosa, which holds the tail straight, while T. granulosa curls the tip (Stebbins 1985; Petranka 1998).

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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

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Regional differences exist in the preferred habitat of T. granulosa. Populations in the Cascades and Coast Range of Washington are most dense in mature and old-growth forests (Aubry and Hall 1991; Corn and Bury 1991), while popuations in the Oregon Cascades are relatively dense in younger stands. These differences should be considered for species management. Logging has a negative impact on the terrestrial habitat and migration corridors of this species and this should be investigated in detail (Petranka 1998).

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Relation to Humans

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The most toxic newt, Taricha granulosa has been responsible for severe illness and even death of people who have eaten it (e. g., Petranka 1998). Care should be taken when handling these animals. Wash hands after holding newts and do not touch eyes or mouth area.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Observations: Longevity in captivity is probably underestimated. One animal caught as an adult lived 3.5 years in captivity (http://www.pondturtle.com/). Based on size and growth rates, the average longevity in the wild is estimated to be 12 years (http://amphibiaweb.org/).
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Behavior

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It is unclear how T. granulosa individuals communicate with one another, but there is evidence that rough-skinned newts navigate using celestial cues, olfaction, and darkened areas caused by vegetation at the edges of water bodies.

Communication Channels: visual ; chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; ultraviolet; chemical

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Lorenz, A. 2008. "Taricha granulosa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Taricha_granulosa.html
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Amanda Lorenz, Michigan State University
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James Harding, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Conservation Status

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Rough-skinned newts are not listed as threatened or endangered, but like many amphibian species may face such a distinction if their habitat is extensively threatened by human development.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Lorenz, A. 2008. "Taricha granulosa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Taricha_granulosa.html
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Amanda Lorenz, Michigan State University
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James Harding, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Life Cycle

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Taricha granulosa exhibits an aquatic larval stage. Eggs hatch 3 to 4 weeks after being laid, and these newts spend 4 to 5 months as aquatic larvae before metamorphosing into juvenile adults. In some high elevation areas, newts overwinter as larvae and emerge in the spring or summer. They spend a couple of years as juvenile adults before returning to the water to breed. At high elevations, some adults retain their gills and spend their entire life cycle in the water. Adults reach sexual maturity at 4 to 5 years of age.

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

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Lorenz, A. 2008. "Taricha granulosa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Taricha_granulosa.html
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Amanda Lorenz, Michigan State University
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Benefits

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There are no known adverse effects of T. granulosa on humans, unless ingested. These newts contain enough toxin to kill several humans.

Negative Impacts: injures humans (poisonous )

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Lorenz, A. 2008. "Taricha granulosa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Taricha_granulosa.html
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Amanda Lorenz, Michigan State University
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Benefits

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Taricha granulosa is of particular interest to biologists because of its evolutionary arms race relationship with common garter snakes. This species is also exploited for the pet trade.

Positive Impacts: pet trade ; research and education

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Lorenz, A. 2008. "Taricha granulosa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Taricha_granulosa.html
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Amanda Lorenz, Michigan State University
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James Harding, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Since T. granulosa is mainly an insect eater, it is important in keeping insect populations in check, possibly including some nuisance insect species, such as mosquitoes (Culicidae). Taricha granulosa is also an important food source for common garter snakes, which are in turn eaten by other animals.

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Lorenz, A. 2008. "Taricha granulosa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Taricha_granulosa.html
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Amanda Lorenz, Michigan State University
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Trophic Strategy

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Larvae eat small aquatic invertebrates. Aquatic adults have been known to eat a variety of organisms, from snails and insects to other amphibians.

Adult terrestrial T. granulosa appear to be opportunistic carnivores, with insects making up a large portion of their diet.

Animal Foods: amphibians; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; mollusks; zooplankton

Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore , Eats non-insect arthropods, Molluscivore )

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Lorenz, A. 2008. "Taricha granulosa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Taricha_granulosa.html
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Amanda Lorenz, Michigan State University
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James Harding, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Distribution

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Taricha granulosa is found along the Pacific coast of North America, with a range extending from Santa Cruz County, California, south of San Francisco Bay, into southeastern Alaska north to Juneau. Within this range, it is found at elevations from sea-level to 2743 m, or 9000 ft, and is found on many islands off the coast, including Vancouver Island. In northern California rough-skinned newts are found as far east as Shasta County, extending into northern Butte County. Isolated populations of T. granulosa occur in Latah County, Idaho and Saunders County, Montana. The Idaho population, at least, is probably introduced.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Introduced , Native )

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Lorenz, A. 2008. "Taricha granulosa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Taricha_granulosa.html
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Amanda Lorenz, Michigan State University
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James Harding, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Habitat

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Taricha granulosa inhabits both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Though they generally spend more of their time on land, they must return to the water to breed. Many become temporarily aquatic during the summer months due to dry weather. It is possible for a newt to spend its entire life in an aquatic habitat. In the water, T. granulosa prefers areas of little or no current, such as ponds, lakes, and slow-moving streams, and sometimes small ephemeral wet areas such as ditches. Aggregations of adults have been discovered as deep as 12 meters underwater. On land, newts can usually be found under pieces of rotting wood on forested hills or mountains. They occasionally occur in open areas such as fields.

Range elevation: 0 to 2743 m.

Range depth: 0 to 12 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial ; freshwater

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; mountains

Aquatic Biomes: lakes and ponds; rivers and streams; temporary pools

Wetlands: marsh

Other Habitat Features: suburban ; agricultural ; riparian

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Lorenz, A. 2008. "Taricha granulosa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Taricha_granulosa.html
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Amanda Lorenz, Michigan State University
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James Harding, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Life Expectancy

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Little is known about the longevity of T. granulosa, but marked specimens have been recaptured after 17-18 years.

Range lifespan
Status: wild:
18 (high) years.

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Lorenz, A. 2008. "Taricha granulosa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Taricha_granulosa.html
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Amanda Lorenz, Michigan State University
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James Harding, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Morphology

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The eggs of T. granulosa are each separately encased in a gelatinous substance, around 3 to 4 millimeters in diameter. The ova are generally light-brown on top and cream colored on the bottom.

Larvae are aquatic, with a faint dorsal stripe on either side of the body that fades as they mature. Larvae have a dark stripe that extends from the eye to the nostril as well as two rows of spots. One row is near the limb insertions and the other is near the fin. The fin is speckled with dark spots. Larvae measure around 18 mm in total length.

Adults range from about 12.7 to 21.6 cm in total length. They have rough, grainy skin that is dark-colored dorsally and orange to yellow-orange ventrally. Their textured skin has earned them the common name "rough-skinned newts." Their eyes are relatively small and do not extend beyond the edges of the head. The irises are yellow, and the lower eyelids are orange. The vomerine teeth are arranged in a V-shaped pattern. Costal grooves are absent. Males are larger than females, with longer vents. During the breeding season, males and females become temporarily aquatic. Males develop smooth, spongy skin that is lighter-colored than usual. Their vents are strongly pronounced and swollen. The tail crests become more pronounced, as do the nuptial pads on the tips of their toes. The appearance of the females does not change, though their vent becomes cone-shaped.

Some adults living at high elevations retain their gills and are totally aquatic, though they do not exhibit genuine paedomorphosis. Aquatic females can sometimes be confused with breeding males, because they have lighter, smoother skin, tail crests, and larger vents than do terrestrial females. However, these features are less pronounced than in breeding males.

Range length: 12.7 to 21.6 cm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry ; poisonous

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; sexes shaped differently

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Lorenz, A. 2008. "Taricha granulosa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Taricha_granulosa.html
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Amanda Lorenz, Michigan State University
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James Harding, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Because of the extreme toxicity of rough-skinned newts, they have only one known predator, common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), which seem to be immune to tetrodotoxin. It has been proposed that these two species are competing against each other in an evolutionary arms race, in which a predator species and a prey species co-evolve, each developing greater defenses against the other. In this case, as the newts evolve greater toxicity, garter snakes evolve greater resistance to the toxicity.

Known Predators:

  • common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis)

Anti-predator Adaptations: aposematic

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Lorenz, A. 2008. "Taricha granulosa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Taricha_granulosa.html
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Amanda Lorenz, Michigan State University
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James Harding, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Reproduction

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Breeding takes place underwater, and is initiated by the male. He climbs on top of the female, clasps her with his legs, and proceeds to rub the snout of the female with his chin while stroking her legs with his hind legs. This behavior is known as amplexus, and can last anywhere from several hours to two days. The male then releases the female, crawls in front of her, and deposits a spermatophore, which is a gelatinous mass with a small capsule of sperm at the top. The female picks up the sperm capsule with her cloaca (vent). In some instances other males will attempt to separate an amplexed pair.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Reproduction in T. granulosa is totally aquatic, usually occurring in still or slow-moving waters near vegetation. The breeding season is highly variable depending on elevation. At lower elevations, most reproductive activity occurs in the spring, from January to May. At high elevations, most breeding occurs during late summer and early fall. Females lay their eggs soon after mating. The eggs are laid one at a time and are attached by the female to vegetable matter or detritus. They take 3 to 4 weeks to hatch.

Breeding interval: Rough-skinned newts breed annually or biennially, depending on their location.

Breeding season: At high elevations most breeding occurs during late summer, while at lower elevations most breeding occurs during the spring months.

Range time to hatching: 3 to 4 weeks.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 4 to 5 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 4 to 5 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous

There is no parental care exhibited by this species. The female takes care to attach her eggs to vegetation so they will not float away and provides nutrients for development.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female)

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Lorenz, A. 2008. "Taricha granulosa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Taricha_granulosa.html
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Amanda Lorenz, Michigan State University
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James Harding, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Taricha zrnitá ( Czech )

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Taricha zrnitá (Taricha granulosa) je severoamerický druh mlokovitého obojživelníka známý pro svůj silný jed.

Jedovatost

Mnoho mlokovitých obojživelníků používá jed jako zbraň proti predátorům, ale jed zástupců rodu taricha je výjimečně mocný. Jed je poznat obecně až poté, co je jedinec pozřen, objevily se ale i případy několika lidí, kteří po kontaktu s tarichou zrnitou měli podrážděnou pokožku.

Jed, který taricha používá, se jmenuje tetrodotoxin, který se zvratně váže na sodíkové kanály v nervových buňkách, čímž zabraňuje normálnímu průběhu toku sodíkových iontů z a do buňky. To časem způsobí ochrnutí a smrt.

Na většině území, které taricha obývá, si užovky proužkované vyvinuly imunitu vůči tomuto jedu. Principem tetrodotoxinu v těle hadů je, že se váže na tubovité proteiny, které mají funkci sodíkových kanálů v nervových buňkách hadů, avšak u těchto užovek se vyvinula genetická dispozice, kde je protein nastaven tak, aby bylo jeho vazbě s tetrodotoxinem zabráněno. Díky této odolnosti mohou užovky proužkované úspěšně lovit tarichy. Dnes se jedná o jediný druh živočicha, který může pozřít tarichu a přežít.

Evolučně je vlastně vztah mezi tarichou znitou a užovkou proužkovanou případem koevoluce. Genetická mutace užovek, která zajišťuje imunitu vůči toxinu tarichy, vyústila v selektivnost u tarich, které si vybírají protějšky s účinnějším jedem. Tím, že se zvyšuje síla tarišího jedu, si poté užovky vybírají protějšky s větší odolností vůči toxinu. Tento cyklus vzájemného vývoje predátora a jeho oběti se nazývá evoluční zbrojní horečka a jejím výsledkem je, že tarichy produkují jedy daleko silnější, než je potřeba.

Rozšíření

Přirozené životní prostředí tarichy zrnité se nachází podél západního pobřeží Spojených států amerických a v kanadské provincii Britská Kolumbie, konkrétně mezi Aljaškou a oblasti kolem města Santa Cruz v Kalifornii. Východně od Kaskádového pohoří je tento druh neobvyklý, ale i tam je příležitostně nalezen, většinou jako exotický, dost možná uměle rozšířený druh, a to až ve státě Montana. Ví se o jedné pravděpodobně dovezené kolonii tarich zrnitých obývajících několik rybníků severně od města Moscow ve státě Idaho.

Parazité

Parazity cizopasoucími se na tarichách zrnitých jsou především motolice Helipegus occidualis, které mohou napadnout jejich trávící soustavu od jícnu až po žaludek.

Reference

V tomto článku byl použit překlad textu z článku Rough-skinned newt na anglické Wikipedii.

  1. Červený seznam IUCN 2018.1. 5. července 2018. Dostupné online. [cit. 2018-08-11]

Externí odkazy

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Taricha zrnitá: Brief Summary ( Czech )

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Taricha zrnitá (Taricha granulosa) je severoamerický druh mlokovitého obojživelníka známý pro svůj silný jed.

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Rauhäutiger Gelbbauchmolch ( German )

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Wissenschaftlicher Name Taricha granulosa (Skilton, 1849)
 src=
Rauhäutiger Gelbbauchmolch in der Nähe von Langley (Kanada). Die raue Haut ist gut zu erkennen.
 src=
Rauhäutiger Gelbbauchmolch in der Nähe von Cottage Grove
 src=
Rauhäutiger Gelbbauchmolch im Wasser

Der Rauhäutige Gelbbauchmolch (Taricha granulosa), auch Westamerikanischer Rauhaut-Molch (angelehnt an den englischen Namen Rough-skinned newt), zählt zur Familie der Echten Salamander. Ein besonderes Kennzeichen dieses Molches ist ein Schutzmechanismus gegen die natürlichen Feinde durch die Bildung eines starken Giftes, des Tetrodotoxins (TTX).

Merkmale

Der Rauhäutige Gelbbauchmolch wird 12 bis 22 Zentimeter lang. Die warzige Haut ist oberseits hellbraun bis schwarz und am Bauch gelb bis orange gefärbt. In der Paarungszeit haben die männlichen Tiere einen verbreiterten Schwanzsaum, dunkel verhornte Zehenspitzen und eine stärker gewölbte Kloake.

Vorkommen

Der Rauhäutige Gelbbauchmolch ist an der nordamerikanischen Pazifikküste von Südalaska bis Kalifornien zu finden. Er lebt in Tümpeln, Seen und langsam fließenden Bächen in bis zu 2700 Metern über Meereshöhe.

Fortpflanzung

Die Paarungszeit dauert vom Dezember bis Juli. Im Wasser umklammert das Männchen das Weibchen von oben mit den Beinen. Auf einem Gallertkegel wird das Sperma am Boden abgesetzt und mit der Kloake vom Weibchen aufgenommen. Der Laich wird auf die Blätter von Wasserpflanzen geheftet.

Toxizität und Evolution

Der Schutz durch die Bildung von Tetrodotoxin (TTX) ist im Tierreich weit verbreitet. Beispielsweise findet man diesen Schutzmechanismus u. a. bei Kugelfischen und Blaugeringelte Kraken. Durch die Produktion dieses Giftes zählt die Gattung Taricha zu den giftigsten Schwanzlurchen. TTX wird auch als Tarichatoxin bezeichnet; die Gattung war namensgebend. Der Rauhäutige Gelbbauchmolch ist die wohl giftigste Art der Gattung. Bei TTX handelt es sich um ein Nervengift, welches in den Drüsen der Haut produziert wird und ein Abwehrstoff gegenüber Fressfeinden ist. Die Gewöhnliche Strumpfbandnatter (Thamnophis sirtalis) ist der einzige potentielle Feind, der durch evolutionäre Anpassung eine Resistenz gegen dieses Gift entwickelt hat. Nach dem Fressen des Molches muss die Schlange für einige Stunden in ein Ruhestadium übergehen, damit ihr Immunsystem effizient arbeiten kann. Der Molch wiederum zeigt in Regionen, wo diese Schlange vorkommt, eine stark erhöhte Produktion des Giftes. Man kann von einem evolutionären Wettrennen (Koevolution) sprechen. Da die Produktionsrate des Molchgiftes und die Resistenz der Schlangen in verschiedenen Populationen und Regionen, abhängig von der Bestandsdichte, variieren, spricht man in der angelsächsischen Fachliteratur auch von "geographic mosaic theory of evolution".

1979 starb in Oregon ein 29-jähriger Mann, nachdem er einen 20 cm langen Rauhäutigen Gelbbauchmolch als Mutprobe geschluckt hatte. Es ist der bisher einzige bekannte Todesfall eines Menschen durch den Molch.[1]

Die Giftbildung

Wie genau Tetrodotoxin in der Haut des Molches gebildet wird, ist noch unklar. Bei einigen Bakterien (z. B. bei Arten der Vibrionen und von Pseudomonas) wurde die Produktion des Giftes nachgewiesen. Somit geht eine Vermutung davon aus, dass solche Bakterien als Endosymbionten in der Haut des Molches leben und dieses Gift produzieren. Diese Hypothese wurde allerdings in Frage gestellt [2]: Bei einer Suche nach bekannten Tetrodotoxin ausscheidenden Bakterien innerhalb der Gewebe des Rauhäutiger Gelbbauchmolchs wurde die 16S-rRNA-Analyse genutzt, wobei keine rRNA dieser Bakterien im Hautgewebe, Leber oder im Eigewebe gefunden wurde. Geringe Spuren der rRNA von TTX-produzierenden Bakterien wurden innerhalb des Darms gefunden, aber die geringe Menge der RNA, also die Anzahl dieser Bakterien, scheint nicht ausreichend zu sein, um die Menge des produzierten Giftes zu erklären. Auch der Transport des TTX zum Hautgewebe müsste nachweisbar sein, was nicht der Fall ist. Eine andere Untersuchung spricht ebenfalls gegen die Aufnahme der giftbildenen Bakterien durch die Nahrung. So wurde der Molch ein Jahr lang in Gefangenschaft gehalten und in dieser Zeit zeigte sich keine Abnahme des Giftgehaltes, sondern sogar eine Erhöhung. Wenn die giftbildenden Organismen durch die Nahrung aufgenommen würden, hätte sich der Giftgehalt, bzw. die Bildung verringern müssen, da in dieser Zeit keine natürliche Nahrung des Molches zur Verfügung stand.

Diese Ergebnisse sprechen dafür, dass der Molch eigene Gene für die Bildung des Giftes besitzt und keine Hilfe von Bakterien benötigt. Dies würde bedeuten, dass die Fähigkeit TTX zu produzieren bei den Bakterien und den Molcharten unabhängig voneinander im Laufe der Evolution entstanden ist. Eine weitere Veröffentlichung stellt die Bildung von TTX im Kugelfisch durch Vibrio in Frage.[3][4] Eine endgültige Lösung dieser Probleme wäre die Analyse der für die Giftproduktion verantwortlichen Gene. Die Möglichkeit der selbständigen Bildung von TTX mit oder ohne als Endosymbionten fungierende Bakterien steht somit weiterhin unter Diskussion.

Quellen

  1. Sean B. Carroll: Die Darwin-DNA – Wie die neueste Forschung die Evolutionstheorie bestätigt, ISBN 978-3-10-010231-7, S. 175.
  2. Elizabeth M. Lehman, Edmund D. Brodie und Edmund D. Brodie: No evidence for an endosymbiotic bacterial origin of tetrodotoxin in the newt Taricha granulosa In: Toxicon 44 (2004) 243–249, PMID 15302530.
  3. Kendo Matsumura: Reexamination of Tetrodotoxin Production by Bacteria In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, September 1995, S. 3468–3470 AEM Online.
  4. Kim, D.S., Kim, C.H.: No ability to produce tetrodotoxin in bacteria — authors reply. In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Mai 2001, S. 2393–2394 AEM Online.

Literatur

  • Edmund D. Brodie, Chris R. Feldman, Charles T. Hanifin, Jeffrey E. Motychak, Daniel G. Mulcahy, Becky L. Williams & Edmund D. Brodie: Parallel Arms Races between Garter Snakes and Newts Involving Tetrodotoxin as the Phenotypic Interface of Coevolution. - Journal of Chemical Ecology 31(2), S. 343–355 (2002), ISSN 0098-0331, PMID 15856788.
  • Edmund D. Brodie Jr., B. J. Ridenhour, E. D. Brodie III: The evolutionary response of predators to dangerous prey: hotspots and coldspots in the geographic mosaic of coevolution between garter snakes and newts. - Evolution 56(10), S. 2067–2082 (2002) BioOne Online Journals.

Weblinks

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Rauhäutiger Gelbbauchmolch: Brief Summary ( German )

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 src= Rauhäutiger Gelbbauchmolch in der Nähe von Langley (Kanada). Die raue Haut ist gut zu erkennen.  src= Rauhäutiger Gelbbauchmolch in der Nähe von Cottage Grove  src= Rauhäutiger Gelbbauchmolch im Wasser

Der Rauhäutige Gelbbauchmolch (Taricha granulosa), auch Westamerikanischer Rauhaut-Molch (angelehnt an den englischen Namen Rough-skinned newt), zählt zur Familie der Echten Salamander. Ein besonderes Kennzeichen dieses Molches ist ein Schutzmechanismus gegen die natürlichen Feinde durch die Bildung eines starken Giftes, des Tetrodotoxins (TTX).

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Crater Lake newt

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The Crater Lake newt or Mazama newt, Taricha granulosa mazamae, is a subspecies of the rough-skinned newt. Its type locality is Crater Lake, Oregon.[2] Similar newts have been found in Alaska,[3][4] but their identity is unclear.[1]

The Crater Lake newt population is under threat due to predation from crayfish and rainbow trout that have been introduced into the lake.[5]

References

  1. ^ a b Myers, G. S. (1942). "Notes on Pacific coast Triturus". Copeia. 1942 (2): 77–82. doi:10.2307/1439122. JSTOR 1439122.
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2013). "Taricha granulosa (Skilton, 1849)". Amphibian Species of the World 5.6, an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  3. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008) Rough-skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa), Globaltwitcher, ed. N. Stromberg [1] Archived 2009-05-27 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Nate Nelson (2000–2002). "Taricha granulosa Rough-skinned Newt". Caudata Culture. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  5. ^ "2015 OPB Article about the problem".
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Crater Lake newt: Brief Summary

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The Crater Lake newt or Mazama newt, Taricha granulosa mazamae, is a subspecies of the rough-skinned newt. Its type locality is Crater Lake, Oregon. Similar newts have been found in Alaska, but their identity is unclear.

The Crater Lake newt population is under threat due to predation from crayfish and rainbow trout that have been introduced into the lake.

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Rough-skinned newt

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 src=
Taricha granulosa egg in moss observed near Pe Ell, Washington on May 22, 2017.

The rough-skinned newt or roughskin newt (Taricha granulosa) is a North American newt known for the strong toxin exuded from its skin.

Appearance

A stocky newt with rounded snout, it ranges from light brown to olive or brownish-black on top, with the underside, including the head, legs, and tail, a contrasting orange to yellow.[2][3] The skin is granular, but males are smooth-skinned during breeding season. They measure 6 to 9 cm in snout-to-vent length, and 11 to 18 cm overall.[3] They are similar to the California newt (Taricha torosa) but differ in having smaller eyes, yellow irises, V-shaped tooth patterns, and uniformly dark eyelids.[2] Males can be distinguished from females during breeding season by large swollen vent lobes[3] and cornified toe pads.[2]

Distribution and subspecies

 src=
Rough-skinned newt. Josephine County, Oregon.

Habitats of rough-skinned newts are found throughout the Pacific Northwest. Their range extends south to Santa Cruz, California, and north to Alaska. They are uncommon east of the Cascade Mountains, though occasionally are found (and considered exotic, and possibly artificially introduced) as far as Montana. One isolated population lives in several ponds just north of Moscow, Idaho, and was most likely introduced.[4]

A number of subspecies have been defined based on local variants, but only two subspecies have wider recognition:[2][5]

T granulosa egg in Washington
T granulosa egg in Washington

It is now believed that the Taricha granulosa mazamae subspecies is no longer valid, as specimens that look similar to T.g.m have been found in areas of Alaska as well.

Toxicity

Many newts produce toxins from skin glands as a defense against predation, but the toxins of the genus Taricha are particularly potent. An acrid smell radiates from the newt, which acts as a warning for animals to stay away.[6] Toxicity is generally experienced only if the newt is ingested, although some individuals have been reported to experience skin irritation after dermal contact, particularly if the eyes are touched after handling the animal without washing hands. In 1979 a person died after ingesting a newt.[7]

Tetrodotoxin binding

The newt produces a neurotoxin called tetrodotoxin (TTX), which in this species was formerly called "tarichatoxin". It is the same toxin found in pufferfish and a number of other marine animals.[8] This toxin targets voltage gated sodium channels via binding to distinct but allosterically coupled sites. Because TTX is much larger than a sodium ion, it acts like a cork in a bottle and prevents the flow of sodium. The reverse binding to sodium channels in nerve cells blocks electrical signals necessary for conducting nerve impulses. This inhibition of firing action potentials has the effect of inducing paralysis and death by asphyxiation.

Toxin resistance and predation

 src=
A rough-skinned newt underwater
 src=
A rough-skinned newt at Brice Creek in Oregon

Throughout much of the newt's range, the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) has been observed to exhibit resistance to the tetrodotoxin produced in the newt's skin. While in principle the toxin binds to a tube-shaped protein that acts as a sodium channel in the snake's nerve cells, researchers have identified a genetic disposition in several snake populations where the protein is configured in such a way as to hamper or prevent binding of the toxin. In each of these populations, the snakes exhibit resistance to the toxin and successfully prey upon the newts. Successful predation of the rough-skinned newt by the common garter snake is made possible by the ability of individuals in a common garter snake population to gauge whether the newt's level of toxin is too high to feed on. T. sirtalis assays toxin levels of the rough-skinned newt and decides whether or not the levels are manageable by partially swallowing the newt, and either swallowing or releasing the newt.[9] Toxin-resistant garter snakes are the only known animals today that can eat a rough-skinned newt and survive.

Arms race

In evolutionary theory, the relationship between the rough-skinned newt and the common garter snake is considered an example of co-evolution.[10] The mutations in the snake's genes that conferred resistance to the toxin have resulted in a selective pressure that favors newts which produce more potent levels of toxin. Increases in the amount of newt then apply a selective pressure favoring snakes with mutations conferring even greater resistance. This cycle of a predator and prey evolving to one another is sometimes termed an evolutionary arms race because the two species compete in developing adaptations and counter adaptations against each other. This has resulted in the newts producing levels of toxin far in excess of what is needed to kill any other conceivable predator. Some newts secrete enough toxins to kill several adult humans. It appears that in some areas, the common garter snake has surpassed the newt in the evolutionary arms race by developing such a strong resistance to the toxin that the newt is unable to compete with its production of the toxin.[6] There has been phylogenetic evidence that indicates elevated resistance to TTX has originated independently and only in certain species of garter snakes. The resistance has evolved in at least two unrelated species in the genus Thamnophis and at least twice within T. sirtalis.[11]

Toxin effect

The toxin, when injected into animals, may not kill resistant animals; however, they are normally slowed down by its toxic effects. In snakes, individuals who showed some resistance tended to move slower after TTX injection, while those with less resistance become paralyzed.[12]

Newts are not immune to their own toxin; they only have a heightened resistance. The toxin in newts consists of a tradeoff. Each time they release the toxin, they inject themselves with a few milligrams. The TTX becomes concentrated in certain parts of the tissue after passing through cell membranes. As a result of tissue exposure to the toxin, newts have evolved a protection mechanism via a single amino acid substitution to the voltage-gated sodium channel normally affected by TTX. Puffer fishes show a similar amino acid sequence that allows them to survive from their own toxin exposure.[8]

Predation on newts by T. sirtalis also shows evidence that tetrodotoxin may serve as protection of eggs by the mother. While TTX is mainly located in the glands of the skin, the rough-skinned newt, as well as some other amphibians also possesses TTX in the ovaries and eggs. The higher the skin toxin levels were in the female, the higher the toxin level found in the egg. This is evidence that high toxin levels of the skin may, in fact, be under indirect selection. Since egg toxin levels would ultimately increase the survivability from predators, such as the garter snake, of the offspring, egg toxin levels may be under direct selection by mates, which is detectable via skin toxin levels.[13]

Predator avoidance

The rough skinned newt uses a form of chemical based avoidance behavior to avoid being eaten by predators, mainly the common garter snake. The snakes, after swallowing, digesting, and metabolizing a rough-skinned newt, release a chemical signature. This stimulus can be detected by a nearby newt and trigger an avoidant response, which allows them to minimize predation risks. In this way, newts are able to differentiate whether a snake is resistant or sensitive to the toxin in order to avoid being preyed upon. However, newts do not avoid the corpses of a recently digested newt that has been left to decompose. This behavior is unlike salamanders that have been documented in avoiding other damaged salamanders.[14]

Parasites

Parasites include the trematode Halipegus occidualis, the adult form of which may infest the newt's esophagus and the anterior of its stomach.[15]

See also

Line notes

  1. ^ IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2015). "Taricha granulosa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T59469A78909317. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T59469A78909317.en.
  2. ^ a b c d Nelson, Nate (2003). "Taricha granulosa". Caudata Culture website. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
  3. ^ a b c Hallock, L. A. (2005). "Rough-skinned newt". Washington Herp Atlas. Dept. of Natural Resources, Washington State. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
  4. ^ Natureserve Explorer
  5. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Taricha granulosa (Skilton, 1849)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  6. ^ a b Stanford University. "Snakes Vault Past Toxic Newts in Evolutionary Arms Race." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 March 2008. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080311075326.htm.
  7. ^ Bradley, Susan G.; Klika, Larry J. (July 1981). "A fatal poisoning from the Oregon rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa)". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 246 (3): 247. doi:10.1001/jama.1981.03320030039026. PMID 7241765. closed access
  8. ^ a b Striedter, Georg F.; Avise, John C.; Ayala, Francisco J. (2013). In the Light of Evolution: Volume VI: Brain and Behavior. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-26175-3.
  9. ^ Williams, Becky L.; Brodie, Edmund D. III (2003). "Coevolution deadly toxins and predator resistance: self-assessment of resistance by garter snakes leads to behavioral rejection of toxic newt prey". Herpetologica. 59 (2): 155–163. doi:10.1655/0018-0831(2003)059[0155:codtap]2.0.co;2. JSTOR 3893352.
  10. ^ American Book Company, Liz Thompson (2006). Passing the New Jersey High School Proficiency Assessment in Science. American Book Company. p. 106. ISBN 978-1-59807-103-0.
  11. ^ Brodie, Edmund D. III; Feldman, Chris R.; Hanifin, Charles T.; Motychak, Jeffrey E.; Mulcahy, Daniel G.; Williams, Becky L.; Brodie, Edmund D. (February 2005). "Parallel arms races between garter snakes and newts involving tetrodotoxin as the phenotypic interface of coevolution". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 31 (2): 343–356. doi:10.1007/s10886-005-1345-x. PMID 15856788. S2CID 16542226.
  12. ^ Hanifin, Charles T.; Brodie, Edmund D. Jr.; Brodie, Edmund D. III (2008). "Phenotypic mismatches reveal escape from arms-race coevolution". PLOS Biology. 6 (3): e60. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060060. PMC 2265764. PMID 18336073.
  13. ^ Hanifin, Charles T.; Brodie, Edmund D. III; Brodie, Edmund D. Jr. (2003). "Tetrodotoxin levels in eggs of the rough-skin newt, Taricha granulosa, are correlated with female toxicity". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 29 (8): 1729–1739. doi:10.1023/A:1024885824823. PMID 12956503. S2CID 9284559.
  14. ^ Gall, Brian G.; Farr, Abigail A.; Engel, Sophia G. A.; Brodie, Edmund D. (March 2011). "Toxic prey and predator avoidance: responses of toxic newts to chemical stimuli from a predator and injured conspecifics". Northwestern Naturalist. 92 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1898/10-22.1. S2CID 85980230.
  15. ^ Marvin Clinton Meyer; Oliver Wilford Olsen (1975). Essentials of parasitology (2, illustrated ed.). W. C. Brown Co. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-697-04682-6.

References

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Rough-skinned newt: Brief Summary

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 src= Taricha granulosa egg in moss observed near Pe Ell, Washington on May 22, 2017.

The rough-skinned newt or roughskin newt (Taricha granulosa) is a North American newt known for the strong toxin exuded from its skin.

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Taricha granulosa ( Spanish; Castilian )

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La salamandra de piel rugosa (Taricha granulosa) es una especie de anfibio caudato de América del Norte conocida por la fuerte toxina que exuda a través de su piel.

Apariencia

Su apariencia es la de una salamandra de hocico redondeado, su color va desde marrón claro a oliva o marrón-negro en la parte superior, con la parte inferior, incluida la de la cabeza, las piernas y la cola, con una naranja amarillento que contrasta con el marrón de la parte superior.[2][3]​ La piel es granular, pero los machos son de piel suave durante la temporada de cría. Miden entre 6 y 9 cm de longitud de hocico a ano, y entre 11 a 18 cm hasta la punta de la cola.[3]​ Son similares al tritón de California (Taricha torosa) pero difieren en que tienen ojos más pequeños, iris amarillos, los patrones de los dientes en forma de "V", y los párpados uniformemente oscuros.[2]​ Los machos se pueden distinguir de las hembras durante la temporada de cría por grandes lóbulos de ventilación hinchados[3]​ y cornificadas almohadillas pedales.[2]

Parásitos

La lista de parásitos que afectan a Taricha granulosa incluye el trematodo Helipegus occidualis, la forma adulta de este puede infectar el esófago de la salamandra y la parte anterior de su estómago.[4]

Véase también

Referencias

  1. IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2015). «Taricha granulosa». Lista Roja de especies amenazadas de la UICN 2016.3 (en inglés). ISSN 2307-8235. Consultado el 2 de mayo de 2017.
  2. a b c Nelson, Nate (2003). «Taricha granulosa». Caudata Culture website. Consultado el 28 de febrero de 2013.
  3. a b c Hallock, L. A. (2005). «Rough-skinned newt». Washington Herp Atlas. Dept. of Natural Resources, Washington State. Archivado desde el original el 19 de junio de 2016. Consultado el 28 de febrero de 2013.
  4. Marvin Clinton Meyer, Oliver Wilford Olsen (1975). Essentials of parasitology (2, illustrated edición). W. C. Brown Co. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-697-04682-6.

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Taricha granulosa: Brief Summary ( Spanish; Castilian )

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La salamandra de piel rugosa (Taricha granulosa) es una especie de anfibio caudato de América del Norte conocida por la fuerte toxina que exuda a través de su piel.

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Taricha granulosa ( Basque )

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Taricha granulosa Taricha generoko animalia da. Anfibioen barruko Salamandridae familian sailkatuta dago, Caudata ordenan.

Erreferentziak

Ikus, gainera

Kanpo estekak

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Taricha granulosa: Brief Summary ( Basque )

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Taricha granulosa Taricha generoko animalia da. Anfibioen barruko Salamandridae familian sailkatuta dago, Caudata ordenan.

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Länsirannikonsalamanteri ( Finnish )

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Länsirannikonsalamanteri (Taricha granulosa) on Yhdysvaltain länsirannikolla elävä salamanterilaji.

Koko ja ulkonäkö

Länsirannikonsalamanteri on alle 20 cm:n mittainen kokonaispituudeltaan. Lajin selkäpuoli on väriltään punertavan ruskea ja vatsapuoli on oranssi. Salamanterin silmät ovat keltaiset ja silmäluomet samanväriset kuin pää. Silmistä erottaakin parhaiten länsirannikonsalamanterin sen sukulaisesta kaliforniansalamanterista. Nämä kaksi lajia ovat ulkonäöltään melkein samannäköiset. Lajin iholla on pieni määrä hermomyrkkyä, joka ei kuitenkaan vaikuta terveen ihon läpi.

Levinneisyys

Länsirannikonsalamanterin levinneisyysalue on Pohjois-Amerikan länsirannikolla Kaliforniassa, jossa lajia tavataan luonnonvaraisena.

Elintavat

Länsirannikonsalamanteri viihtyy vedessä, mutta voi elää myös enimmäkseen maalla.

Ravinto

Länsirannikonsalamanteri syö erilaisia pieniä selkärangattomia, kuten muutkin salamanterit.

Lemmikkieläimenä

Suomessa länsirannikonsalamanteri on harvinainen terraariolemmikki, toisin kuin Keski-Euroopassa tai Amerikassa, missä se on melko yleinen terraariossa pidettynä. Länsirannikonsalamanteri voi mennä eläinkaupoissa helposti sekaisin sukulaisensa kaliforniansalamanterin kanssa, mutta niiden elinolosuhteet ovat suunnilleen samanlaiset. Terraariossa tulisi olla maa-aluetta ja riittävän iso uimapaikka. Elinolosuhteet tulee järjestää yksilön viihtyvyyden mukaan, eli jos salamanteri viettää paljon aikaa vedessä, tulee sille tarjota suurempi uimatila. Uimapaikan vesi täytyy vaihtaa päivittäin salamanterin herkän ihon vuoksi. Pohjapinta-alaltaan terraarion pitäisi olla vähintään 80 x 40 cm. Sopiva lämpötila päivisin on noin 16-21 astetta ja lämpötila voi laskea yöksi muutaman asteen. Maalla elävän länsirannikonsalamanterin terraariossa tulee olla riittävä ilmankosteus, jota voi ylläpitää sumuttamalla terraariota päivittäin.

Lähteet

  1. IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group: Taricha granulosa IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. 2014. International Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN, Iucnredlist.org. Viitattu 7.8.2014. (englanniksi)

Aiheesta muualla

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Länsirannikonsalamanteri: Brief Summary ( Finnish )

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Länsirannikonsalamanteri (Taricha granulosa) on Yhdysvaltain länsirannikolla elävä salamanterilaji.

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Taricha granulosa ( French )

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Taricha granulosa est une espèce d'urodèles de la famille des Salamandridae[1]. Elle est parfois appelée Triton rugueux.

Répartition

 src=
T. granulosa, observée en Californie.

Cette espèce se rencontre du niveau de la mer à 2 800 m d'altitude dans le sud de l'Alaska, dans l'ouest de l'État de Washington, dans l'Ouest de l'Oregon, et dans le nord-ouest de la Californie aux États-Unis et dans l'Ouest de la Colombie-Britannique au Canada. Elle a été introduite en Idaho et au Montana[1].

Toxine

Elle est connue pour sécréter un poison violent au niveau de sa peau[2].

La plupart des tritons produisent des toxines qui les protègent de la prédation, toutefois les espèces du genre Taricha ont des toxines particulièrement violentes. Taricha granulosa produit des tétrodotoxines (appelées dans ce cas « tarichatoxines »), dont un trentième de la quantité sécrétée par un animal est apte à tuer un homme en bonne santé. Cette toxine n'agirait que lorsqu'elle est ingérée mais il est parfois fait état de brulures dermiques en cas de contact avec la peau.

Seule la couleuvre rayée (Thamnophis sirtalis, aussi appelé serpent-jarretière) a développé une résistance aux toxines de ce triton. Peu à peu, un équilibre écologique s'est mis en place entre les deux espèces: Les tritons les plus venimeux survivent davantage à la prédation des couleuvres, et les couleuvres les plus résistantes aux toxines sont favorisées dans leur accès à la nourriture.

Publication originale

  • Skilton, 1849 : Description of two reptiles from Oregon. American Journal of Science and Arts, sér. 2, vol. 7, p. 202 (texte intégral).

Notes et références

  1. a et b Amphibian Species of the World, consulté lors d'une mise à jour du lien externe
  2. Hanifin, Brodie & Brodie, 2002 : Tetrodotoxin levels of the rough-skin newt, Taricha granulosa, increase in long-term captivity. Toxicon, vol. 40, no 8, p. 1149-1153 (texte intégral).
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Taricha granulosa: Brief Summary ( French )

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Taricha granulosa est une espèce d'urodèles de la famille des Salamandridae. Elle est parfois appelée Triton rugueux.

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Taricha granulosa ( Galician )

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Taricha granulosa é un anfibio urodelo de Norteamérica con aspecto de tritón ou píntega, que se caracteriza por exsudar pola súa pel unha forte toxina.

Aspecto

É un urodelo corpulento de fociño arredondado de cor que vai de marrón claro a oliváceo ou marrón escuro na parte de arriba, mentres que a parte de abaixo, incluíndo patas, cabeza e cola, é dunha cor que vai de laranxa a amarelo.[2][3] A súa pel é granular, pero os machos teñen a pel lisa durante a estación reprodutora. Miden de 6 a 9 cm do fociño ao ano, e de 11 a 18 cm de lonxitude total.[3] É similar á especie Taricha torosa, pero difiren en que T. granulosa ten ollos máis pequenos, iris amarelos, patróns de dentes con forma de V, e pálpebras uniformemente escuras.[2] Os machos poden distinguirse das femias durante a estación reprodutora polos seus grandes lobos anais inchados[3] e as almofadas dos dedos cornificados.[2]

Distribución e subspecies

 src=
Un exemplar de T. granulosa no condado de Josephine, Oregón.

Os hábitats destes anfibios encóntranse por toda a costa oeste de Estados Unidos e a Columbia Británica canadense. A súa área de distribución esténdese cara ao sur ata Santa Cruz, California, e polo norte chega a Alasca. Son raros ao leste das Montañas Cascadas, aínda que ocasionalmente en se encontraron en Montana (onde son considerados exóticos e posiblemente introducidos artificialmente). Ademais, unha poboación illada vive en varias pozas ao norte de Moscow, Idaho, tamén probablemente introducida.[4]

Definíronse varias subespecies baseándose en variantes locais, pero ao final só están recoñecidas amplamente dúas subespecies, que son:[2][5]

  • Taricha granulosa granulosa.
  • Taricha granulosa mazamae, do lago Cráter, Oregón.

Agora pénsase que a subespecie Taricha granulosa mazamae xa non é válida, xa que espécimes que parecen similares a T.g.m foron atopados tamén en áreas de Alasca.

Toxicidade

Moitos anfibios producen toxinas en glándulas da pel como defensa contra a predación, pero as toxinas do xénero Taricha son particularmente potentes e identificáronse como tetrodotoxinas. Desta especie sae un cheiro acre, que actúa como advertencia para que os outros animais se manteñan afastados. A toxina non se absorbe pola pel polo que os humanos deberían poder manipular o animal coas mans espidas.[6] A toxicidade só se experimenta xeralmente se o animal é inxerido, aínda que algunhas persoas informaron que sufriron irritación da pel ou ollos despois dun contacto dérmico, especialmente se se tocan os ollos sen lavar as mans despois de coller o animal . Publicouse que, por causa dunha aposta, unha persoa en Oregón tragou un exemplar duns 20 cm en 1979 e morreu poucas horas despois.[7]

Unión da tetrodotoxina

O animal produce unha neurotoxina chamada tetrodotoxina (TTX), que antes nesta especie foi chamada "taricatoxina". É a mesma toxina do peixe globo e outros animais mariños.[8] Esta toxina afecta ás canles de sodio regulados por voltaxe ao unirse a sitios alostéricos acoplados, impedindo o fluxo de sodio, e o resultado é que bloquea nas células nerviosas os sinais eléctricos necesarios para a transmisión do impulso nervioso. Isto causa parálise muscular e, en último extremo, a morte.

Resistencia á toxina e predación

 src=
T. granulosa na auga.
 src=
T. granulosa en Brice Creek, Oregón.

En gran parte da sú área de distribución, observouse que a serpe Thamnophis sirtalis, que depreda a este anfibio, mostra resistencia á tetrodotoxina producidoa pola pel do anfibio. Os investigadores descubriron que varias poboacións da serpe teñen unha mutación que modifica a proteína da canle de sodio de modo que impide a unión a ela da toxina. Nesas poboacións, as serpes mostran resistencia á toxina e poden depredar nos anfibios. Os individuos destas poboacións poden calibrar se o nivel de toxina do anfibio é demasiado alto para comelo. T. sirtalis avalía o nivel de toxina do anfibio tragándoo parcialmente e decidindo se o libera ou o traga definitivamente.[9] Estes ofidios son os únicos animais que se saiba que poden comer estes anfibios e sobrevivir.

Carreira de armamentos

Na teoría evolutiva a relación entre T. granulosa e Thamnophis sirtalis é considerada un exemplo de coevolución.[10] As mutacións nos xenes da serpe que lle dan resistencia á toxina tiveron como resultado unha presión selectiva que favorece que estes anfibios produzan niveis máis potentes de toxina. Pero os incrementos na cantidade de toxina no anfibio xeran unha presión selectiva sobre as serpes que favorece nestas as mutacións que lle dan unha maior resistencia. Este ciclo entre predador e presa que evolucionan un en resposta ao outro denomínase carreira de armamentos evolutiva porque as dúas especies compiten en desenvolver adaptacións e contraadaptacións un contra o outro. Como resultado o anfibio produce niveis de toxina moi superiores aos necesarios para matar a outro depredador (algúns individuos producen toxina dabondo para matar varios adultos humanos). Parece que nalgunhas áreas a serpe superou o anfibio nesta carreira, de modo que o pode comer.[6][11]

Efecto da toxina

A toxina inxectada nunha das serpes, pode non matar a individuos resistentes; pero normalmente os seus movementos son máis lentos polos efectos tóxicos, pero os exemplares non resistentes quedan paralizados.[12]

Os anfibios non son inmunes á súa propia toxina; só presentan un aumento da resistencia. Cada vez que liberan a toxina absorben algúns miligramos. A TTX concéntrase máis en certas partes do tecido atravesando as membranas celulares, e o animal desenvolveu un mecanismo de protección por medio dunha soa susbtitución de aminoácidos na proteína da canle de sodio afectada pola TTX. Os peixes globo teñen unha secuencia de aminoácidos similar co mesmo propósito.[13]

A predación destes anfibios por arte de T. sirtalis mostra tamén evidencias de que a tetrodotoxina pode servir como protección dos ovos pola nai. Mentres que a TTX localízase principalmente nas glándulas da pel, T. granulosa, e outros anfibios tamén teñen TTX nos ovarios e nos ovos. Canto maior nivel de toxina ten a femia, maior nivel de toxina teñen os ovos. Isto é unha evidencia de que os altos niveis de toxina da pel poden, de feito, estar baixo selección indirecta. Como os niveis de toxina dos ovos incrementan finalmente a supervivencia das crías ante os depredadores, os niveis de toxina nos ovos poden estar baixo selección directa por apareamentos, o cal se pode detectar polo nivel de toxina da pel.[14]

Evitación dos predadores

T. granulosa usa un comportamento baseado química para evitar ser comido polos predadores, esencialmente a serpe Thamnophis sirtalis. As serpes, despois de tragar, dixerir, e metabolizar un destes anfibios, liberan unha firma química. Este estímulo pode ser detectado por un T. granulosa que se encontre próximo e isto desencadea unha resposta de evitación, que lles permite minimizar os riscos de predación. Deste modo, os anfibios poden distinguir se unha serpe é resistente ou sensible á toxina para evitaren ser depredados. Porén, os anfibios non evitan os cadáveres doutro anfibio acabado de dixerir que foi deixado ata descompoñerse. Este comportamento é diferente ao das píntegas nas que se documentou que evitaban as píntegas danadas.[15]

Parasitos

Os seus parasitos son os trematodos Halipegus occidualis, cuxa forma adulta pode infestar o esófago do anfibio e a parte anterior do seu estómago.[16]

Notas

  1. Geoffrey Hammerson (2004). "Taricha granulosa". Lista Vermella de especies ameazadas. Versión 2013.2 (en inglés). Unión Internacional para a Conservación da Natureza. Consultado o 5 de maio de 2014.
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 Nelson, Nate (2003). "Taricha granulosa". Caudata Culture website. Consultado o 28 de febreiro de 2013.
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 Hallock, L. A. (2005). "Rough-skinned newt". Washington Herp Atlas. Dept. of Natural Resources, Washington State. Arquivado dende o orixinal o 19 de xuño de 2016. Consultado o 28 de febreiro de 2013.
  4. Natureserve Explorer
  5. Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Taricha granulosa (Skilton, 1849)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Consultado o 5 de maio de 2014.
  6. 6,0 6,1 Stanford University. "Snakes Vault Past Toxic Newts in Evolutionary Arms Race." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 de marzo de 2008. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080311075326.htm>.
  7. Bradley, Susan G.; Klika, Larry J. (xullo de 1981). "A fatal poisoning from the Oregon rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa)". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 246 (3): 247. PMID 7241765. doi:10.1001/jama.1981.03320030039026.
  8. Striedter, G, Avise, J, Ayala, F. 2013. In the Light of Evolution: Volume VI: Brain and Behavior. National Academy of Sciences.
  9. Williams, Becky L., Brodie, Edmund Jr., Brodie, Edmund III (2003) "Coevolution of Deadly Toxins And Predator Resistance: Self-Assessment of Resistance By Garter Snakes Leads To Behavioral Rejection of Toxic Newt Prey." Herpetologica (Jun 2003): 155-163.
  10. American Book Company, Liz Thompson (2006). Passing the New Jersey High School Proficiency Assessment in Science. American Book Company. p. 106. ISBN 1-59807-103-3.
  11. Brodie III, E, Feldman, C, Hanifin, C, Motychak, J, Mulcahy, D, Williams, B, & Brodie Jr, E. 2004. "Parallel Arms Races Between Garter Snakes and Newts Involving Tetrodotoxin as the Phenotypic interface of Coevolution." Journal of Chemical Ecology, 2: 343-354.
  12. Hanifin, CT; Brodie, ED; Brodie, ED. "Phenotypic Mismatches Reveal Escape from Arms-Race Coevolution". PLoS Biol 6 (3): e60. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060060.
  13. Striedter, G, Avise, J, Ayala, F. 2013. "In the Light of Evolution: Volume VI: Brain and Behavior." National Academy of Sciences.
  14. Hanifin, Charles T., Brodie III, Edmund D., Brodie Jr., Edmund D. 2003. "Tetrodotoxin Levels In Eggs of the Rough-Skin Newt, Taricha granulosa, Are Correlated With Female Toxicity". Journal of Chemical Ecology 29: 1730-1739.
  15. Gall, B, Farr, A, Engel, S, Brodie, E. 2011. "Toxic Prey and Predator Avoidance: Responses of Toxic Newts to Chemical Stimuli from a Predator and Injured Cospecifics." Northwestern Naturalist. 96:1-6.
  16. Marvin Clinton Meyer, Oliver Wilford Olsen (1975). Essentials of parasitology (2, illustrated ed.). W. C. Brown Co. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-697-04682-6.

Véxase tamén

Bibliografía

  • "Taricha granulosa: Rough-skinned Newt". Caudata Culture. Consultado o 2006-07-26.
  • Geffeney, Shana L.; et al. (2005). "Evolutionary diversification of TTX-resistant sodium channels in a predator-prey interaction". Nature 434: 759–763. PMID 15815629. doi:10.1038/nature03444.
  • "Taricha granulosa granulosa – Rough-Skinned Newt". California Herps. Consultado o 2006-12-10.
  • C. Michael Hogan (2008) Rough-skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa), Globaltwitcher, ed. N. Stromberg [1]
  • Williams, Becky L., Brodie, Edmund Jr., Brodie, Edmund III (2003) "Coevolution of Deadly Toxins And Predator Resistance: Self-Assessment of Resistance By Garter Snakes Leads To Behavioral Rejection of Toxic Newt Prey." Herpetologica (Jun 2003): 155-163.
  • Hanifin, Charles T., Brodie III, Edmund D., Brodie Jr., Edmund D. 2003. "Tetrodotoxin Levels In Eggs of the Rough-Skin Newt, Taricha granulosa, Are Correlated With Female Toxicity". Journal of Chemical Ecology 29: 1730-1739.
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Taricha granulosa: Brief Summary ( Galician )

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Taricha granulosa é un anfibio urodelo de Norteamérica con aspecto de tritón ou píntega, que se caracteriza por exsudar pola súa pel unha forte toxina.

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Ruwe salamander ( Dutch; Flemish )

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Herpetologie

De ruwe salamander[2] (Taricha granulosa) is een salamander uit de familie echte salamanders (Salamandridae).[3] De soort werd voor het eerst wetenschappelijk beschreven door Avery Judd Skilton in 1849. Oorspronkelijk werd de wetenschappelijke naam Salamandra (Triton) granulosa gebruikt.

Uiterlijke kenmerken

De salamander bereikt een lichaamslengte van ongeveer 12 tot 22 centimeter waarvan iets meer dan de helft bestaat uit de staart. Opvallend is de ruwe, korrelige structuur van de huid, ook de wetenschappelijke naam verwijst hiernaar want de soortnaam granulosa betekent 'korrelig'. De kleur is niet erg variabel; bruin tot donkerbruin aan de bovenzijde, geel tot oranje aan de onderzijde, vlekken en tekeningen ontbreken. Het lichaam is gedrongen en opvallend plat, de staart is sterk zijdelings afgeplat en de ledematen zijn groot en breed. De kop heeft kleine ogen, die opvallen door de donkere onderste oogleden.

Bij verstoring krult de salamander de kop, poten en staart, zodat de fellere onderzijde tevoorschijn komt. Dit wordt het unkenreflex genoemd en komt ook voor bij kikkers. De waarschuwing is niet onterecht; veel salamanders zijn giftig maar de ruwe salamander is dodelijk voor dieren of mensen na inname. Alleen de gewone kousenbandslang (Thamnophis sirtalis) is immuun voor het dodelijke gif, dat tetrodotoxine wordt genoemd en ook voorkomt in andere zeer giftige dieren als de kogelvis. De kousenbandslang is hierdoor de enige vijand van de salamander.

Verspreiding en habitat

De salamander komt voor langs de Pacifische kust in een smalle strook van zuidoostelijk Alaska tot in Californië.[4] De salamander kan op het land worden gevonden in de strooisellaag van bossen en graslanden, meestal onder de bladeren of objecten als houtblokken en platte stenen.

Voortplanting en ontwikkeling

De ruwe salamander is tijdens de paartijd in stilstaand of langzaam stromend water te vinden maar leeft de rest van het jaar op het land. Gedurende de voortplantingstijd is de huid van de salamander veel gladder. De eieren worden individueel aan de waterplanten bevestigd. Jongere dieren die na het larvestadium te hebben doorlopen het water verlaten keren pas terug als ze na vier of vijf jaar volwassen zijn.

Referenties
  1. (en) Ruwe salamander op de IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  2. P Whitfield, Encyclopedie van het dierenrijk - Alle gewervelde dieren in woord en beeld, Uitgeverij Areopagus, 1984, Pagina 462. ISBN 90 274 9009 0.
  3. Darrel R. Frost - Amphibian Species of the World: an online reference - Version 6.0 - American Museum of Natural History, Taricha granulosa.
  4. University of California - AmphibiaWeb, Taricha granulosa.
Bronnen
  • (en) - Darrel R. Frost - Amphibian Species of the World: an online reference - Version 6.0 - American Museum of Natural History - Taricha granulosa - Website Geconsulteerd 30 maart 2017
  • (en) - University of California - AmphibiaWeb - Taricha granulosa - Website
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Ruwe salamander: Brief Summary ( Dutch; Flemish )

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De ruwe salamander (Taricha granulosa) is een salamander uit de familie echte salamanders (Salamandridae). De soort werd voor het eerst wetenschappelijk beschreven door Avery Judd Skilton in 1849. Oorspronkelijk werd de wetenschappelijke naam Salamandra (Triton) granulosa gebruikt.

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Pacyfotryton szorstki ( Polish )

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Pacyfotryton szorstki (Taricha granulosa) – gatunek płaza z rodziny salamandrowatych występujący na pacyficznym brzegu Ameryki Północnej.

Wygląd

Długość ciała – 12,7-21,6 cm, samce większe od samic. Dorosłe osobniki są ciemne, z pomarańczowym brzuchem. Oczy małe, żółtopomarańczowe. Na skórze znajdują się gruczoły produkujące silną truciznę - tetrodotoksynę. Jej toksyczność zależy od rejonu, na którym żyje salamandra. Samce zmieniają wygląd podczas okresu godowego – ich skóra staje się jaśniejsza i bardziej gładka, ogon i palce rozszerzają się. Jest to związane ze zmianą trybu życia na wodny.

Tryb życia

Prowadzą zarówno dzienny, jak i nocny tryb życia. W razie zagrożenia błyskawicznie podnoszą głowę i ogon, prezentując jaskrawy brzuch. Barwa ostrzega drapieżnika przed trucizną na skórze salamandry.

Pożywienie

Młode żywią się wodnymi bezkręgowcami. Dorosłe osobniki jedzą głównie owady, ale polują także na wszelkie zwierzęta mniejsze od nich, włączając w to inne płazy.

Rozmnażanie

Pora okresu godowego zależy od wysokości, na jakiej żyją salamandry. Osobniki górskie rozmnażają się późnym latem, nizinne wiosną. Zwierzęta rozmnażają się w wodzie. Po zalotach samiec pozostawia swą spermę na dnie zbiornika, skąd samica zbiera ją do swojej kloaki. Po złożeniu jaj samica opiekuje się nimi do chwili wyklucia się młodych (3-4 tygodnie). Wtedy przestaje interesować się potomstwem. Pacyfotrytony szorstkie osiągają dojrzałość płciową w wieku 4-5 lat. Najstarszy znany osobnik żył 18 lat.

Zagrożenie

Pacyfotryton szorstki z powodu swej trucizny niemal nie posiada naturalnych wrogów. Zaobserwowano tylko jednego drapieżnika odpornego na toksynę salamandry – węża pończosznika prążkowanego. Gatunek nie jest zagrożony wyginięciem, choć jego środowisko jest narażone na zniszczenie przez człowieka.

Przypisy

  1. Taricha granulosa, w: Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ang.).
  2. Taricha granulosa. Czerwona księga gatunków zagrożonych (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (ang.).

Bibliografia

  1. Taricha granulosa (ang.). Animal Diversity Web. [dostęp 26 września 2010].
p d e
Płazy ogoniasteCryptobranchoidea Kammmolchmaennchen.jpgSirenoidea Salamandroidea
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Pacyfotryton szorstki: Brief Summary ( Polish )

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Pacyfotryton szorstki (Taricha granulosa) – gatunek płaza z rodziny salamandrowatych występujący na pacyficznym brzegu Ameryki Północnej.

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Taricha granulosa ( Portuguese )

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Nome binomial Taricha granulosa
(Skilton, 1849) Subespécies Sinónimos
  • Triturus granulosus Twitty, 1935
  • Triturus similans Twitty, 1935
  • Triturus granulosus granulosus Bishop, 1941
  • Triturus granulosus twittyi Bishop, 1941
  • Triturus granulosus similans Myers, 1942
  • Triturus granulosus mazamae Myers, 1942
  • Triturus granulosus mazamae Bishop, 1943
  • Taricha granulosa Wahlert, 1952
  • Taricha granulosa granulosa Schmidt, 1953
  • Taricha granulosa mazamae Schmidt, 1953
  • Taricha granulosa similans Schmidt, 1953
  • Taricha torosa granulosa Pimentel, 1958
  • Taricha torosa mazamae Pimentel, 1958
  • Taricha torosa twittyi Pimentel, 1958
  • Taricha torosa simulans Pimentel, 1958

Taricha granulosa é uma espécie de anfíbio caudado pertencente à família Salamandridae. Pode ser encontrada no Canadá e nos Estados Unidos.

Toxicidade

Muitos tritões produzem toxinas para repelir predadores, mas a toxicidade do género Taricha é particularmente potente.[1] A quantidade de toxina produzida por um adulto é capaz de matar vários seres humanos.[2]

Referências

Wikispecies
O Wikispecies tem informações sobre: Taricha granulosa
  1. The Toxicity of Newts. Heather Björnebo Caudata Culture, acesso em 12 de Outubro de 2009
  2. Brodie III, E., E. Brodie Jr.. 1990. Tetrodotoxin resistance in garter snakes: an evolutionary response of predators to dangerous prey. Evolution, 44: 651-659.
  • Hammerson, G. 2004. Taricha granulosa. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. . Acessado em 13 de setembro de 2008.
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O Wikispecies tem informações sobre: Taricha granulosa
Ícone de esboço Este artigo sobre anfíbios caudados, integrado no Projeto Anfíbios e Répteis é um esboço. Você pode ajudar a Wikipédia expandindo-o.
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Taricha granulosa: Brief Summary ( Portuguese )

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Taricha granulosa é uma espécie de anfíbio caudado pertencente à família Salamandridae. Pode ser encontrada no Canadá e nos Estados Unidos.

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Vårtskinnad salamander ( Swedish )

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Vårtskinnad salamander (Taricha granulosa) är en salamanderart av släktet Taricha som finns i västra USA.

Utseende

Den vårtskinnade salamandern har en ljusbrun, olivfärgad till brunsvart ovansida med en gul till orange buksida. Vissa populationer har svarta fläckar på buksidan. Längden varierar mellan 12,5 till 21,5 cm. Huden är normalt vårtig, men under parningstiden utvecklar hanarna slät hud och svarta, hornartade dynor på fötterna. En del forskare anser att det finns en underart, Taricha granulosa mazamae, som kännetecknas av mörkare ryggsida, medan andra endast betraktar sådana individer som en färgvariant.[3] Den har mörka undre ögonlock och gulaktig iris. Larven är brun med ljusa fläckrader på sidorna.[4]

Utbredning

Salamandern finns längs USA:s västkust från sydöstra Alaska till Kalifornien (Santa Cruz County). Rapporter finns om möjliga inplanteringar i Klippiga bergen.[2]

Vanor

De vuxna individerna kan uppträda både på land och i vatten. Under sommaren är det vanligt att den mer eller mindre helt tillbringar sin tid i vatten för att undvika uttorkning. Som akvatisk miljö föredrar den stillastående eller nästan stillastående vatten, som dammar, sjöar, bäckar och diken. Den kan gå mycket djupt, och har blivit iakttagen på 12 meters djup. På land uppehåller den sig gärna på skogbeklädda sluttningar och under murket trä.[5] Neoteni (förhållandet att djuren behåller larvutseendet även som vuxen, fortplantningsduglig individ) förekommer. Medellivslängden beräknas till 12 år.[6]

Föda och predation

Födan, som oftast tas nattetid, även om djuret även äter under dagen, består av olika kräftdjur, insekter, spindeldjur, blötdjur, maskar, bland annat iglar, svampdjur och ägg och larver av andra groddjur. I undantagsfall kan den ta småfisk. Kannibalism förekommer. Larverna, som gömmer sig under stenar och bland vattenväxter under dagen, livnär sig först på protozoer, men övergår sedan till små kräftdjur och vattenlevande insektslarver. Arten är mycket giftig och innehåller neurotoxinet tetrodotoxin. Som en följd av detta har den få fiender; de enda egentliga predatorerna är strumpebandssnokar och den egna arten.[6] Dödsfall har inträffat efter att människor fått i sig giftet.[3]

Fortplantning

Fortplantning och larvutveckling sker i vatten. Leken äger rum från vår till höst beroende på klimatet (ju mildare vintrar desto senare lek).[6] Under denna positionerar hanen sig ovanpå honan, stryker sin haka mot hennes nos och omfamnar henne med sina bakben i en amplexus som kan vara från några timmar till två dygn. Därefter avsätter han en spermatorfor som honan tar upp med sin kloak. Honan lägger därefter äggen ett och ett på vattenväxter eller detritus. De kläcks efter 3 till 4 veckor, och larverna förvandlas efter 4 till 5 månader. Könsmognad inträffar vid 4 till 5 års ålder.[5]

Referenser

  1. ^ ”Statens jordbruksverks allmänna råd (1999:2)...” (PDF). Statens jordbruksverks författningssamling. 20 oktober 1999. http://www.jordbruksverket.se/download/18.26424bf71212ecc74b08000952/allmannarad_1999-002.PDF. Läst 21 september 2009.
  2. ^ [a b] Geoffrey Hammerson. 2004. Taricha granulosaIUCN:s rödlista (engelska). Läst 2009-09-20
  3. ^ [a b] Nate Nelson (juli 2002). ”Taricha granulosa” (på engelska). Caudata Culture. http://www.caudata.org/cc/species/Taricha/T_granulosa.shtml. Läst 20 september 2009.
  4. ^ Taricha granulosa - Rough-skinned Newt” (på engelska). CaliforniaHerps.com. http://www.californiaherps.com/salamanders/pages/t.granulosa.html. Läst 20 september 2009.
  5. ^ [a b] Amanda Lorenz & James Harding, Michigan State University (2008). Taricha granulosa (på engelska). Animal Diversity Web, University of Michigan. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Taricha_granulosa.html. Läst 20 september 2009.
  6. ^ [a b c] Sharyn B. Marks; Darrin Doyle (2009). Taricha granulosa (på engelska). AmphibiaWeb, University of California. http://amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Taricha&where-species=granulosa. Läst 20 september 2009.
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Vårtskinnad salamander: Brief Summary ( Swedish )

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Vårtskinnad salamander (Taricha granulosa) är en salamanderart av släktet Taricha som finns i västra USA.

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Taricha granulosa ( Turkish )

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Binominal adı Taricha granulosa
Skilton, 1849 Diğer adları Sert derili sarı karın semenderi Dış bağlantılar Commons-logo.svg Wikimedia Commons'ta Taricha granulosa ile ilgili çoklu ortam belgeleri bulunur. Wikispecies-logo.svg Wikispecies'te Taricha granulosa ile ilgili detaylı taksonomi bilgileri bulunur.

Taricha granulosa veya sert derili semender, bir Kuzey Amerika semenderi olup zehirli olmasıyla bilinir.

Zehirlilik değeri

Birçok semender türü avcılardan korunmak için etkili zehire sahip toksin üretirler ama Taricha cinsi özellikle zehirlidir.

Sert derili semender, daha önce kendi ismiyle tarichatoksin olarak adlandırılmış olan ve şimdi tetrodotoksin olarak anılan zehire sahiptir. Bu zehir sinir hücrelerindeki sodyum kanallarını tersine çevirip bağlayarak hücre içindeki ve dışındaki normal sodyum iyon akışına müdahale eder. Bunun sonucu olarak ardından felç ve ölüm meydana gelir.

Yayılım alanları

Sert derili semenderin yaşadığı habitatlar Amerika Birleşik Devletler'in Batı Kıyıları ve pasifik şeriti ile Britanya Kolumbiyası'nda bulunur. Bu bölge içindeki yayılım alanları Kaliforniya'daki Santa Cruz'un güneyinden kuzeydeki Alaska'ya kadar dağılım gösteririr.

Kaynakça

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Taricha granulosa: Brief Summary ( Turkish )

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Taricha granulosa veya sert derili semender, bir Kuzey Amerika semenderi olup zehirli olmasıyla bilinir.

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Taricha granulosa ( Vietnamese )

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Sa giông da nhám (Danh pháp khoa học: Taricha granulosa) là một loài sa giông trong họ Salamandridae, đây là một trong những loài lưỡng cư có độc.

Đặc điểm

Sa giông da nhám là một loài động vật lưỡng cư ở khu vực Bắc Mỹ. Loài sa giông cực độc giết đối thủ trong nháy mắt, với làn da chứa chất độc tetrodotoxin, sa giông da nhám có thể thách thức bất cứ con vật săn mồi nào dám động vào chúng, chẳng hạn như loài sa giông da nhám cực độc giết ếch bò trong nháy mắt.

Phân loài

Loài này có hai phân loài:

  • Taricha granulosa granulosa
  • Taricha granulosa mazamae

Tham khảo

  • Taricha granulosa: Rough-skinned Newt”. Caudata Culture. Truy cập ngày 26 tháng 7 năm 2006.
  • Geffeney, Shana L., et al. "Evolutionary diversification of TTX-resistant sodium channels in a predator-prey interaction". Nature 434 (2005): 759–763.
  • Taricha granulosa granulosa – Rough-Skinned Newt. California Herps. Truy cập ngày 10 tháng 12 năm 2006.
  • C. Michael Hogan (2008) Rough-skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa), Globaltwitcher, ed. N. Stromberg [1]
  • Williams, Becky L., Brodie, Edmund Jr., Brodie, Edmund III (2003) "Coevolution of Deadly Toxins And Predator Resistance: Self-Assessment of Resistance By Garter Snakes Leads To Behavioral Rejection of Toxic Newt Prey." Herpetologica (Jun 2003): 155-163.
  • Hanifin, Charles T., Brodie III, Edmund D., Brodie Jr., Edmund D. 2003. "Tetrodotoxin Levels In Eggs of the Rough-Skin Newt, Taricha granulosa, Are Correlated With Female Toxicity". Journal of Chemical Ecology 29: 1730-1739.
  1. ^ Geoffrey Hammerson (2004). Taricha granulosa. Sách Đỏ IUCN các loài bị đe dọa. Phiên bản 2013.2. Liên minh Bảo tồn Thiên nhiên Quốc tế. Truy cập ngày 5 tháng 5 năm 2014.

Liên kết ngoài

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Taricha granulosa: Brief Summary ( Vietnamese )

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Sa giông da nhám (Danh pháp khoa học: Taricha granulosa) là một loài sa giông trong họ Salamandridae, đây là một trong những loài lưỡng cư có độc.

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Желтобрюхий тритон ( Russian )

provided by wikipedia русскую Википедию
Царство: Животные
Подцарство: Эуметазои
Без ранга: Вторичноротые
Подтип: Позвоночные
Инфратип: Челюстноротые
Надкласс: Четвероногие
Подкласс: Беспанцирные
Подотряд: Salamandroidea
Семейство: Саламандровые
Подсемейство: Pleurodelinae
Вид: Желтобрюхий тритон
Международное научное название

Taricha granulosa Skilton, 1849

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ITIS 173620NCBI 8321EOL 1048185

Желтобрюхий тритон[1] (лат. Taricha granulosa) — вид амфибий из рода западноамериканских тритонов (лат. Taricha) отряда хвостатых земноводных.

Описание

Длина амфибий от 13 до 22 см. Животные имеют зернистую кожу, спина от светло-коричневого до коричнево-чёрного цвета, брюхо жёлтого или оранжевого цвета. Некоторые особи имеют тёмные пятна на боковых поверхностях.

Вид разделяется на два подвида:

  • Т. g. granulosa
  • Т. g. mazamae — имеет более тёмную спину и более яркий живот, чем представители другого подвида. Встречается только в районе озера Крейтер.

Ареал

В отличие от представителей других родов весьма обширен, населяя западное побережье США и Канады от Калифорнии до южной Аляски. К востоку от Каскадных гор встречаются редко, хотя местами встречается даже в Монтане и Айдахо.

Токсичность

Как и другие тритоны рода Taricha желтобрюхий тритон способен выделять сильный яд — тетродотоксин.

Фото

  • Rough-skinned Newt (Salamander).jpg
  • Taricha granulosa01a.jpg

Примечания

  1. Ананьева Н. Б., Боркин Л. Я., Даревский И. С., Орлов Н. Л. Пятиязычный словарь названий животных. Амфибии и рептилии. Латинский, русский, английский, немецкий, французский. / под общей редакцией акад. В. Е. Соколова. — М.: Рус. яз., 1988. — С. 33. — 10 500 экз.ISBN 5-200-00232-X.
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Желтобрюхий тритон: Brief Summary ( Russian )

provided by wikipedia русскую Википедию

Желтобрюхий тритон (лат. Taricha granulosa) — вид амфибий из рода западноамериканских тритонов (лат. Taricha) отряда хвостатых земноводных.

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粗皮漬螈 ( Chinese )

provided by wikipedia 中文维基百科

粗皮漬螈(英語:Rough-skinned newt、roughskin newt;學名:Taricha granulosa)是漬螈屬的一種蠑螈,分佈于北美洲西部,可通過皮膚分泌河豚毒素,曾有人類食用粗皮漬螈結果致死的記錄[2]。其天敵襪帶蛇對其毒素有抗性[3]

形態

 src=
粗皮漬螈

其背部呈灰褐色、而腹部呈橘色[4][5]。體長(包括尾巴)11-18釐米[5]

其下有兩個亞種:[4][6]

  • Taricha granulosa granulosa
  • Taricha granulosa mazamae

参考文献

  1. ^ IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. Taricha granulosa. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN). 2015, 2015: e.T59469A78909317 [11 January 2017].
  2. ^ Bradley, Susan G.; Klika, Larry J. A fatal poisoning from the Oregon rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa). JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. July 1981, 246 (3): 247. PMID 7241765. doi:10.1001/jama.1981.03320030039026. 封閉式存取
  3. ^ Williams, Becky L.; Brodie, Edmund D. III. Coevolution deadly toxins and predator resistance: self-assessment of resistance by garter snakes leads to behavioral rejection of toxic newt prey. Herpetologica. 2003, 59 (2): 155–163. JSTOR 3893352. doi:10.1655/0018-0831(2003)059[0155:codtap]2.0.co;2.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Nelson, Nate. Taricha granulosa. Caudata Culture website. 2003 [February 28, 2013].
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Hallock, L. A. Rough-skinned newt. Washington Herp Atlas. Dept. of Natural Resources, Washington State. 2005 [February 28, 2013].
  6. ^ Frost, Darrel R. Taricha granulosa (Skilton, 1849). Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. 2014 [5 May 2014].

外部連接

 src= 維基物種中有關粗皮漬螈的數據  src= 維基共享資源中与粗皮漬螈相關的分類

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粗皮漬螈: Brief Summary ( Chinese )

provided by wikipedia 中文维基百科

粗皮漬螈(英語:Rough-skinned newt、roughskin newt;學名:Taricha granulosa)是漬螈屬的一種蠑螈,分佈于北美洲西部,可通過皮膚分泌河豚毒素,曾有人類食用粗皮漬螈結果致死的記錄。其天敵襪帶蛇對其毒素有抗性。

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