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Comments

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The Houma used preparations from the bark of Celtis laevigata to treat sore throats and venereal disease (D. E. Moerman 1986).
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Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Trees , to 30 m; trunks to 1 m diam., crowns broad, spreading. Bark light gray, smooth or covered with corky warts. Branches without thorns, often pendulous, young branches pubescent at first, then glabrous. Leaves: petiole 6-10 mm. Leaf blade typically elliptic-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, (4-)6-8(-15) × (2-)3-4 cm, thin and membranaceous to leathery, base broadly cuneate to rounded, margins entire or rarely with a few long teeth, apex sharply acute to acuminate; surfaces glabrous or nearly so, margins ciliate. Inflorescences: flowers solitary or few-flowered clusters at base of leaves. Drupes orange to brown or red when ripe, nearly orbicular, 5-8 mm diam., beakless; pedicel 6-15 mm. Stones 4.5-7 × 5-6 mm. 2 n = 20, 30, and 40.
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Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Distribution

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Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Kans., Ky., La., Md., Miss., Mo., N.C., Okla., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va.; n Mexico.
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Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering late spring-early fall (May-Oct).
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Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Habitat

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In rich bottomlands along streams, in flood plains, and on rocky slopes; 0-300m.
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Synonym

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Celtis laevigata var. anomala Sargent; C. laevigata var. brachyphylla Sargent; C. laevigata var. smallii (Beadle) Sargent; C. laevigata var. texana Sargent; C. mississippiensis Bosc; C. smallii Beadle
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Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: tree

sugarberry
hackberry
lowland hackberry
sugar hackberry
Arizona sugarberry
netleaf hackberry
Small's hackberry
southern hackberry
Texas sugarberry

TAXONOMY:
The accepted scientific name for sugarberry is Celtis laevigata Willd. (Ulmaceae) [17,59].

Recognized varieties are as follows [59]:

Celtis laevigata var. brevipes Sarg., Arizona sugarberry
Celtis laevigata var. laevigata, sugarberry
Celtis laevigata var. reticulata (Torr.) L.D. Benson, netleaf hackberry
Celtis laevigata var. smallii (Beadle) Sarg., Small's hackberry
Celtis laevigata var. texana (Scheele) Sarg., Texas sugarberry

See the FEIS review of netleaf hackberry for detailed information on that variety.

LIFE FORM:
Tree

FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status

OTHER STATUS:
NO-ENTRY





DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
SPECIES: Celtis laevigata
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION:
Sugarberry is native to the southeastern part of the United States,
ranging south from southeastern Virginia to southern Florida; west to
central Texas and including northeastern Mexico; north to western
Oklahoma and southern Kansas; and east to Missouri, extreme southern
Illinois, and Indiana. It occurs locally in Maryland [5,17,36].
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bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Celtis laevigata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Management Considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: basal area, succession

Sugarberry occurs as scattered individuals in Florida pine flatwoods
that are usually maintained by fire. When fire is eliminated,
succession usually proceeds to either southern mixed hardwoods or
bayhead communities, with a concomitant increase in basal area of
sugarberry [38].
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Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Celtis laevigata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Key Plant Community Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: codominant, cover, cover type, forest, hardwood, swamp

In many areas, sugarberry occurs as scattered individuals. After
disturbances, a seral sugarberry-American elm (Ulmus americana)-green
ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) forest cover type may develop, with
sugarberry as a codominant. This type intermixes with sweetgum
(Liquidambar styraciflua)-willow oak (Quercus phellos) types, which
contain essentially the same species in different densities. The
sugarberry-American elm-green ash type occurs most often on the central
coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico, heavily concentrated on the
Mississippi alluvial plain, and along major river basins [21,36].

Publications in which sugarberry is listed as a dominant or codominant
include:

Woody vegetation of an old-growth creekbottom forest in north-central
Texas. [41]
Quadrat study of a bottomland forest in St. Martin Parish, Louisiana. [50]
Woody species composition of the upper San Antonio River gallery
forest. [6]
Productivity and composition of a bald cypress-water tupelo site and a
bottomland hardwood site in a Louisiana swamp. [10]
Vegetative analysis of the floodplain of the Trinity River, Texas. [42]
Plant communities of the Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Texas. [62]
The distribution of woody species in the Guadalupe River floodplain
forest in the Edwards Plateau of Texas. [20]
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Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Celtis laevigata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Life Form

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: tree

Tree
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Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Celtis laevigata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Management considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: basal area, presence, tree

In dense even-aged stands, sugarberry will self-prune and produce a
straight stem [5].

In cottonwood (Populus spp.) stands on alluvium, sugarberry (usually
with poor growth forms) will take over openings created when cottonwoods
are cut, and control sites that managers would prefer to be in more
valuable species [30]. On a site that was logged then seeded with Nuttall
oak (Quercus nuttallii), sugarberry (probably carried in by animals)
naturally established in sufficient numbers to make up one of four species
accounting for 83 percent of stems [33,39].

Sugarberry is susceptible to damage by ice, which breaks main stems and
branches [5].

Defoliation of sugarberry by hackberry butterfly (Asterocampa celtis)
has been reported, though no tree death or crown die-back was observed.
Hackberry butterfly can be controlled by spraying trees with
insecticides [5].

Sugarberry is used as an ornamental, even though leaf leachate can
reduce growth of grasses under the trees due to the presence of ferulic,
caffeic, and p-coumaric acids [5].

Good stands of sugarberry are able to establish naturally after logging
[22]. In a study of logging practices in Mississippi, sugarberry
reached the highest densities in regeneration after all sawtimber-sized
stems were removed and either all stems greater than 2 inches in d.b.h.
(5 cm) were injected with 2,4-D or stems of desirable species left
untreated with 2,4-D. Sugarberry was considered a desirable species in
this study [29]. Seven years after clearcutting on a site where
sugarberry was a canopy dominant, sugarberry accounted for 32 percent of
total regeneration stems [23]. After patch clearcutting, sugarberry
dominated both sapling and seedling regeneration on a site where, prior
to harvest, it had been second in basal area (after sweetgum) [25].

Sugarberry has no major diseases of the twigs and leaves, but eastern
mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens) may cause serious damage in the
western part of sugarberry's range [5].
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bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Celtis laevigata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Phenology

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More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: fruit, tree

Sugarberry flowers when the leaves first appear in spring, from March to
May, depending on latitude. Fruit appears in July and August, ripening
into October. The fruit is retained on the tree until midwinter [2].
Most or all leaves are lost by mid-December in the Rio Grande Valley,
Texas [63].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Celtis laevigata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Post-fire Regeneration

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: ground residual colonizer, secondary colonizer

Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/root sucker
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer - off-site seed
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bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Celtis laevigata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The accepted scientific name for sugarberry is Celtis laevigata Willd. (Ulmaceae) [17,59].

Recognized varieties are as follows [59]:

Celtis laevigata var. brevipes Sarg., Arizona sugarberry
Celtis laevigata var. laevigata, sugarberry
Celtis laevigata var. reticulata (Torr.) L.D. Benson, netleaf hackberry
Celtis laevigata var. smallii (Beadle) Sarg., Small's hackberry
Celtis laevigata var. texana (Scheele) Sarg., Texas sugarberry

See the FEIS review of netleaf hackberry for detailed information on that variety.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Celtis laevigata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Associated Forest Cover

provided by Silvics of North America
Sugarberry appears with the following forest cover types (11): Cottonwood (Society of American Foresters Type 63), Sweetgurn-Willow Oak (Type 92), Sugarberry-American Elm-Green Ash (Type 93), Sycamore-Sweetgurn-American Elm (Type 94), Black Willow (Type 95), and Overcup Oak-Water Hickory (Type 96).

Other tree associates are cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), winged elm (U. alata), water oak Quercus nigra), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), persimmon (Diospyros virginiana), honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos), red maple (Acer rubrum), and boxelder (A. negundo). Some important noncommercial tree and shrub associates are swamp-privet (Forestiera acuminata), roughleaf dogwood (Cornus drummondii), and hawthorn (Crataegus spp.).

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Climate

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Sugarberry grows in a humid climate except for part of its range in Oklahoma and Texas which lies west of a north-south line through Galveston Bay. There the climate is semihumid to semiarid. The average precipitation varies from 510 to 1520 mm (20 to 60 in) per year, the lightest being in central Texas and Oklahoma. An average of 380 to 760 mm (15 to 30 in) occurs during the frost-free period. Annual snowfall ranges from 0 to 51 cm (0 to 20 in).

Summer temperatures vary from an average of 27° C (80° F) to extremes of 46° C (115° F). Average winter temperatures are from -1° to 10° C (30° to 50° F), with an extreme of -29° C (-20° F).

The average length of the growing season varies from 150 to 270 days.

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Damaging Agents

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The bark is thin and easily injured by fire. A light burn kills back reproduction. Heavier bums may kill even the largest trees and wound others, making them subject to serious butt rot, which in sugarberry advances rapidly. Butt rot is a common name used to indicate the area of the decay in the butt log which may be caused by any one of 30 or more species of fungi belonging to the genera Fomes, Polyporus, Hericium, and Plyeurotus.

Ice also causes heavy damage to the crowns, breaking the main stem and branches which reduces growth and creates wounds that allow entrance of rot-causing fungi. There are some other diseases of the twigs and leaves, but none are of major importance.

Eastern mistletoe (Phoraedendron flavescens) may cause serious damage in the western part of its range (7). A number of scales attack the twigs, small branches, and sometimes the trunks, but none are considered very damaging. Leaf petiole galls caused by the hackberry petiole gall maker (Pachypsylla venusta) are common. In recent years, defoliation of large acreages in several Southern States by larvae of the hackberry butterfly (Asterocampa celtis) have been reported (12). No deaths or crown die-back among the trees was observed in the following years. Research has shown that the hackberry butterfly can be controlled by spraying trees with certain registered insecticides (8).

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Flowering and Fruiting

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The small, greenish flowers appear with the leaves in the early spring-from mid-March to May, depending on latitude (1). Sugarberry is polygamo-monoecious. The fruit ripens in September and October, and often remains on the trees until midwinter. Sugarberry fruits are spherical drupes 6 to 13 mm (0.25 to 0.5 in) in diameter with a thin pulp enclosing a single bony nutlet. Late spring frosts sometimes kill the flowers and reduce the seed crop.

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Genetics

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Sugarberry seems to present a considerable number of local variations that have prompted some botanists to name a number of varieties, while other botanists feel the distinctions are too slight to warrant such status (13).

Some varieties listed are Texas sugar hackberry, C. laevigata var. texana; Uvalde sugar hackberry, C. laevigata var. brachyphylla; scrub sugar hackberry, C. laevigata var. anomala; small sugar hackberry, C. laevigata var. smallii; Arizona sugar hackberry, C. laevigata var. brevipes; net-leaf sugar hackberry, C. laevigata var. reticulata.

There are no known races or hybrids of sugarberry.

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Growth and Yield

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Sugarberry is a small- to medium-sized tree. It often attains a height of 24 to 30 in (80 to 100 ft) at maturity. On best sites, 10-year diameter growth can be in excess of 6 cm (2.5 in) for dominant trees (9). The overall average is about 2.5 to 5 cm (1 to 2 in) in 10 years. On average sites, mature forest-grown trees average about 46 cm (18 in) in diameter and 24 in (80 ft) in height, with trunks clear of branches for approximately 9 m (30 ft).

An accurate estimate of the total growing stock is available for only a limited portion of the sugarberry range. Because of its scattered occurrence, forest surveys usually include sugarberry in a group of other species with limited frequencies. The only region containing enough sugarberry of sawtimber size to list separately is the Mississippi Delta (10). The principal States producing commercial quantities of sugarberry are Louisiana, Mississippi, and Arkansas. These States contain about 16 million m³ (560 million ft³) and about 9.4 million m³ (1,650 million fbm) of sugarberry sawtimber. In 1965, a rough estimate of the total sawtimber resource in the United States was in excess of 10.0 million m' (2,000 million fbm).

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Reaction to Competition

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Sugarberry is classed as tolerant of shade. It grows fast when released and often outgrows more desirable forest species (5). Sugarberry becomes established in the understory and generally has very poor form in this situation. In dense, even-aged stands, however, it prunes itself well and produces a straight stem.

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Rooting Habit

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Sugarberry is a relatively shallow-rooted tree and does not develop a distinct taproot. The root system is saucer-shaped with good lateral root development. The tree is about average in resistance to windthrow.

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Seed Production and Dissemination

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Seed production starts when trees are about 15 years old (7). Optimum seed-bearing age is from 30 to 70 years old. Sugarberry bears good seed crops in most years and some nearly every year. There are between 4,400 and 5,300 cleaned seeds per kilogram (2,000 to 2,400/lb). The seed is widely dispersed by birds and water.

Mature fruits can be picked by hand from trees as late as midwinter. Collection is easier after trees have completely dropped their leaves. Branches of sugarberry can be flailed to knock the fruits onto sheets of plastic or other suitable material spread under the trees.

If seeds are to be used for seedling production in a nursery, then both fall sowing of untreated seeds and spring sowing of stratified seeds are satisfactory. Seeds may be broadcast or drilled in rows and should be covered with 6 to 13 mm (0.25 to 0.5 in) of firmed soil. Beds should be covered with bird screens until germination starts. Experience at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory, Stoneville, MS, has shown that if spring sowing is used, the seeds should be depulped before storage, dried to 8 to 10 percent moisture content, and stored in 6-mil-thick plastic bags or equivalent storage containers until stratification. Seeds should be stratified in moist sand or other suitable media for 60 to 90 days before sowing in the nursery. The seeds can be depulped by wet maceration. Depulping is not essential, but it has been reported to aid germination (1). Average germinative capacity is reported to be 55 percent for sugarberry.

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Seedling Development

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Sugarberry seeds lie dormant over winter and germinate early in the spring. Germination is epigeal (1). The seedlings become established under most stands of southern bottom land hardwoods. Best natural conditions for germination are moist, loamy soil, but the species is found mostly on clay soils. First-year growth usually produces a very slender but tough stem, 20 to 46 cm (8 to 18 in) in height. Under shade, the young seedling develops a crooked, short stem, often forked within a few feet of the ground. In the open, it tends to be very limby and short boled. Sugarberry is considered intolerant of flooding, at least in the seedling stage (2,3,4).

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Soils and Topography

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Sugarberry is most common on Inceptisols and Entisols found in broad flats or shallow sloughs within flood plains of major southern rivers (9), but will grow under a considerable range of soil and moisture conditions. It is widely distributed on bottom lands except in deep swamps and is found to a minor extent on upland sites. It is also common on deep moist soils derived from limestones, notably in the Black Belt of Alabama (10).

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Special Uses

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Sugarberry mixed with hackberry supplies the lumber known as hackberry. Small amounts are used for dimension stock, veneer, and containers, but the main use of sugarberry wood is for furniture. The light-colored wood can be given a light- to medium-brown finish that in other woods must be achieved by bleaching.

The dry sweet fruit is eaten by at least 10 species of birds, as well as other game and nongame animals (13).

Sugarberry is often used for street planting in the lower South and is also used as an ornamental in residential areas. A problem in such use is that leachates from the leaves reduce germination and growth of a number of grasses under the trees (6). These leachates have been identified in the soil as ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid.

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Vegetative Reproduction

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Sugarberry can be propagated by cuttings (7). Small stumps sprout readily, and there is some sprouting from root collars of fire-damaged seedlings and saplings.

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Distribution

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Sugarberry ranges south from southeastern Virginia to southern Florida, west to central Texas and northeastern Mexico, and north to western Oklahoma, southern Kansas, Missouri, southern Illinois, southern Indiana, and western Kentucky. It is local in Maryland, the Rio Grande Valley, and northeastern Mexico. Its range overlaps the southern part of the range of hackberry (C. occidentalis).


-The native range of sugarberry.


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Brief Summary

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Ulmaceae -- Elm family

Harvey E. Kennedy, Jr.

Sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), a common medium-size tree of moderate to fast growth, is most often found on clay soils of broad flats or shallow sloughs within the flood plains of major southern rivers. It is also called sugar hackberry, hackberry, Texas sugarberry, southern hackberry, and lowland hackberry. Sugarberry is short lived, probably not living more than 150 years. The wood is of medium strength and hardness and much of the light yellow wood is used by furniture manufacturers. The abundant crops of fruits are eaten by wildlife, especially birds. The tree is planted as an ornamental and as a street tree in residential areas in the lower South.

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Celtis laevigata

provided by wikipedia EN

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Celtis laevigata, Southeastern Louisiana.

Celtis laevigata is a medium-sized tree native to North America. Common names include sugarberry, Southern hackberry, or in the southern U.S. sugar hackberry or just hackberry.

Sugarberry is easily confused with common hackberry (C. occidentalis) where the range overlaps. Sugarberry has narrower leaves which are smoother above. The species can also be distinguished by habitat: where the ranges overlap, common hackberry occurs primarily in upland areas, whereas sugarberry occurs mainly in bottomland areas.

Sugarberry's range extends from the Eastern United States west to Texas and south to northeastern Mexico.[2] It is also found on the island of Bermuda.[3]

Ecology

Sugarberry occurs primarily along streams and in moist soils on floodplains. Its sweetish fruit is eaten by birds and rodents,[4] helping to disperse the seeds.[5] The leaves are eaten by a number of insects, for example caterpillars of the Io moth (Automeris io).

Sugarberry's leaf litter contains allelopathic chemicals that inhibit seed germination and growth in many other plant species.[6]

Cultivation and uses

Sugarberry mixed with hackberry supplies the lumber known as hackberry. Small amounts are used for dimension stock, veneer, and containers, but the main use of sugarberry wood is for furniture. The light-colored wood can be given a light- to medium-brown finish that in other woods must be achieved by bleaching.[7] The wood is also used to produce sporting goods and plywood.[8]

Sugarberry is frequently planted as a shade-tree within its range. It is well-adapted to urban areas; its elm-like shape and warty bark make it an attractive landscape tree.

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Barstow, M. (2017). "Celtis laevigata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T61987968A61987970. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T61987968A61987970.en. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Celtis laevigata". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  3. ^ "Southern Hackberry (Celtis laevigata)". Bermuda's Species. Department of Conservation Services, Government of Bermuda. Archived from the original on 2010-03-05. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  4. ^ Little, Elbert L. (1980). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees: Eastern Region. New York: Knopf. p. 413. ISBN 0-394-50760-6.
  5. ^ Peattie, Donald Culross (1953). A Natural History of Western Trees. New York: Bonanza Books. pp. 465–66.
  6. ^ M.A.K. Lodhi, E.L. Rice. 1971. Allelopathic effects of Celtis laevigata. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Vol. 98, No. 2, pg. 83-89.
  7. ^ Kennedy Jr., Harvey E. (1990). "Celtis laevigata". In Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H. (eds.). Hardwoods. Silvics of North America. Washington, D.C.: United States Forest Service (USFS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2 – via Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us).
  8. ^ Florida Forest Trees: Sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) Archived June 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine

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Celtis laevigata: Brief Summary

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 src= Celtis laevigata, Southeastern Louisiana.

Celtis laevigata is a medium-sized tree native to North America. Common names include sugarberry, Southern hackberry, or in the southern U.S. sugar hackberry or just hackberry.

Sugarberry is easily confused with common hackberry (C. occidentalis) where the range overlaps. Sugarberry has narrower leaves which are smoother above. The species can also be distinguished by habitat: where the ranges overlap, common hackberry occurs primarily in upland areas, whereas sugarberry occurs mainly in bottomland areas.

Sugarberry's range extends from the Eastern United States west to Texas and south to northeastern Mexico. It is also found on the island of Bermuda.

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