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Reproduction

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The mating system of Muntiacus truongsonensis is unknown. Other species in the genus, including Muntiacus vaginalis and Muntiacus reevesi, mate year round. Male M. reevesi defend territories that overlap with those of females. Males compete for mates by locking antlers and pushing against each other. They use their tusks to scratch the faces and necks of rival males. Both sexes of M. reevesi are semi-vocal. Males "buzz" when approaching a female in estrus, and receptive females whine and lower their heads to males.

Members of Muntiacus living in similar habitats as Muntiacus truongsonensis, such as M. reevesi and M. vaginalis, are polygynous and aseasonal breeders. Gestation is variable in Muntiacus. For example, gestation in Muntiacus muntjak lasts for 180 days, while that of M. reevesi lasts for 210 days.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

There is no information available regarding parental investment in Muntiacus truongsonensis, but it is probably similar to that of close relatives. Muntiacus reevesi exhibits minimal parental care and weans offspring at 17 weeks. Like many small cervids in enclosed environments (e.g., forests), M. truongsonensis likely has young that exhibit hiding behavior in which young lie and hide for extended periods of time, while mothers wander off to graze and then return periodically to nurse.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female)

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Breitenbach, E. 2011. "Muntiacus truongsonensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muntiacus_truongsonensis.html
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Emilia Breitenbach, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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John Berini, Special Projects
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Untitled

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Muntiacus truonsonensis was thought to be the rediscovered Muntiacus rooseveltorum as they share similar appearance. However, genetic tests have revealed that M. truongsonensis is indeed a unique species. It is one of a number of artiodactyls discovered at the end of the 20th century in the Oriental region. The late discovery is due to a lack of research in the Truong Son Range. This area borders Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia and has a history of warfare and instability.

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Breitenbach, E. 2011. "Muntiacus truongsonensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muntiacus_truongsonensis.html
author
Emilia Breitenbach, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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John Berini, Special Projects
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Behavior

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Many species of Muntiacus are somewhat vocal, but it is not known if M. truongsonensis is included among them. Males "buzz" when approaching a female in estrus, and receptive females whine and lower their heads to males. Vocal species use barking as an alarm system to warn of potential dangers such as predators.

Communication Channels: acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: pheromones ; scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Breitenbach, E. 2011. "Muntiacus truongsonensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muntiacus_truongsonensis.html
author
Emilia Breitenbach, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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John Berini, Special Projects
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Conservation Status

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Little is known of the potential conservation needs of Muntiacus truongsonensis, due in part to the difficulty of distinguishing it from closely related muntjacs species. As a result, this species is classified as "data defficient" on the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species. Possible threats include hunting and habitat loss.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: data deficient

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Breitenbach, E. 2011. "Muntiacus truongsonensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muntiacus_truongsonensis.html
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Emilia Breitenbach, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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John Berini, Special Projects
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Benefits

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There are no known adverse effects of Muntiacus truongsonensis on humans.

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Breitenbach, E. 2011. "Muntiacus truongsonensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muntiacus_truongsonensis.html
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Emilia Breitenbach, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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John Berini, Special Projects
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Benefits

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Muntiacus truongsonensis, like many other muntjacs, is hunted for their meat and their skins.

Positive Impacts: food ; body parts are source of valuable material

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Breitenbach, E. 2011. "Muntiacus truongsonensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muntiacus_truongsonensis.html
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Emilia Breitenbach, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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John Berini, Special Projects
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Associations

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Little is known about the ecosystem roles of Muntiacus truongsonensis. However, close relatives have been described as important seed predators and dispersers and their barking has been suggested to act as a warning system to small mammals.

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Breitenbach, E. 2011. "Muntiacus truongsonensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muntiacus_truongsonensis.html
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Emilia Breitenbach, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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John Berini, Special Projects
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Trophic Strategy

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Little is known about the diet of Muntiacus truongsonensis. While most munjacs are herbivorous, M. reevesi is known to be omnivorous, eating carrion and small animals. Other species of Muntiacus, such as Muntiacus vaginalis, are generalist herbivores eating a wide range of flora including fruit, twigs, seeds and foliage.

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Breitenbach, E. 2011. "Muntiacus truongsonensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muntiacus_truongsonensis.html
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Emilia Breitenbach, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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John Berini, Special Projects
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Distribution

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Muntiacus truongsonensis (Annamite Muntjac) is indigenous to the highland ranges of Indochina. It is named after the Annamite Mountain Range in Vietnam where it was discovered. Its presence has been confirmed in the Hoang Lien Son Range in the Lao Cai province of Vietnam and Southern Laos. Its range limits are unknown but are thought to closely resemble those of Muntiacus rooseveltorum, with the exception that M. truongsonensis extends into higher elevations.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

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Breitenbach, E. 2011. "Muntiacus truongsonensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muntiacus_truongsonensis.html
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Emilia Breitenbach, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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John Berini, Special Projects
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Habitat

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Muntiacus truongsonensis is a mountain dwelling cervid, found in dense, tropical, secondary, evergreen forests. Elevations where M. truongsonensis can be found extend up to and possibly exceed 1,000 m.

Range elevation: 1000 (high) m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest

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Breitenbach, E. 2011. "Muntiacus truongsonensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muntiacus_truongsonensis.html
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Emilia Breitenbach, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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John Berini, Special Projects
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Life Expectancy

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No information was found on the longevity of M. truongsonensis in the wild or captivity.

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bibliographic citation
Breitenbach, E. 2011. "Muntiacus truongsonensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muntiacus_truongsonensis.html
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Emilia Breitenbach, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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John Berini, Special Projects
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Morphology

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Muntiacus truongsonensis is one of the smaller members of Muntiacus. The exact size of M. truongsonensis is unknown, but it has been described to be approximately 15 kg by local hunters. It has black fur on its legs and bright orange fur on its head. Dorsal pelage is brown and it has a broad flat tail with black dorsal fur and long white ventral fur which distinguishes it from its similar sized relative, Muntiacus rooseveltorum. It has white rings surrounding each hoof. Similar to other muntjac species, M. truongsonensis has ridges running from the top of the snout to the apex of the head, which give rise to short, simple, burred antlers that are hidden by tufts of long fur at the top of the head. Like those of many species of Muntiacus, the canines of M. truongsonensis are long and tusk-like. Muntiacus truongsonensis is the only muntjac species in which females and males have similarly sized canines. No description has been given of juvenile M. truongsonensis. However, many related cervids, including species in Muntiacus, have young with spotted coats.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

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Breitenbach, E. 2011. "Muntiacus truongsonensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muntiacus_truongsonensis.html
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Emilia Breitenbach, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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John Berini, Special Projects
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Associations

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A range of large predators including tigers, leopards, and crocodiles commonly prey upon many muntjacs. Humans are the only confirmed predator of M. truongsonensis. Potential predatory defense mechanisms of M. truongsonensis are unknown.

Known Predators:

  • humans (Homo sapiens)
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Breitenbach, E. 2011. "Muntiacus truongsonensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muntiacus_truongsonensis.html
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Emilia Breitenbach, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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John Berini, Special Projects
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Truong Son muntjac

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The Truong Son muntjac or Annamite muntjac (Muntiacus truongsonensis) is a species of muntjac deer. It is one of the smallest muntjac species, at about 15 kg, half the size of the Indian muntjac (or common muntjac). It was discovered in the Truong Son mountain range in Vietnam in 1997.

It was identified by examination of skulls and descriptions provided by villagers, who call it samsoi cacoong, or "the deer that lives in the deep, thick forest." It lives at altitudes of 400–1000 metres, where its small size allows it to move through dense undergrowth.

References

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Truong Son muntjac: Brief Summary

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The Truong Son muntjac or Annamite muntjac (Muntiacus truongsonensis) is a species of muntjac deer. It is one of the smallest muntjac species, at about 15 kg, half the size of the Indian muntjac (or common muntjac). It was discovered in the Truong Son mountain range in Vietnam in 1997.

It was identified by examination of skulls and descriptions provided by villagers, who call it samsoi cacoong, or "the deer that lives in the deep, thick forest." It lives at altitudes of 400–1000 metres, where its small size allows it to move through dense undergrowth.

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