Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Nostima gilvipes (Coquillett)

Hydrellia gilvipes Coquillett, 1900b:261.—Jones, 1906:185 [catalog].

Nostima gilvipes.—Cresson, 1941:2–3 [revision].—Sturtevant and Wheeler, 1954:241 [review].—Wirth, 1965:745 [Nearctic catalog]; 1968:17 [Neotropical catalog].—Mathis and Zatwarnicki, 1995:191 [world catalog].

Nostima (Nostima) gilvipes.—Cresson, 1947:40 [review].

Nostima immaculata Cresson, 1918:49; 1930b:80 [compared with N. niveivenosa]; 1941:2 [synonymy].

DIAGNOSIS.—Nostima gilvipes is distinguished from congeners by the following combination of external characters: gena with ventral portion densely microtomentose; mesonotum not vittate; scutellum unicolorous; crossveins and veins unicolorous; tergite 2 posteromedially with dense, silvery gray microtomentum in a triangular pattern; tergite 3 with dense band of silvery gray microtomentum along posterior margin; and tergite 5 posteromedially with dense, silvery gray microtomentum.

DESCRIPTION.—Minute to small shore flies, body length 0.89–1.24 mm; yellowish brown to brown with silvery gray, yellowish silver, and golden microtomentum.

Head: Frons with dark brown ventrolateral triangles with golden yellow microtomentum, ocellar circle brown with golden yellow microtomentum. Occiput brown with sparse, silvery gray microtomentum. Outer vertical seta – length of inner vertical seta; paravertical seta absent. Scape and pedicel yellow; flagellomere 1 ventrally yellow, dorsally yellowish brown; arista dorsally branched. Facial background yellowish brown; narrow band of silvery gray microtomentum along eye margin beginning at antennae, extending along parafacial, and continuing to gena. Parafacial silvery gray, with a narrow brown band along medial parafacial and extending lateroventrally below gena. Face medially covered with yellowish silver microtomentum. Gena covered with dense, silvery gray microtomentum; postgena covered with dense, silvery gray microtomen-tum. Maxillary palpus yellow; prementum yellowish brown.

Thorax (Figure 149): Scutal length 0.34–0.43 mm; scutellar length 0.14–0.19 mm. Mesonotum brown with sparse, yellowish silver microtomentum, anterior margin paler; scutellum brown with sparse, yellowish silver microtomentum; anepisternum dorsal brown with silvery gray microtomentum, ventral shiny brown with sparse, silvery gray microtomentum; katepisternum shiny brown with silvery gray microtomentum; subscutellum shiny dark brown with sparse, silvery gray microtomentum; anatergite dorsal brown with yellowish silver microtomentum, ventral shiny brown. Chaetotaxy: anterior dorsocentral seta length of posterior seta; anterior notopleural seta length of posterior seta; lateral scutellar seta – length of apical seta. Wing (Figure 149): length 1.17–1.41 mm; width 0.48–0.62 mm; costal-vein ratio 0.89–1.13; M-vein ratio 0.21–0.29; amber background with pale brown veins and crossveins. Halter yellow. Legs yellow to yellow brown; tarsomere 5 yellowish brown on all legs.

Abdomen (Figures 42–44, 199, 200): Background brown; tergite 1 with sparse, silvery gray microtomentum; tergite 2 anteriorly with sparse, silvery gray microtomentum, posteromedially with dense microtomentum in triangular pattern; tergite 3 with silvery gray microtomentum, anteriorly sparse, posterior a dense band; tergite 4 bare, shiny; tergite 5 anterior shiny, posteromedially with dense, silvery gray microtomentum. Male genitalia (Figures 42–44): epandrium-cerci-surstyli complex completely fused; epandrium U-shaped with rounded posteroventral projection; cercus triangular in lateral view with many setulae, separated from epandrium by V-shaped space; surstylus rounded with pointed anterior projection and with posterior projection bearing 4 setae; aedeagal apodeme triangular in lateral view, posterior projection spatulate, anterior projection broad with anterior point in ventral view, lateral projections spike shaped; aedeagus crescent-shaped in lateral view; gonite with broad base, medial setula, narrow rounded posteroventral projection, and broad rounded posterodorsal projection; subepandrial plate and hypandrium fused; subepandrial plate a broad band with broad, bluntly pointed posterior projections; hypandrium rectangular in ventral view.

TYPE MATERIAL.—The holotype of Hydrellia gilvipes Coquillett has been destroyed, and nothing remains on the paper point that held the holotype. The pin includes a label by W.W. Wirth, indicating “Type lost Apr. 1969 W3.” Data on the label that accompanies the pin is as follows: “Bayamon Jan 1899/Porto Rico Aug Busck/Type No 4378 [handwritten] U.S.N.M. [red]/Hydrellia gilvipes Coq. [handwritten, white with black-line border]/Type lost Apr. 1969 W3. [handwritten, red ink].”

In the interest of stabilizing the use of this species name, a neotype should be designated. Paratypes do not exist, and specimens from the same locality apparently do not exist either; however, the type specimen for Nostima immaculata, a junior synonym as determined by Cresson (1941), is deposited in the ANSP. Cresson is the only person known to have compared the types of N. gilvipes and N. immaculata. Based upon his descriptions of these specimens, we concur that the synonymy is valid; therefore, the holotype of Nostima immaculata is herein designated as the neotype for N. gilvipes.

The holotype male of Nostima immaculata Cresson and neotype of Hydrellia gilvipes Coquillett is labeled “Rio Surubres 20 × ‘09 [20 Oct 1909] C[osta]R[ica] P P Calvert/Bonnefil F'm 800 ft alt Sweepings/TYPE No. Nostima immaculata E T Cresson, Jr. 6122 [red; species name and number handwritten, number written along right margin] [red]/ANSP [yellow]/NEOTYPE Nostima gilvipes (Coquillett) J. Edmiston (1989) [red].” The holotype (and neotype) is double mounted (minuten through posterior thorax; pinned to a thin rectangular piece of cardboard), is in good condition, and is deposited in the ANSP (6122).

OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED (85 , 119 ).—BELIZE. Cayo: San Ignacio (0.8 km N, W bank river; open grassland and scrub), 20–21 Jul 1978 (1 ; BMNH). Stann Creek: Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary (16°47′S, 88°30′W), 5–6 Apr 1993, W.N. Mathis (1 , 1; USNM).

BOLIVIA. La Paz: Apa (8 km S Chulumani; 16°35.6′S, 68°51.2′W; 1960 m), 10 Mar 2001, W.N. Mathis (2 ; USNM); Caranavi (15°50.2′S, 67°33.4′W; 670 m), 12 Mar 2001, W.N. Mathis (1 ; USNM); Chulumani (2 km S; 16°23.5′S, 67°31.8′W; 1750 m), 9–10 Mar 2001, W.N. Mathis (1 ; USNM); Guanay (3 km E; 15°30.2′S, 67°52.3′W; 500 m), 14 Mar 2001, W.N. Mathis (14 , 18; USNM); Mapiri (15°18.6′S, 68°13′W; 720 m), 15 Mar 2001, W.N. Mathis (3 , 2 ; USNM).

BRAZIL. Rio de Janeiro: Ilha de Marambaia (23°03.6′S, 43°59. 1′W), 4 Sep 2000, D. and W.N. Mathis (1 USNM).

COLOMBIA. Antioquia: Medellin (30 km NW; 2440 m), Feb 1958, M.R. Wheeler (1 , 2; USNM). Magdalena: Villa Concha (near Santa Marta; 11°15′N, 74°09′W), Dec 1955, W.B. Heed (1 ; USNM). Valle: Palmira (near Cali; 1005 m), Nov 1955, W.B. Heed (2 ; USNM).

COSTA RICA. Cartago: La Suiza, 25 Apr-Aug 1921, P. Schild (8 , 9 ; ANSP, HNHM, USNM). Puntarenas: Dominical (9°14.8′N, 83°51.4′W), 12 Jun 2003, J. Edmiston, D. and W.N. Mathis (1 ; USNM); Rio Bonito (2.3 km W Cerro la Gamba; 110m), 25 Jun-17 Jul 1996, E. Fletes (1 INBIO).

CUBA. Cienfuegos: Soledad, Jardin Botánico (22°7.5′N, 80°19.2′W), 13 Dec 1994, W.N. Mathis (1 ; USNM); Topes de Collantes (5 km WNW; 21°56.5′N, 80°2.3′W; 600 m), 11 Dec 1994, W.N. Mathis (2 , 1 ; USNM). Havana: Ojo de Aqua (22°54.6N, 82°29.1′W), 8 Dec 1994, W.N. Mathis (5 , 19 ; USNM); San Antonio de los Baños (22°54.9′N, 82°29.3′W), 8 Dec 1994, W.N. Mathis (4 , 8 ; USNM). Orientes: Herradura, C.W. Metz (1 ; MCZ). Pinar del Rio: Soroa (22°47.7′N, 83°W), 4–6 Dec 1994, W.N. Mathis (4 ; USNM).

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. Distrito Nacional: Santo Domingo (Jardin Botánico; 18°29.9′N, 69°56.9′W), 26 Mar 1999, W.N. Mathis (2 , 1 ; USNM). El Seibo: Rincón (near Rincón; 18°45.3′N, 68°55.7′W), 12 May 1995, W.N. Mathis (1 , 6 ; USNM). Pedernales: Pedernales (13 km N; along Rio Mulito; 18°09′N, 71°46′W; 230 m; riparian woodland), 17 Jul 1992, J. Rawlins, S. Thompson, C. Young, R. Davidson (2; CARN); Pedernales (18°01.8′N, 71°44.7′W), 19–20 Mar 1999, W.N. Mathis (4, 4; USNM); Pedernales (19 km N; 18°09.2′N, 71°44.8′W; 230 m), 20 Mar 1999, W.N. Mathis (2, 1; USNM). Peravia: San José Ocoa (10 km NE; 18°35′N, 70°25.6′W), 21 May 1998, D. and W.N. Mathis (1; USNM). Puerto Plata: Río Camu (14 km E Puerto Plata; 19°41.9′N, 70°37.5′W), 23 May 1998, D. and W.N. Mathis (1; USNM).

ECUADOR. Los Ríos: Guare, Aug 1955, R. Levi Castillo (1; USNM). Manabi: Bandurria, Aug 1955, R. Levi Castillo (3, 1; USNM); Camarones, 9 Sep 1955, R. Levi Castillo (1, 1; USNM); Estero Balsa, 9 Sep 1955, R. Levi Castillo (3, 2; USNM); Pichilingue, Mar 1958, M.R. Wheeler (1; USNM); Pichincha, Aug 1955, R. Levi Castillo (1; USNM).

EL SALVADOR. La Libertad: Lago de Zapotitán, Dec 1953, W.B. Heed (1; USNM).

GRENADA. St. Andrew: Grand Étang Lake (12°5.6′N, 61°41.7′W), 14 Sep 1997, W.N. Mathis (1; USNM).

GUATEMALA. Izabal: Matias de Galvez, 14–15 Aug 1965, P.J. Spangler (1; USNM).

GUYANA. Dubulay Ranch, Berbice River (5°40.9′N, 57°51.5′W), 9–11 Apr 1994, W.N. Mathis (6, 7; USNM); Georgetown (6°48.6′N, 58°8.6′W; 340 m), 20–29 Aug 1997, W.N. Mathis (1, 3; USNM).

HONDURAS. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7′N, 88°1.4′W), 25–26 Sep 1995, D. and W.N. Mathis (1; USNM).

JAMAICA. Clarendon: Grantham (18°09.3′N, 77°23.8′W; 340 m), 16 Apr 2000, W.N. Mathis (1; USNM). Manchester: near Warwick (17°54.1′N, 77°25.5′W), 7 May 1996, D. and W.N. Mathis, H.B. Williams (1, 5; USNM). Portland: Reach (4 km N; 18°03.6′N, 76°20.4′W), 15 May 1996, D. and W.N. Mathis, H.B. Williams (1; USNM). St. Andrew: Clydesdale (black light), 4–9 Dec 1975, G.F. Hevel (1; USNM).

MEXICO. Chiapas: Puenta Macalapa, 22 May 1964, F.S. Blanton, “light trap” (3; USNM). Guerrero: Acapulco, 16–30 Aug 1938, L.J. Lipovsky (1; KU). Puebla: Huachinango, Dec 1958, A. Faberge (1; USNM). Veracruz: Veracruz, Oct 1962, N.L.H. Krauss (1, 1; BMNH).

PANAMA. Canal Zone: Kobbe Beach (mangrove), Jul 1967, W.W. Wirth (1; USNM). Cocle: El Valle, Feb 1958, M.R. Wheeler (1; USNM); Playa Santa Clara, 2 Jul 1967, W.W. Wirth (1; USNM). Colon: Cativa, 27 Aug 1952, F.S. Blanton (1; USNM). Darien: Garachine, Feb 1953, F.S. Blanton (1; USNM).

ST. LUCIA. Fond St. Jacques (13°50′N, 61°02′W), 13–14 Jun 1991, D. and W.N. Mathis (2; USNM). Soufriere Botanical Garden (13°51′N, 61°4′W), 12 Jun 1991, D. and W.N. Mathis (1; USNM).

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. Trinidad: St. George, Arima 8 km N (10°1′N, 61°18′W) (Verdant Vale), 19 Jun 1993, W.N. Mathis (1; USNM).

UNITED STATES. Florida: Dade County, Homestead, IFAS Exp. Station (Malaise trap), 9 Nov 1973, W.H. Pierce (1; USNM); Monroe County, Key West (24°32.9′N, 81°47.9′W), 11 Feb 2000, D. and W.N. Mathis (1; USNM).

VENEZUELA. Barinas: Santa Rosa, Feb 1943, P. Anduze (1, 1; USNM).

DISTRIBUTION (Figure 45).—Nearctic: United States (Florida). Neotropical: Belize (Cayo, Stann Creek), Bolivia (LaPaz), Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), Colombia (Antioquia, Magdalena, Valle), Costa Rica (Cartago, Puntarenas), Ecuador (Los Ríos, Manabi), El Salvador (La Libertad), Guatemala (Izabal), Guyana, Honduras (Cortés), Mexico (Chiapas, Guerrero, Puebla, Veracruz), Panama (Canal Zone, Cocle, Colon, Darien), Trinidad, Venezuela (Barinas), and West Indies (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Jamaica, St. Lucia).

ETYMOLOGY.—The yellow to yellowish brown color of N. gilvipes confirms Cresson's choice of the Latin root gilv meaning pale yellow.
bibliographic citation
Edmiston, J. F. and Mathis, Wayne Neilsen. 2005. "A revision of the New World species of the shore-fly subgenus Nostima Coquillett (Genus Philygria Stenhammar; Diptera: Ephydridae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-108. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.623