dcsimg

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Competition from this species may reduce the diversity of the marine communities in which they dwell.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Rouse, I. 1999. "Corynactis californica" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Corynactis_californica.html
author
Ingrid Rouse, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Presence of aggregations of C. californica increase the density of rock oysters and mussels by protecting them from predatory sea stars.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Rouse, I. 1999. "Corynactis californica" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Corynactis_californica.html
author
Ingrid Rouse, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Corynactus californica extrudes mesenterial filaments onto its prey, which includes brine shrimp, other sessile organisms living within its community, and pieces of dead fish. The mesenterial filaments are used for digestion and absorption of food in the coelenteron. If the prey is too large to take into the coelenteron, the mesenterial filaments are used to digest it externally.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Rouse, I. 1999. "Corynactis californica" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Corynactis_californica.html
author
Ingrid Rouse, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

West coast of North America, ranging from Washington state to Baja California.

Biogeographic Regions: pacific ocean (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Rouse, I. 1999. "Corynactis californica" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Corynactis_californica.html
author
Ingrid Rouse, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Corynactus californica are found in abundance on temperate rocky shores and on tropical coral reefs. They can be found anywhere from the lower intertidal zone to at least 50 meters in depth.

Aquatic Biomes: reef ; coastal

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Rouse, I. 1999. "Corynactis californica" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Corynactis_californica.html
author
Ingrid Rouse, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; radial symmetry

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Rouse, I. 1999. "Corynactis californica" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Corynactis_californica.html
author
Ingrid Rouse, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

All C. californica reproduce asexually by fission and budding. Aggregations of different colors produce polyps of the same color; color of the species appears to be controlled genetically.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Rouse, I. 1999. "Corynactis californica" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Corynactis_californica.html
author
Ingrid Rouse, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Comprehensive Description

provided by Invertebrates of the Salish Sea
Biology/Natural History: The knobbed tentacles contain very large cnidae, easy to view under the microscope. Undischarged cnidae have osmotic pressures up to 140 atmospheres. Has been observed in the lab to defend against attack by Anthopleura elegantissima by extending its cnidae-rich mesenteries through the mouth. This species reproduces asexually by longitudinal fission. Clones are all the same color. Feeds on copepods, nauplius larvae, and other small animals.
license
cc-by-nc-sa
copyright
Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory
editor
Dave Cowles
provider
Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Distribution

provided by Invertebrates of the Salish Sea
Geographical Range: This species is said to be common in some areas of southern California but I have not often encountered it. It occurs from British Columbia to San Martin Island, Baja California but is rarely found intertidally north of California.
license
cc-by-nc-sa
copyright
Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory
editor
Dave Cowles
provider
Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Habitat

provided by Invertebrates of the Salish Sea
Depth Range: Intertidal to 30 m
license
cc-by-nc-sa
copyright
Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory
editor
Dave Cowles
provider
Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Comprehensive Description

provided by Invertebrates of the Salish Sea
This species is one of the few Corallimorph cnidarians found in our area, and the only one in Kozloff's key. Corallimorphs are not true anemones. The most obvious difference is that their tentacles end in knobs, as are visible in the picture above. The tentacles are not fully retractile, and are usually white. Corallimorphs are also very similar to corals in some other characters, but lack the hard coral skeleton. This species is often found in groups, with individuals up to 2 cm long or even more. May be colored red, crimson, pink, purple, pale blue, lavender, brown, orange, buff, or nearly white.
license
cc-by-nc-sa
copyright
Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory
editor
Dave Cowles
provider
Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Look Alikes

provided by Invertebrates of the Salish Sea
How to Distinguish from Similar Species: There are no other anemone-like species in our area with club-tipped tentacles. The orange cup coral Balanophyllia elegans is of similar size and often similar color but has a hard skeleton and does not have club-tipped tentacles.
license
cc-by-nc-sa
copyright
Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory
editor
Dave Cowles
provider
Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Habitat

provided by Invertebrates of the Salish Sea
Rocky shores, concrete wharf pilings, plastic foam floats. Especially where there are strong currents.
license
cc-by-nc-sa
copyright
Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory
editor
Dave Cowles
provider
Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Corynactis californica

provided by wikipedia EN

 src=
Small red strawberry anemones growing on the back of a masking crab

Corynactis californica is a brightly colored colonial anthozoan corallimorph. Unlike the Atlantic true sea anemone, Actinia fragacea, that bears the same common name, strawberry anemone, this species is a member of the order Corallimorpharia, and is the only member found in the North American West Coast.[2] Other common names include club-tipped anemone and strawberry corallimorpharian. The anemone can live up to at least 50 meters deep on vertical rock walls, and at the bottom of kelp forests.[3][4] It is known to carpet the bottom of some areas, like Campbell River in British Columbia, and Monterey Bay in California.

The strawberry anemone grows no larger than 2.5 centimeters. The anemone can be red, pink, purple, brown, yellow, or completely white.[5] They possess tentacles that are white or transparent with bulbous tips. The strawberry anemone resembles sea anemones in that they lack a calcareous skeleton, but are closer related to stony corals in that they lack basilar muscles. This species lacks photosynthetic symbionts.[6]

The strawberry anemone is known to reproduce both sexually and asexually, with asexual reproduction used to cover more available ground.[2][3] The anemone is known to attack other species of sea anemone and coral that they are competitive with, as to take over the areas left behind by the previous occupants.[3] They attack with toxins passed through prolonged contact. The same method is used in self-defense and in food consumption.

Reproduction

The strawberry anemone can reproduce both sexually and asexually through fission and budding.[4] It is dioecious, and produces both egg strings and testicular cysts in sync through all polyps in a clone.[2] The gametes are stored in the mesoglea, in the gastrovascular cavity. They are typically produced in an annual cycle between August and November, and are spawned from late November to mid-December. Gametes are released into the surrounding water, where they form embryos that turn into planktonic larvae within 2–3 days.

Behavior

The strawberry anemone has been shown to attack competing species of sea anemone and coral when in prolonged contact with them.[3] Attacks are conducted after prolonged contact between the strawberry anemone's tentacles and rival species. The attack is done through releasing their mesenteries and attaching their mesenterial filaments, thin white strings that contain enzymes and toxins, with the rival species. With prolonged contact, they are able to kill off these species, and asexually reproduce to take over the space left behind. However, the strawberry anemone does not attack other members of its own species, a unique trait amongst surrounding anemone species.

The strawberry anemone also used their mesenterial filaments for other reasons, including assisting in the consumption of larger prey, or as a self-defence mechanism against predators such as Dermasterias imbricata.[3][4]

Habitat

Studies conducted on Corynactis californica suggest that the anemone grows well under the canopies of macroalgae rather than outside of them.[4] Species of macroalgae that the strawberry anemone live under include Macrocystis pyrifera and Eisenia arborea. Eisenia arborea may assist the anemone in protecting planktonic larvae, and directing food particles to polyps.

References

  1. ^ http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=283836 accessed 16 July 2010
  2. ^ a b c Holts, L. J.; Beauchamp, K. A. (May 1993). "Sexual reproduction in the corallimorpharian sea anemone Corynactis californica in a central California kelp forest". Marine Biology. 116 (1): 129–136. doi:10.1007/bf00350740. ISSN 0025-3162.
  3. ^ a b c d e CHADWICK, NANETTE E. (August 1987). "INTERSPECIFIC AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR OF THE CORALLIMORPHARIAN CORYNACTIS CALIFORNICA (CNIDARIA: ANTHOZOA): EFFECTS ON SYMPATRIC CORALS AND SEA ANEMONES". The Biological Bulletin. 173 (1): 110–125. doi:10.2307/1541866. ISSN 0006-3185.
  4. ^ a b c d Morrow, K; Carpenter, R (2008-06-09). "Shallow kelp canopies mediate macroalgal composition: effects on the distribution and abundance of Corynactis californica (Corallimorpharia)". Marine Ecology Progress Series. 361: 119–127. doi:10.3354/meps07371. ISSN 0171-8630.
  5. ^ "Corynactis_californica". people.ucsc.edu. Retrieved 2019-01-20.
  6. ^ Schnitzler, Christine E.; Keenan, Robert J.; McCord, Robert; Matysik, Artur; Christianson, Lynne M.; Haddock, Steven H. D. (2008-05-01). "Spectral Diversity of Fluorescent Proteins from the Anthozoan Corynactis californica". Marine Biotechnology. 10 (3): 328–342. doi:10.1007/s10126-007-9072-7. ISSN 1436-2236. PMID 18330643.
 src=
Strawberry anemones, large colony off Santa Cruz Island, California
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Corynactis californica: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
 src= Small red strawberry anemones growing on the back of a masking crab

Corynactis californica is a brightly colored colonial anthozoan corallimorph. Unlike the Atlantic true sea anemone, Actinia fragacea, that bears the same common name, strawberry anemone, this species is a member of the order Corallimorpharia, and is the only member found in the North American West Coast. Other common names include club-tipped anemone and strawberry corallimorpharian. The anemone can live up to at least 50 meters deep on vertical rock walls, and at the bottom of kelp forests. It is known to carpet the bottom of some areas, like Campbell River in British Columbia, and Monterey Bay in California.

The strawberry anemone grows no larger than 2.5 centimeters. The anemone can be red, pink, purple, brown, yellow, or completely white. They possess tentacles that are white or transparent with bulbous tips. The strawberry anemone resembles sea anemones in that they lack a calcareous skeleton, but are closer related to stony corals in that they lack basilar muscles. This species lacks photosynthetic symbionts.

The strawberry anemone is known to reproduce both sexually and asexually, with asexual reproduction used to cover more available ground. The anemone is known to attack other species of sea anemone and coral that they are competitive with, as to take over the areas left behind by the previous occupants. They attack with toxins passed through prolonged contact. The same method is used in self-defense and in food consumption.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Known from seamounts and knolls
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
contributor
[email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
shelf
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
contributor
Jacob van der Land [email]