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Virginia Fanpetals

Ripariosida hermaphrodita (L.) Weakley & D. B. Poind.

Sida hermaphrodita

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Sida hermaphrodita, known by the common names Virginia fanpetals and Virginia mallow, is a perennial forb native to the eastern United States,[3] which produces white flowers in summer.

Description

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Botanical illustration of Sida hermaphrodita (1913)

The branching stem of Sida hermaphrodita is 1 to 4 meters tall, and up to 3 centimeters in diameter. The leaves are 10 to 20 centimeters long and borne on petioles. The leaves are simple, but palmately cleft into 3 to 7 lanceolate lobes. The flowers are borne in terminal clusters. Each flower has 5 petals, which are about a centimeter long. The fruit is a schizocarp that splits into segments when ripe.[4][5]

Distribution and habitat

Sida hermaphrodita has been recorded in Washington, D.C., Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and the Canadian province of Ontario, although local distribution may be spotty. It is listed as an endangered species by the states of Indiana, Maryland, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania, and as a species of special concern by Kentucky.[3] In Virginia, Sida hermaphrodita grows in habitats such as sandy or rocky river shores.[6] The presence of this species is dependent on appropriate habitat, and it may be eliminated from an area by development, changes in land use, or competition with invasive species.

Taxonomy

Recent phylogenetic research confirms that Sida hermaphrodita is not particularly closely related to other members of the genus Sida. Over the years, it has been suggested that this species might be closer related to the monotypic genus Napaea, or to Sidasodes, a genus of two species native to the Andes, however, further research has not supported either of these relationships.[7] Virginia mallow has since been formally treated as a monotypic, isolated, temperate, North American genus, Ripariosida hermaphrodita Weakley & D. B. Poind., named for its historic preference for inundated stream-beds.[8]

In cultivation

In Poland, Sida hermaphrodita is grown for its fiber, as a source of fodder for livestock, and as a source of nectar for beekeeping. It is currently being investigated as a source of biomass for alternative energy production purposes.[9] The results of trials in Northern Europe have demonstrated high yields, ranging from 6.7 to 16.7 oven dry metric tons per hectare (3.0 to 7.4 short ton/acre), annually, showing good properties as a feedstock for energy pellets [10]

References

  1. ^ Sida hermaphrodita NatureServe
  2. ^ a b "Sida hermaphrodita". Tropicos. Missouri Botanical Gardens. Retrieved 23 April 2017 – via The Plant List.
  3. ^ a b "Plants Profile for Sida hermaphrodita (Virginia fanpetals)". Retrieved February 14, 2014. USDA, NRCS. 2014. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.
  4. ^ Britton, Nathaniel Lord & Brown, Addison (1913). An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions: From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102d Meridian, Volume 2., p. 520. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  5. ^ "Sida hermaphrodita (Virginia fanpetals): Go Botany". Retrieved February 14, 2014.
  6. ^ "Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora | Sida hermaphrodita (L.) Rusby". Retrieved February 14, 2014. Virginia Botanical Associates. (2014). Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora (http://www.vaplantatlas.org). c/o Virginia Botanical Associates, Blacksburg.
  7. ^ Javier Fuertes Aguilar, Paul A. Fryxell, Robert K. Jansen "Phylogenetic Relationships and Classification of the Sida Generic Alliance (Malvaceae) Based on nrDNA ITS Evidence". doi:10.1043/0363-6445-28.2.352 (inactive 28 February 2022). {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of February 2022 (link) Systematic Botany, 28(2):352-364. 2003. The American Society of Plant Taxonomists.
  8. ^ Weakley, Alan S.; Poindexter, Derick B.; LeBlond, Richard J.; Sorrie, Bruce A.; Karlsson, Cassandra H.; J.Williams, Parker; Orzell, Steve L.; Weeks, Andrea; Flores-Cruz, María; Gann, George D.; Bridges, Edwin L. (2017). "New Combinations, Rank Changes, and Nomenclatural and Taxonomic Comments in the Vascular Flora of the Southeastern United States. Ii". Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 11 (2): 291–325. doi:10.17348/jbrit.v11.i2.1071. ISSN 1934-5259. JSTOR 44858859. S2CID 244543495.
  9. ^ H. Borkowska, R. Molas, A. Kupczyk (2009) "Virginia Fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita Rusby) Cultivated on Light Soil; Height of Yield and Biomass Productivity" (PDF). Retrieved February 14, 2014. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. Vol. 18, No. 4. (http://www.pjoes.com)
  10. ^ Papamatthaiakis, Nikolaos; Laine, Antti; Haapala, Antti; Ikonen, Risto; Kuittinen, Suvi; Pappinen, Ari; Kolström, Marja; Mola-Yudego, Blas (2021). "New energy crop alternatives for Northern Europe: Yield, chemical and physical properties of Giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis var. 'Igniscum') and Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita)". Fuel. 304: 121349. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2021.121349.
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Sida hermaphrodita: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Sida hermaphrodita, known by the common names Virginia fanpetals and Virginia mallow, is a perennial forb native to the eastern United States, which produces white flowers in summer.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN