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Monkeypod

Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.

Comments

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The fleshy pulp of the fruit is eaten. The wood is used for fuel.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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Description

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A medium sized, evergreen tree. Leaf stipulate, stipules modified into spine; rachis 1-2.5 cm long, pinnae 1 pair, leaflets two on each pinna, elliptic-oblong, oblique, 2-4.5 cm long. Inflorescence small globose, sessile or short peduncled heads arranged in long panicled raceme. Flowers greenish white. Calyx c.1 mm long, funnel shaped, pilose. Corolla c. 3-4 mm long, petals united below the middle. Stamens monadelphous, much exserted, not glandular. Style filiform, stigma simple. Pods 10-12.5 cm long, c. 2-3 mm broad, turgid, twisted, sutures indented between the seeds. Seeds 5-9, enveloped in pink or white pulpy aril which is edible. Seed c. 2.5 cm long, spiny, black.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Cultivated in tropics, a native of tropical America.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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Distribution

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Distribution: It is a native of Mexico, introduced in India and Pakistan, widely cultivated in Punjab and Sind.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Flower/Fruit

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Fl. Per. October-April.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. Lond. Joiirn. Bot 3: 199. 1844.
Mimosa dulcis Roxb. PI. Corom. 1: 67. 1795.
Inga dulcis Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 1005. 1806.
Inga pungens H. & B.; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 1004. 1806.
Mimosa pungens Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 1: 36. 1810.
Inga javana DC. Prodr. 2: 436. 1825.
Acacia obliquifolia M. & G. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10': 317. 1843.
Feuilleea dulcis Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 184. 1891.
A tree, 4-16 m. high, or shrubby, the twigs glabrous or pubescent. Stipular spines 0.4-16 mm. long, ascending, or often wanting; petioles slender, about 3 cm. long or much shorter; pinnae 1 pair; leaflets 1 pair, oblong to ovate or obovate, obtuse, glabrous or somewhat pubescent, 1-5 cm. long; heads small, panicled; peduncles 0.5-2.5 cm. long, pubescent; flowers whitish, densely canescent; calyx about 2 mm. long; coroUa 3-4 mm. long; stamentube short, included; legume curved or coiled, glabrate, 8-12 mm. wide, compressed.
Type locality: Coromandel, East Indies.
Distribution: Sonora, Lower California and Chihuahua to Colombia and Venezuela. Widely planted in tropical and subtropical regions and locally naturalized.
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bibliographic citation
Nathaniel Lord Britton and Joseph Nelson Rose. 1928. (ROSALES); MIMOSACEAE. North American flora. vol 23(1). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Physical Description

provided by USDA PLANTS text
Perennial, Trees, Shrubs, Woody throughout, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems or branches arching, spreading or decumbent, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Trunk or stems armed with thorns, spines or prickles, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Extrafloral nectary glands on petiole, Stipules conspicuous, Stipules persistent, Stipules free, Stipules spinose or bristles, Leaves compound, Leaves bipinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets 4, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Inflorescence panicles, Inflorescences glob ose heads, capitate or subcapitate, Inflorescence terminal, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Bracteoles present, Flowers actinomorphic or somewhat irregular, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx hairy, Petals united, valvate, Petals white, Petals pinkish to rose, Stamens numerous, more than 10, Stamens monadelphous, united below, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit strongly curved, falcate, bent, or lunate, Fruit twisted, Fruit spirally coiled or contorted, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit compressed between seeds, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit red, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black, Seeds with appendage - aril, caruncle, funiculus, or strophiole.
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USDA PLANTS text

Pithecellobium dulce

provided by wikipedia EN

Pithecellobium dulce, commonly known as Manila tamarind, Madras thorn, or camachile,[3][4] is a species of flowering plant in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to the Pacific Coast and adjacent highlands of Mexico, Central America, and northern South America.[2] It is also sometimes known as monkeypod, but that name is also used for several other plants, including Samanea saman.[5] It is an introduced species and extensively naturalized in the Caribbean and Florida, as well as the Philippines and Guam via the Manila galleons. It has also been introduced to Thailand and South Asia,[6][7] It is considered an invasive species in Hawaii.

Description

Pithecellobium dulce is a tree that reaches a height of about 10 to 15 m (33 to 49 ft). Its trunk is spiny and its leaves are bipinnate. Each pinna has a single pair of ovate-oblong leaflets that are about 2 to 4 cm (0.79 to 1.57 in) long. The flowers are greenish-white, fragrant, sessile and reach about 12 cm (4.7 in) in length, though appear shorter due to coiling. The flowers produce a pod, which turns pink when ripe and opens to expose the seed arils; a pink or white, edible pulp. The pulp contains black shiny seeds that are circular and flat. Pollen is a polyad of many pollen grains stitched together.

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Pollen of Pithecellobium dulce

The seed is dispersed via birds that feed on the sweet pulp. The tree is drought resistant and can survive in dry lands from sea level to an elevation of 1,500 m (4,900 ft), making it suitable for cultivation as a street tree.

Vernacular names

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Pithecellobium dulce in Swargate, Pune, India

The English names "Manila tamarind" and "Madras thorn" are both misleading since it is neither related to the tamarind nor native to Manila (though it was introduced early to the Philippines) or Madras. Other English names include blackbead, sweet Inga, and monkeypod.[2]

Depending on the region of its occurrence, Pithecellobium dulce is known by different names. In its native Mexico, the tree is known as huamuche, guamuche, huamúchil, guamúchil, or cuamúchil, deriving from its Nahuatl name cuauhmochitl. The Nahuatl derivations are also preserved in its names in the Philippines, where it was first introduced into Asia via the Manila galleons. It is known as kamachile in Tagalog (from where the English name "camachile" is derived), kamunsil in Hiligaynon, and damortis or kamantiris in (Ilokano).[8]

In the wider region of Latin America, it is also called pinzán, or guamá americano (Puerto Rico). In Colombia it is known as chiminango and payandé.[9] It is also known as ʻopiuma in (Hawaiian).[8]

In South Asia and the rest of Southeast Asia, it is known by many names, most of which literally translate to "foreign tamarind". These include: makham thet in Thai; plaeh umpel tek in Khmer; kodukkappuli or kodikkai in (Tamil); seema chintakaya in Telugu; dora hunase or seeme hunase in Kannada; bakhai ambli or goras ambli in Gujarati; vilayati chinch in Marathi; singri in Hindi; seema Kaiyan in Odia; achhi gidamiri in Sindhi; and jilapi in Bengali. In Pakistan, it is also known as "jungle jalebi", after the resemblance of its fruits to the jalebi.

Uses

As food

The seed pods contain a sweet and sour pulp which is eaten raw in Mexico, the Philippines,[10] Pakistan, and India[11] as an accompaniment to various meat dishes and used as a base for drinks with sugar and water ('agua de guamúchil').

The seeds are said to be eaten (locally?) in the 'Revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon' (1980), edited by M.D. Dassanayake (this information is not in the original 'Flora of Ceylon' of 1894).[6][11] A number of studies since the 1980s have investigated the composition and possible uses of the seeds; it has been demonstrated that the seeds can be processed to extract a greenish oil, which when refined and analysed consists of potentially edible fatty acids (the precise composition varies depending on the study, but all agree oleic acid and palmitic acid are common, which is to be expected).[11][12] Oils amount to 10[11]-17%[12] of the weight of the seeds. The seeds also contain 30[11]-37.5[12]-67.11%[7] protein, which researchers suggest might in the future be used as animal feed.[7][11]

As traditional medicine

The bark is used as an astringent[13] for dysentery in India,

It is said to have been used as an antipyretic in India (information originally from 1933),[11] used for eye inflammation, although an anecdote from Sri Lanka claims the bark contains a substance that causes eye infections and swelling of the eyelids.[11]

The Huastec people of northern Veracruz and San Luis Potosí in Mexico used different parts of the tree to treat gum ailments, toothache and cancer.[11][13][14]

The leaves are said to be used in a poultice with alcohol to treat bile,[13] as well as being used to prevent abortions/miscarriage,[13] although the leaves are also said to be used to cause abortions.[7]

The pulp from the fruits is said to be astringent and hemostatic, and used for hemoptysis.[13]

The ground seed is sometimes traditionally used to clean ulcers.[13]

Non-specified parts of the plant are said to be used extract is also used against hemorrhages, chronic diarrhea, and tuberculosis.[13]

Ecology

Pithecellobium dulce is a host plant for the caterpillars of the Common nawab (Polyura athamas), three-spot grass yellow (Eurema blanda), Bright babul blue (Azanus ubaldus) and several moths.[15]

Synonyms

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Pithecellobium dulce, Heritage Tree, Madras Thorn, Fort Canning, Singapore

Pithecellobium dulce is known under numerous junior synonyms:[16]

  • Acacia obliquifolia M.Martens & Galeotti
  • Albizia dulcis (Roxb.) F.Muell.
  • Feuilleea dulcis (Roxb.) Kuntze
  • Inga camatchili Perr.
  • Inga dulcis (Roxb.) Willd.
  • Inga javana DC.
  • Inga javanica DC.
  • Inga lanceolata sensu Blanco
  • Inga lanceolata Willd. is Pithecellobium lanceolatum
  • Inga leucantha C.Presl
  • Inga pungens Willd.
  • Mimosa dulcis Roxb.
  • Mimosa edulis Gagnep.
  • Mimosa pungens (Willd.) Poir.
  • Mimosa unguis-cati Blanco
  • Mimosa unguis-cati L. is Pithecellobium unguis-cati
  • Pithecellobium littorale Record
  • Pithecollobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (lapsus)

See also

  • Camachile cookie, a Filipino cookie named after its resemblance to camachile fruits

References

  1. ^ "Pithecellobium dulce Guama Americano". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2020-01-10.
  2. ^ a b c "Pithecellobium dulce". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2010-03-29.
  3. ^ Hiwale, Shrikant (2015). "Non Traditional Crops: Manila Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.)". Sustainable Horticulture in Semiarid Dry Lands: 273–277. doi:10.1007/978-81-322-2244-6_20. ISBN 978-81-322-2243-9.
  4. ^ "Camachile". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  5. ^ "Pithecellobium dulce". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  6. ^ a b Trimen, Henry (1894). Flora of Ceylon. 2. London: Dulau & Co. pp. 131–132. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.10864.
  7. ^ a b c d Khanzada, Samina Kabir; Kabir, Amina; Shaikh, Wazir; Ali, Syed Abid (April 2013). "Phytochemical studies on Pithecellobium dulce Benth. A medicinal plant of Sindh, Pakistan". Pakistan Journal of Botany. 45 (2): 557–561. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  8. ^ a b Grandtner, Miroslav M. (2005). Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees: With Names in Latin, English, French, Spanish and Other Languages. 1. Elsevier. pp. 670–671. ISBN 978-0-444-51784-5.
  9. ^ "Guía de Reforestación". elsemillero.net. Retrieved 2020-06-21.
  10. ^ "Camachile / Guamachil /Manila Tamarind". Market Manila. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Parrotta, John A. (January 1991). Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. Guamuchil, Madras thorn. Leguminosae (Mimosoideae.) Legume family (PDF) (Report). New Orleans, LA: USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry. SO-ITF-SM-40. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  12. ^ a b c "PlantFAdb Pithecellobium dulce - Monkeypod". plantfadb.org. Max Rubner-Institute & Michigan State University. 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity: Pithecellobium Dulce: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/conocimiento/info_especies/arboles/doctos/45-legum38m.pdf
  14. ^ Alcorn, Janis B. (1984). Huastec Mayan Ethnobotany. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0292715431.
  15. ^ "Red-bordered Pixie Melanis pixe (Boisduval, 1836)". Butterflies and Moths of North America. Archived from the original on 2009-05-05. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
  16. ^ International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS) (2005): Pithecellobium dulce. Version 10.01, November 2005. Retrieved 25 July 2018.

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Pithecellobium dulce: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Pithecellobium dulce, commonly known as Manila tamarind, Madras thorn, or camachile, is a species of flowering plant in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to the Pacific Coast and adjacent highlands of Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. It is also sometimes known as monkeypod, but that name is also used for several other plants, including Samanea saman. It is an introduced species and extensively naturalized in the Caribbean and Florida, as well as the Philippines and Guam via the Manila galleons. It has also been introduced to Thailand and South Asia, It is considered an invasive species in Hawaii.

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