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Dicranum Moss

Dicranum scoparium Hedwig 1801

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C. Gao (1994) placed Dicranum orthophyllum in the subgenus Pseudochorisodontium, awaiting an examination of the type. He suspected that the species did not have peristome structure. After having seen its type, we conclude that D. orthophyllum is identical to D. scoparium.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Moss Flora of China Vol. 1: 188 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Moss Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Gao Chien & Marshall R. Crosby
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Comments

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Dicranum scoparium is undoubtedly the most polymorphic species of the genus in North America. It is commonly called the broom moss because the leaves are “swept” or turned in the same direction. However, the habit of the leaves varies from strongly falcate-secund, i.e., the swept state, to straight and erect, especially prevalent in northern plants. The leaf shape varies from the typical lanceolate and long-acuminate to the odd ovate-lanceolate and short-acuminate. The leaves are typically smooth, in sharp contrast to the strongly undulate leaves of D. polysetum, but on rare occasion they can be somewhat undulate-rugose. The leaf margins are usually distinctly toothed in the distal 1/3 but at times plants in some populations have extremely weak serrations, appearing nearly entire. The costae vary in extent from subpercurrent to shortly excurrent. The abaxial surface of the costae have two to four toothed ridges, compared to the two in D. polysetum, but in some forms they are almost nonexistent. The distal areolation of the leaves seems to remain constant in the myriad forms of D. scoparium, the cells being short-sinuose with pitted walls, generally containing conspicuous oil-drops.

Plants growing in arctic North America and those in extremely wet habitats, such as bogs, often have a different superficial appearance. The leaves are straight, erect, ovate-lanceolate, short-acuminate with weak serrations on the margins, and the abaxial ridges on the costae are poorly developed. Sometimes the plants have distal shoots with abnormal appearing leaves that are shorter and broader than those below. Some of these collections have been referred to Dicranum latifolium, which I consider to be a synonym of D. scoparium. Further field and laboratory studies are required to clarify the taxonomic status of those plants. In the sterile state, large-leaved plants of D. scoparium can be confused with D. majus. The latter is immediately distinguished by a double row of guide cells, instead of the single row in the former, thicker stereid bands, distal cells that are narrower and more elongate and costae that have small teeth or serrulations distally on the abaxial surface instead of the characteristic 2-4 toothed ridges of D. scoparium. When fruiting, the solitary, rarely paired, sporophytes of D. scoparium distinguish it from D. majus, which has multiple sporophytes, 2-5 per perichaetium.

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 27: 22, 23, 30, 38, 399, 402, 403, 404, 411 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Description

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Plants medium-sized to large, often robust, up to 10 cm high, dull, green to dirty green or yellowish to brownish, somewhat glossy, in dense tufts. Stems erect, simple or branched, densely tomentose below. Leaves often falcate-secund or not much altered to slightly flexuose when dry, appressed or erect-spreading when moist, lanceolate, 4–10 mm long, gradually narrowed to a slender, keeled, acuminate or acute apex, sometimes to a subtubulose acumen; margins plane, strongly serrate in the upper 1/3; costa slender, subpercurrent to shortly excurrent, serrate, ridged or lamellate in 2–4 rows at back above; upper cells rhomboidal, moderately thick-walled, smooth, more or less porose; basal cells elongate, rectangular, 85–120 µm × 8–10 µm, strongly thick-walled, porose; alar cells quadrate to rounded quadrate, slightly inflated, bi- to tristratose, yellowish brown, not extending to the costa. Dioicous. Male plants usually dwarfed, sometimes normal. Perichaetial leaves with a high convolute-sheathing base, abruptly narrowed to a short, setaceous point. Setae single, rarely double in one perichaetium, straight, 2–3 cm long, yellowish, becoming reddish with age, twisted when dry; capsules cylindric, 2–3 mm long, curved, inclined to horizontal, brownish, nearly smooth or somewhat furrowed when dry and empty; opercula long-rostrate, 2.5–3.0 mm long, sometimes longer than the urns; annuli none; peristome teeth 0.5 mm long, papillose and pale brownish above, vertically striate and reddish brown below. Spores 16–20 µm in diameter.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Moss Flora of China Vol. 1: 188 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Moss Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Gao Chien & Marshall R. Crosby
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eFloras.org
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Description

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Plants in loose to dense tufts, light to dark green, glossy to sometimes dull. Stems 2-10 cm, tomentose with white to brown rhizoids. Leaves very variable, usually falcate-secund, rarely straight and erect, slightly contorted and crisped when dry, sometimes slightly rugose or undulate, (4-)5-8.5(-15) × 0.8-1.8 mm, concave proximally, keeled above, lanceolate, apex acute to somewhat obtuse; margins strongly serrate in the distal 1/3 or rarely slightly serrulate; laminae 1-stratose; costa percurrent, excurrent, or ending before apex, 1/10-1/5 the width of the leaves at base, usually with 2-4 toothed ridges above on abaxial surface, with a row of guide cells, two thin stereid bands, adaxial epidermal layer of cells not differentiated, the abaxial layer interrupted by several enlarged cells that form part of the abaxial ridge, not extending to the apices; cell walls between lamina cells not bulging; leaf cells smooth; alar cells 2-stratose, well- differentiated, sometimes extending to costa; proximal laminal cells linear-rectangular, pitted, (25-)47-100(-132) × (5-)7-12(-13) µm; distal laminal cells shorter, broad, sinuose, pitted, (11-)27-43(-53) × (5-)8-12(-20) µm. Sexual condition pseudomonoicous or dioicous; dwarf males on rhizoids of female plants or male plants as large as females; interior perichaetial leaves abruptly long-acuminate, convolute-sheathing. Seta 2-4 cm, solitary, rarely two per perichaetium, yellowish brown to reddish brown. Capsule 2.5-4 mm, arcuate, inclined to horizontal, smooth to striate when dry, yellowish brown to reddish brown; operculum 2-3.5 mm. Spores 14-24 µm.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 27: 22, 23, 30, 38, 399, 402, 403, 404, 411 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Distribution: China, Korea, Japan, Russia Europe, and North America.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Moss Flora of China Vol. 1: 188 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Moss Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Gao Chien & Marshall R. Crosby
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eFloras.org
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Habitat

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Habitat: on humic soil, rocks, or rotten wood.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Moss Flora of China Vol. 1: 188 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Moss Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Gao Chien & Marshall R. Crosby
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eFloras.org
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Synonym

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Bryum scoparium (Hedw.) Roucel, Fl. France 428. 1803. Cecalyphum scoparium (Hedw.) P. de la Beauv., Prodr. Aetheogam. 51. 1805. Dicranodon scoparium (Hedw.) Béhéré, Muscol. Rothom. 28. 1826. Dicranum bonjeanii De Not. ssp. angustum (Lindb.) auct. non Podp., Consp. 148. 1954. Dicranum orthophyllum Broth. in Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sin. 4: 27. 1929, syn. nov. Type. China: Yunnan, Pudu-ho, Handel-Mazzetti 537 (holotype H; isotype MO). Dicranum scoparium var. integrifolium Lindb., Öfvers. Förh. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. 23: 555. 1867.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Moss Flora of China Vol. 1: 188 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Moss Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Gao Chien & Marshall R. Crosby
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eFloras.org
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Synonym

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Dicranum latifolium J. J. Amann
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 27: 22, 23, 30, 38, 399, 402, 403, 404, 411 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Associations in Sarmatic Mixed Forests

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The Sarmatic mixed forests ecoregion stretches from northwestern Europe to the Ural Mountains in Russia and represents one of the broadest longitudinal expanse of any ecoregion of the Earth. Dominant canopy species include Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies) intermixed with some broadleaf species such as (Quercus robur). There are a number of ferns, shrubs, wildflowers, grasses and mosses that inhabit the mid-tier and forest floor. Common low-growing shrubs include Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and Heather (Calluna vulgaris).

Common mosses found in the more mesic soils in addition to Broom Forkmoss (Dicranum scoparium) are Stairstep Moss (Hylocomium splendens), Red-stemmed Feathermoss (Pleurozium schreberi), Ostrich Plume (Ptilium crista-castrensis) and Common Hair Moss (Polytrichum commune) Other understory associates in the Sarmatic forests include Mountain Bladderfern (Cystopteris montana) and the widespread Western Brackenfern (Pteridium aquilinum).

Example wildflowers or forbs seen in the forest understory are: Marsh Helleborine (Epipactis palustris), Red Campion (Silene dioica), Sand Catchfly (Silene conica), White Campion (Silene latifolia), Common Spotted Orchid (Dactylorhiza fuchsii) and Field Scabious (Knautia arvensis). In some fens within forest clearings the Marsh thistle (Cirsium palustre) is found.
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C. Michael Hogan
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C.Michael Hogan. 2011. "Sarmatic mixed forests". Topic ed. Sidney Draggan. Ed.-in-chief Cutler J.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC
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C. Michael Hogan (cmichaelhogan)
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Dicranum scoparium (X.) Hedw. Fundam. 2: 92. 1782
Bryum scoparium L-. Sp. PI. 1117. 1753.
Dicranum pallidum C. Mull. Syn. 1: 359. 1848. Not D. pallidum Weber & Mohr, 1807.
Dicranum mexicanum Schimp.; Besch. Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 164. 1872.
Dicranum Howellii Ren. & Card. Bot. Gaz. 14: 93. 1889.
Dicranum angustifolium Kindb.; Macoun, Bull. Torrey Club 17: 86. 1890.
Dicranum canadense Kindb.; Macoun, Bull. Torrey Club 17: 87. 1890.
Dicranum Kindbergii Paris, Index Bryol. 356. 1895.
Dicranum scopariiforme Kindb. Eur. & N. Am. Bryin. 193. 1897.
Dioicous: male plants minute, attached to tomentum of the fertile stems, or large and in more or less separate tufts : fertile plants in extensive, compact, mostly glossy-green tufts, with tomentose stems up to 10 cm. high: stem-leaves usually curved-secund, lanceolate■subulate, sub tubulose above, up to about 9 mm. long and 1.5 mm. wide, rarely undulate, serrate about one third down the margin; leaf -blade smooth on the back; costa not quite percurrent, up to 120 p wide near the base and one seventh the width of the leaf, with more or less prominent, serrate wings on the back above, rarely nearly smooth, in cross-section below showing 5-8 guide-cells with stereid-bands on either side, the band on the dorsal side more or less interrupted with larger cells; leaf-cells pitted and elongate throughout the blade, the median about 12 /x wide and usually 2-4 times as long, the alar reddish-brown, not extending to the costa; inner perichaetial leaves nearly as long as the stem-leaves, with a clasping base either abruptly or gradually narrowed to a smoothish or serrulate point of variable length: seta solitary, yellowish or reddish, usually about 2.5 cm. long: capsule short-cylindric, about 3 mm. long, curved, nodding, smooth or somewhat furrowed when dry, with a conic-rostrate lid nearly as long; exothecal cells with thickened walls, from square to elongatehexagonal on the incurved side and 20-25 /* wide, longer and narrower on the convex side; stomata roundish, about 35 n in diameter and mostly in two rows near the base of the capsule; annulus wanting; peristome-teeth 100-150 # wide at the base, vertically striate, mostly divided more than one half down into 2, sometimes 3, reddish, papillose forks: spores papillose, up to 24 y.
in diameter.
Type locality: Europe.
Distribution: Newfoundland to Alabama; Alaska to Mexico; Guadeloupe (C. S. Parker J 182, in herb. Mitten) ; also widely distributed in Europe and Asia.
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Robert Statham Williams. 1913. (BRYALES); DICRANACEAE, LEUCOBRYACEAE. North American flora. vol 15(2). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Dicranum scoparium

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Dicranum scoparium, the broom forkmoss,[1] is a species of dicranid moss, native to most of the northern hemisphere as well as Oceania. It usually forms tufts or mats on soil in dry to moist forested areas. As with many types of moss Broom moss grows in clumps with Broom mosses as well as other mosses. It can be distinguished by its leaves, which strongly curve to one side.

Description

Broom forkmoss is usually robust and coarse, forming shiny tufts with woolly stems 2–8 cm high. The leaf midrib extends to the tip and usually has 4 ridges along its back. The leaves are 3.5–8 mm long, lance-shaped with a long, slender point, and strongly toothed along the upper third. Most leaves will be folded and curved to one side, but may be wavy. Capsules are 2.3–5 mm long, urn-shaped and curved. The capsules are held on mostly-erect stalks 18–35 mm long. The operculum (capsule lid) is usually longer than the capsule.[2]

As a bryophyte, Dicranum scoparium has pluricellular rhiziods (root structure) which help with water absorption and anchor the plant to the ground.

Distribution

Broom forkmoss can be found across North America (except Labrador, North Dakota, Texas and Nevada), Europe, Asia, northern Africa as well as in Australia and New Zealand[3][4]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Edwards, Sean R. (2012). English Names for British Bryophytes. British Bryological Society Special Volume. Vol. 5 (4 ed.). Wootton, Northampton: British Bryological Society. ISBN 978-0-9561310-2-7. ISSN 0268-8034.
  2. ^ Legasy, K., LaBelle-Beadman, S. & Chambers, B. 1995. Forest Plants of Northeastern Ontario. Lone Pine Publishing & Queen's Printer for Ontario: Edmonton. ISBN 1-55105-064-1
  3. ^ Flora of North America. n.d. Dicranum scoparium Hedw.
  4. ^ https://artfakta.se/artbestamning/taxon/dicranum%20scoparium-2151
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Dicranum scoparium: Brief Summary

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Dicranum scoparium, the broom forkmoss, is a species of dicranid moss, native to most of the northern hemisphere as well as Oceania. It usually forms tufts or mats on soil in dry to moist forested areas. As with many types of moss Broom moss grows in clumps with Broom mosses as well as other mosses. It can be distinguished by its leaves, which strongly curve to one side.

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