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Diagnostic Description

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Dorsal fin spines of large individuals increase in size from front to back. It is the largest of all coral reef dwelling bony fishes (Ref. 37816); overall dark grey color with variable amount of pale spots/blotches; cycloid scales on body; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.3-3.4 in SL; short pelvic fins, 23.0-2.7 in head length (Ref. 90102); further characterized by having head length 2.2-2.7 times in SL; interorbital width 3.3-6.2 times in HL; flat to slightly convex interorbital area, convex dorsal head profile; subangular preopercle, finely serrate, the angle rounded; convex upper edge of operculum; eye diameter 5.8-14 in head length; subequal anterior and posterior nostrils; maxilla reaching past vertical at rear edge of eye; 2-3 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw increasing to 15-16 rows in fish of 177 cm SL; small or absent canine teeth at front of jaws (Ref. 89707).
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Recorder
Rodolfo B. Reyes
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14 - 16; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 8
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Rodolfo B. Reyes
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Threats

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Vulnerable (VU) (A2d), IUCN Grouper and Wrasse Specialist Group
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Estelita Emily Capuli
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Trophic Strategy

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Occuring on coral reefs (Ref. 54301, 58534). Largest bony fish found in coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Common in shallow waters. Found in caves or wrecks; also in estuaries. Individuals more than a meter long have been caught from shore and in harbors. Juveniles secretive in reefs and rarely seen (Ref. 48635). Feed on spiny lobsters, fishes, including small sharks and batoids, and juvenile sea turtles and crustaceans. In South African estuaries, the main prey item is the mud crab, Scylla serrata.
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Pascualita Sa-a
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Biology

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The largest bony fish found in coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Common in shallow waters. Found in caves or wrecks; also in estuaries. Individuals more than a meter long have been caught from shore and in harbors. Juveniles secretive in reefs and rarely seen (Ref. 48635). Benthopelagic and benthic (Ref. 58302). Feed on spiny lobsters, fishes, including small sharks and batoids, and juvenile sea turtles and crustaceans. In South African estuaries, the main prey item is the mud crab, Scylla serrata. Unconfirmed reports of fatal attacks on humans. Nearly wiped out in heavily fished areas (Ref. 9710). In the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Large individuals may be ciguatoxic (Ref. 37816).
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Estelita Emily Capuli
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Importance

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fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
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Estelita Emily Capuli
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分布

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
分布於印度-太平洋區,西起非洲東岸、紅海,北至日本南部,南至澳洲西北部。台灣東北部海域有產。
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臺灣魚類資料庫
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臺灣魚類資料庫

利用

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高經濟性之食用魚,或用於水族館展示,已能人工繁殖。一般漁法以延繩網、魚槍及一支釣等捕獲。清蒸食用佳。
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描述

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體長橢圓形,側扁而非常粗壯,標準體長為體高之2.4-3.4倍。頭背部斜直;眶間區平坦或微凹陷。眼小,短於吻長。口大;上下頜前端具小犬齒或無,兩側齒細尖,下頜幼時約2-3列,隨成長逐漸增多,可達15-16列。鰓耙數8-10+14-16。前鰓蓋骨後緣微具鋸齒,下緣光滑。鰓蓋骨後緣具3扁棘。體被細小櫛鱗;側線鱗孔數54-62;縱列鱗數95-105。背鰭鰭棘部與軟條部相連,無缺刻,具硬棘XI,軟條14-16;臀鰭硬棘III枚,軟條8;腹鰭腹位,末端延伸不及肛門開口;胸鰭圓形,中央之鰭條長於上下方之鰭條,且長於腹鰭,但短於後眼眶長;尾鰭圓形。稚魚體呈黃色,具三塊不規則之黑色斑,隨著成長,黑色斑內散佈不規則之白或黃色斑點,以及各鰭具黑色斑點;大型成魚體呈暗褐色,各鰭色更暗些。
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棲地

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主要棲息於沿岸礁區,亦會出現於河口區。通常被發現於洞穴或岩縫間。以魚類及甲殼類為食。
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Giant grouper

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The giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), also known as the brindlebass, brown spotted cod or bumblebee grouper – and as the Queensland groper[1] in Australia, is the largest bony fish found in coral reefs, and the aquatic emblem of Queensland. It is found from near the surface to depths of 100 m (330 ft) at reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific region, with the exception of the Persian Gulf. It also enters estuaries,[2] such as the lowermost part of the Brisbane River. It reaches up to 2.7 m (8.9 ft) in length and 400 kg (880 lb) in weight.[2] Giant groupers feed on a variety of marine life, including small sharks and juvenile sea turtles. Due to overfishing, this species has declined drastically in many regions, and as of the mid-1990s, it is considered Data Deficient by the IUCN.[3]

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Young specimen

This giant fish is similar to the Malabar grouper, and its colour changes with age. The giant grouper has a large mouth and a rounded tail. Juveniles have irregular black and yellow markings, while adults are green-grey to grey-brown with faint mottling, with numerous small black spots on the fins.

The first fish to undergo chemotherapy was Bubba, a giant grouper at the Shedd Aquarium in Chicago.[4]

Reproduction

Like most groupers, giant groupers are protogynous hermaphrodites (all are born female, but some become male when few males are present). They spawn on a lunar cycle, with spawns lasting about 7 days. They are aggregative broadcast spawners, usually with several females per male. Studies in captive populations suggest that the dominant male and female begin the spawning event as nearly the only spawners for the first day or two, but other members of the aggregation fertilize more eggs as the event progresses, with even the most recently turned males fathering offspring.[5] Unlike males, where one male is dominant across spawns, the dominant female of an aggregation seems to change from month to month.

References

  1. ^ "Giant Queensland groper" (PDF). Department of Primary Industries. State of New South Wales. July 2006. Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  2. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Epinephelus lanceolatus" in FishBase. May 2012 version.
  3. ^ Fennessy, S., Pollard, D.A. & Samoilys, M. 2018. Epinephelus lanceolatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T7858A100465809. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T7858A100465809.en. Downloaded on 25 December 2018.
  4. ^ "'Bubba,' Famed Cancer-surviving Grouper, R.I.P.; 'Overcame Some Incredible Odds'". Underwatertimes.com News Service. Underwatertimes. 2006-08-24. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  5. ^ Bright, David; Reynolds, Adam; Nguyen, Nguyen H.; Knuckey, Richard; Knibb, Wayne; Elizur, Abigail (June 2016). "A study into parental assignment of the communal spawning protogynous hermaphrodite, giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus)". Aquaculture. 459: 19–25. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.03.013.

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Giant grouper: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), also known as the brindlebass, brown spotted cod or bumblebee grouper – and as the Queensland groper in Australia, is the largest bony fish found in coral reefs, and the aquatic emblem of Queensland. It is found from near the surface to depths of 100 m (330 ft) at reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific region, with the exception of the Persian Gulf. It also enters estuaries, such as the lowermost part of the Brisbane River. It reaches up to 2.7 m (8.9 ft) in length and 400 kg (880 lb) in weight. Giant groupers feed on a variety of marine life, including small sharks and juvenile sea turtles. Due to overfishing, this species has declined drastically in many regions, and as of the mid-1990s, it is considered Data Deficient by the IUCN.

 src= Young specimen

This giant fish is similar to the Malabar grouper, and its colour changes with age. The giant grouper has a large mouth and a rounded tail. Juveniles have irregular black and yellow markings, while adults are green-grey to grey-brown with faint mottling, with numerous small black spots on the fins.

The first fish to undergo chemotherapy was Bubba, a giant grouper at the Shedd Aquarium in Chicago.

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Description

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Common in shallow waters and has been caught at depths of 100 m. Also found in caves in coral reefs or wrecks; adults and juveniles are also found in estuaries. Individuals more than a meter long have been caught from shore and in harbours. Feeds on spiny lobsters, fishes, including small sharks and batoids, and juvenile sea turtles and crustaceans. In South African eatuaries, the main prey item is the mud crab, @Scylla serrata@.
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bibliographic citation
Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2019). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (02/2019).
Contributor
Edward Vanden Berghe [email]