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Epinephelus coioides Common Information

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Epinephelus coioides has common name "Kerapu Macan" in indonesia or Orange-spotted grouper in FAO name is one of the few species among farmed grouper species. Hamilton (1822) has made Classification to this fish. There are: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Perciformes Family: Serranidae Genus: Epinephelus Species: Epinephelus coioides These fish have a body with common characteristics as: Body color is generally brown, but in the abdomen more brown in color. Parts of the body including the head of reddish-brown patterned spots, teeth on middle side of lower jaw in 2 rows, fourth dorsal spine usually longest, membranes of spinous portion of dorsal fin incised, caudal fin rounded, pelvic fins not reaching anus. Dorsal rays XI, 13-16, anal rays III,8, pectoral rays 18-20. Live in coastal waters around the islands to a depth of 100 m and around coral reefs, Feed on small fishes, shrimps, and crabs. E. coioides includes a group of high-priced groupers. This is a type of grouper fish native to Indonesia who live scattered in various rocky waters of the archipelago. Besides Indonesia, the spread of this fish include waters in the Indo-Pacific region. These fish are usually for daily consumption and also a major export commodity because it has a fairly high sales value in international market. Because this fish has a very high demand, this fish has to be cultivated using techniques of coastal aquaculture so that demand can always be covered.
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Adriani Sunuddin
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Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
Small individuals closely resemble E. tauvinaand E. malabaricus, but have orange spots and lack hexagonal spots on the fins (Ref. 37816); head and body tan dorsally, shading to whitish ventrally; numerous small brownish orange or reddish brown spots on head, body and median fins (Ref. 89707); further characterized by having overall tan color; four irregular H-shaped dark bars; back with 3-4 blackish saddles; head, body and fins with numerous small brownish orange or reddish brown spots; body scales ctenoid except for nape, back, thorax, abdomen and above anal-fin base with cycloid scales; greatest depth of body 2.9-3.7 in SL; rounded caudal fin; short pelvic fins, 1.9-2.7 in head length (Ref. 90102).
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Recorder
Rodolfo B. Reyes
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Diseases and Parasites

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Rhexanellosis Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Recorder
Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Fish Leech Infestation (Hirudinea sp.). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Life Cycle

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Pelagic spawner (Ref. 32184).
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Daniel Pauly
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13 - 16; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 8
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Threats

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Near Threatened (NT) , IUCN Grouper and Wrasse Specialist Group
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Estelita Emily Capuli
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Trophic Strategy

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Probably make frequent use of shelters, suggesting an 'ambush' method of feeding (Ref. 6390). Inhabit turbid coastal reefs (Ref. 9710) and are often found in brackish water (Ref. 27362) over mud and rubble (Ref. 6390). Juveniles are common in shallow waters of estuaries over sand, mud and gravel and among mangroves (Ref. 6390). Feed on small fishes, shrimps, and crabs. Probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so (Ref. 27352). Eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic (Ref. 6390).
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Pascualita Sa-a
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Biology

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Inhabit turbid coastal reefs (Ref. 9710) and are often found in brackish water (Ref. 27362) over mud and rubble (Ref. 6390). Solitary (Ref 90102). Juveniles are common in shallow waters of estuaries over sand, mud and gravel and among mangroves (Ref. 6390). Feed on small fishes, shrimps, and crabs. Probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so (Ref. 27352). Eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic (Ref. 6390). Has been tested in several countries as a potential species for mariculture (Ref. 43448).
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Estelita Emily Capuli
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Importance

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fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
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Estelita Emily Capuli
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分布

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
分布於印度-西太平洋區,西至非洲東岸、紅海,東至西太平洋,北至日本南部,南至澳洲。台灣西部及南部海域最多。
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臺灣魚類資料庫
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臺灣魚類資料庫

利用

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具經濟性之食用魚,已有實驗性之人工養殖。一般漁法以拖網及一支釣捕獲。清蒸食用佳。
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描述

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
體長橢圓形,側扁而粗壯,標準體長為體高之2.9-3.7倍。頭背部斜直;眶間區微突。眼小,短於吻長。口大;上下頜前端具小犬齒或無,兩側齒細尖,下頜約2-3列。鰓耙數8-10+14-17,隨著成長而逐漸退化。前鰓蓋骨後緣具鋸齒,下緣光滑。鰓蓋骨後緣具3扁棘。體被細小櫛鱗;側線鱗孔數58-65;縱列鱗數100-118。背鰭鰭棘部與軟條部相連,無缺刻,具硬棘XI,軟條14-16;臀鰭硬棘III枚,軟條8;腹鰭腹位,末端延伸不及肛門開口;胸鰭圓形,中央之鰭條長於上下方之鰭條,且長於腹鰭,但短於後眼眶長;尾鰭圓形。頭部及體背側黃褐色,腹側淡白;頭部、體側及奇鰭散佈許多橘褐色或紅褐色小點;體側另具5條不顯著、不規則、斜的及腹側分叉的暗橫帶,第一條在背鰭硬棘前緣,最後一條在尾柄上。
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棲地

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主要棲息於水質較混濁的沿岸礁區,亦常被發現於汽水域,幼魚則經常出現於砂泥底之河口域、沼澤區或潟湖。以魚類及甲殼類為食。
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Orange-spotted grouper

provided by wikipedia EN

The orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), also known as the estuary cod, is a species of fish in the family Serranidae. It is found in the western Pacific, the Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea. It has also been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea as a Lessepsian migrant.[2] Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical mangrove, open seas, shallow seas, subtidal aquatic beds, coral reefs, estuarine waters, intertidal flats, and coastal saline lagoons. It is threatened by habitat loss and overfishing.[1] This predatory fish reaches up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) in length.[2]

In earlier literature it has often been confused with Epinephelus tauvina or Epinephelus malabaricus.[2][3]

Sources

  1. ^ a b Amorim, P., Choat, J.H., Fennessy, S., Law, C., Ma, K., Myers, R., Nair, R., Rhodes, K., Sadovy, Y., Samoilys, M., Suharti, S. & To, A. 2018. Epinephelus coioides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T44674A2999451. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T44674A2999451.en. Downloaded on 25 December 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). "Epinephelus coioides" in FishBase. April 2014 version.
  3. ^ Estuary cod Primefact 167. NSW Dept of Primary Industries, July 2006
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Orange-spotted grouper: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), also known as the estuary cod, is a species of fish in the family Serranidae. It is found in the western Pacific, the Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea. It has also been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea as a Lessepsian migrant. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical mangrove, open seas, shallow seas, subtidal aquatic beds, coral reefs, estuarine waters, intertidal flats, and coastal saline lagoons. It is threatened by habitat loss and overfishing. This predatory fish reaches up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) in length.

In earlier literature it has often been confused with Epinephelus tauvina or Epinephelus malabaricus.

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Description

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Inhabits continental shores and large islands. Taken offshore to depths of 100 m. Feeds on small fishes, shrimps, and crabs.
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bibliographic citation
Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2019). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (02/2019).
Contributor
Edward Vanden Berghe [email]