dcsimg

Description

provided by AmphibiaWeb articles

This frog has a rotundly shaped stout body that is kept puffed round like a ball.

Snout scarcely longer than diameter of the orbit; no canthus, snout round; fingers moderate, first a little shorter than second; toes short webbed at the base; a pair of strong shovel-shaped metatarsal tubercles, inner larger; tibiotarsal articulation does not reach to the shoulder joint; dorsum smoothly tubercular, supratympanic fold present, throat and chest smooth, belly and anal region granular. a medial buccal ridge ending in 2 papillae lying between the internal naris, a similar papilla below each internal nare.

Color: Body dorsum with more or less symmetrical dark brown pattern on a pinkish brown background. Ventrum whitish immaculate.

very rare

References

  • Abdulali, H. (). ''An account of a trip to the Barapede Cave, Talewandi, Belgaum District, Mysore State, with some notes on reptiles and amphibians.'' Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, , -.
  • Bole-Gowda, B.N. (). The Spermatogenesis of Uperodon systoma. Unpublished dissertation, Mysore University, Mysore.
  • Gvozdik, L. and Radek, H. (). ''A small collection of amphibians from Baluchistan and Punjab, Pakistan in the Silesian Museum.'' &;asopis Slezského Muzea Opava, Série A, , -.
  • Kirtisinghe, P. (). The Amphibia of Ceylon. Self-published, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  • Mukerji, D.D. (). ''Some observations on the burrowing toad Cacopus globulosum Günther.'' Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, , -.
  • Rao, C.R.N. (). ''Notes on the tadpoles of Indian Engystomatidae.'' Records of the Indian Museum, , -.

license
cc-by-3.0
author
M. S. Khan
original
visit source
partner site
AmphibiaWeb articles

Distribution and Habitat

provided by AmphibiaWeb articles

Uperodon systoma is a very rare frog in Pakistan. Recently a specimen was collected from the foot of Shakarparian Hills, Islamabad, from the side of a torrent during a wet May night (Gvozdik and Radek 1997; Baig and Gvozdik 1998). Abdulali (1962) reported large numbers of this frog in Khanapur, Mysore, southern India, in the month of May. This species is widely distributed in southern and eastern India, extending into northern Sri Lanka (Kirtisinghe 1957).

license
cc-by-3.0
author
M. S. Khan
original
visit source
partner site
AmphibiaWeb articles

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

provided by AmphibiaWeb articles

A completely fossorial species, it surfaces only during summer monsoons. The frog moves by small hops or slowly walks on the ground. It is a weak swimmer that usually floats in water; however, it is known to be an excellent burrower, quickly burrowing into the loose moist soil with the help of its well-developed and powerful metatarsal tubercles.

During burrowing the loosened soil is thrown sideways by its powerful hind legs and the animal sinks into the cavity so formed, with the eyes the last to disappear underground. Moist soil is essential for this frog. During dry months the frog retreats into the moist environs of termite nests, termites baing its main food item.

Mukerji (1931) collected a specimen of Uperodon globulosum from a depth of 1-1.5 m. It had lived for 13 months without food. The body of the frog is globular due to the enormously developed inflated lungs.

The breeding season extends from May to July, during monsoon rains (Ferguson 1904). The males call from the banks of torrents or paddy fields. The call is like a bleating goat, and during calling the subgular vocal sac is distended so enormously it looks like a float. The eggs are laid in masses which float on the surface of the water (Ferguson 1904; Annandale and Rao 1918).

Karyotype number recorded for this species is 26 (Bole Gowda, 1948). Tadpole: The head and body of the tadpole is oval, with long pointed tail, broader ventral fin. The tail is about twice the length of head and body. The mouth is terminal and lacks a typical denticulate oral disc. Naris is nearer to the eye than the tip of the snout. The spiracle is a median ventral tube, opening in front of anal aperture. Total length of the tadpole 27-27.5 mm, tail 16-17 mm.

license
cc-by-3.0
author
M. S. Khan
original
visit source
partner site
AmphibiaWeb articles

Uperodon systoma

provided by wikipedia EN

Uperodon systoma is a species of narrow-mouthed frog found in Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. It is known under many different common names: indistinct frog, marbled balloon frog, and lesser balloon frog.[2]

Description

As the common names suggest, Uperodon systoma have a very stout appearance with a relatively small head. They grow up to 64 mm (2.5 in) in snout–vent length.[3]

Uperodon systoma lack teeth. This unusual feature is probably related to their diet that (after metamorphosis) consists mainly of termites and ants, with other insects appearing in smaller numbers. It is suggested that in capturing such small but spatially clustered prey items teeth would not be very useful; instead, the prey are gathered using their tongue.[4]

 src=
Balloon frog in Bakamuna, Sri Lanka.

Habitat and behaviour

Uperodon systoma is a fossorial species that buries itself in soil. These frogs have been observed in a number of habitats, such as dry forests, plains, gardens, and agricultural areas. Adults are only seen during the summer monsoons; otherwise they retreat into the soil.[1] Feeding may be concentrated to rainy nights during the monsoon when termites emerge to swarm.[5]

Breeding takes place during the monsoon rains when the males call from the banks of streams and paddy fields. Eggs are laid in water where they float.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c Das, I.; Dutta, S.; Manamendra-Arachchi, K.; de Silva, A. & Sharif Khan, M. (2009). "Uperodon systoma". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T58023A11718129. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T58023A11718129.en.|date= / |doi= mismatch
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2013). "Uperodon systoma (Schneider, 1799)". Amphibian Species of the World 5.6, an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  3. ^ Boulenger, G. A. (1890). Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. London: Taylor and Francis. p. 496.
  4. ^ Das, I.; Coe, M. (1994). "Dental morphology and diet in anuran amphibians from south India" (PDF). Journal of Zoology. 233 (3): 417–427. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1994.tb05274.x.
  5. ^ Das, I. (1996). "Resource use and foraging tactics in a south Indian amphibian community" (PDF). Journal of South Asian Natural History. 2 (1): 1–30.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Uperodon systoma: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Uperodon systoma is a species of narrow-mouthed frog found in Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. It is known under many different common names: indistinct frog, marbled balloon frog, and lesser balloon frog.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN