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Korean Pine

Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc.

Comments

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The timber is used for construction, bridge building, vehicles, furniture, and wood pulp. The seeds are edible, medicinal, and used as a source of soap and lubricating oil. Turpentine is obtained from the timber and roots, and the bark yields tannin.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Description

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Trees to 50 m tall; trunk to 1 m d.b.h.; bark gray-brown or gray, fissured longitudinally into irregularly oblong plates, inner bark red-brown; branchlets densely red-brown, occasionally yellow pubescent; winter buds reddish brown, oblong-ovoid, slightly resinous. Needles 5 per bundle, dark green, straight, almost triangular in cross section, 6-12 cm, stomatal lines 6-8 along each abaxial surface, blue-gray, vascular bundle 1, resin canals 3, median, base with sheath shed, margin serrulate. Seed cones solitary or several clustered near apex of 1st-year branchlets, erect, pedunculate (peduncle 1-1.5 cm), conical-ovoid or ovoid-oblong, 9-14 × 6-8 cm, indehiscent or slightly dehiscent at maturity, with seeds exposed but not shed. Seed scales reflexed at apex. Seeds triangular-obovoid, 1.2-1.6 cm, wingless.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Distribution

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Heilongjiang, Jilin [Japan, Korea, E Russia]
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Habitat

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Mountains; 200-1800 m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Synonym

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Apinus koraiensis (Siebold & Zuccarini) Moldenke; Pinus mandschurica Ruprecht; P. prokoraiensis Y. T. Zhao & al.; Strobus koraiensis (Siebold & Zuccarini) Moldenke.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Pinus koraiensis

provided by wikipedia EN

Pinus koraiensis is a species of pine known commonly as the Korean pine. It is native to eastern Asia: Korea, northeastern China, Mongolia, the temperate rainforests of the Russian Far East, and central Japan. In the north of its range, it grows at moderate altitudes, typically 600 metres (2,000 ft) to 900 metres (3,000 ft), whereas further south, it is a mountain tree, growing at 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) to 2,600 metres (8,500 ft) altitude in Japan.[1] Other common names include Chinese pinenut.[2]

Description

It is a member of the white pine group, Pinus, section Quinquefoliae. In its native habitat and growing conditions it can reach 100 feet (30 m) in height. Cultivated specimens may grow up to 50 feet (15 m) tall.[3] It is pyramidal in shape, younger specimens with ascending branches and older trees with more horizontal branches that reach ground level. The gray or brownish bark flakes off to reveal reddish inner bark. Its branches are lined with bundles of five blue-green needles each up to 4.5 inches (11 38 cm) and bear brown cones up to 6 inches (15 cm) long.[3]

Uses and conservation

The nuts of this tree are edible and sold commercially.[3] It is the most common taxon sold as pine nuts in markets throughout Europe and the United States.[1] The nut oil contains 11.5% of the unusual fatty acid pinolenic acid (cis–5–cis–9–cis–12 octadecatrienoic acid).[4] The oil is used to make lubricants and soap.[5] The tree is also a source of turpentine resin and tannin.[1][6]

The Korean pine is used as an ornamental tree. It is tolerant of several soil types and thrives in urban settings. It is adapted to climates with very cold winters.[3] There are several cultivars, including the blue-tinged 'Glauca' and 'Silveray' and the wide-bodied 'Winton'.[7]

The wood is versatile and very useful for construction.[3] It is light, with straight grains, and easy to work. It is used for a great variety of products, including telephone poles, railroad ties, bridges, boats, plywood and flooring, furniture, sports equipment, and musical instruments. It is easy to break down into chips, particle board, or pulp for paper.[1] Its value has led to overexploitation of wild populations of the tree, and destruction of the forest ecosystems in which it grows. The Siberian tiger is resident in these pine forests, and preservation of this tree species is one step in the conservation of the tiger.[1]

Other associates of the tree in nature include the spotted nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes), which collects the seeds and plays an important role in their dispersal.[8]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Thomas, P.; Farjon, A. (2013). "Pinus koraiensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2017.old-form url
  2. ^ "Pinus koraiensis". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Pinus koraiensis". Plant Finder. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  4. ^ Imbs, A. B.; Nevshupova, N. V.; Pham, L. Q. (1998). "Triacylglycerol composition of Pinus koraiensis seed oil" (PDF). Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 75 (7): 865–870. doi:10.1007/s11746-998-0238-x.
  5. ^ Fu, Liguo; Li, Nan; Elias, Thomas S.; Mill, Robert R. "Pinus koraiensis". Flora of China. 4 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  6. ^ "Pinus koraiensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
  7. ^ "Pinus koraiensis". University of Connecticut Horticulture.
  8. ^ Hutchins, Harry E.; Hutchins, Susan A.; Liu, Bo-wen (1996). "The role of birds and mammals in Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) regeneration dynamics". Oecologia. 107 (1): 120–130. doi:10.1007/BF00582242.

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Pinus koraiensis: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Pinus koraiensis is a species of pine known commonly as the Korean pine. It is native to eastern Asia: Korea, northeastern China, Mongolia, the temperate rainforests of the Russian Far East, and central Japan. In the north of its range, it grows at moderate altitudes, typically 600 metres (2,000 ft) to 900 metres (3,000 ft), whereas further south, it is a mountain tree, growing at 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) to 2,600 metres (8,500 ft) altitude in Japan. Other common names include Chinese pinenut.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN