dcsimg

Life Cycle

provided by Fishbase
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
i18n: Recorder
Susan M. Luna
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

Threats

provided by Fishbase
Least Concern (LC)
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
i18n: Recorder
Rainer Froese
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

Trophic Strategy

provided by Fishbase
Inhabits warm-temperate to tropical shallow bays and beaches (Ref. 2850). Feeds on crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 37955).
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
i18n: Recorder
Grace Tolentino Pablico
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

Biology

provided by Fishbase
Inhabits warm-temperate to tropical shallow bays and beaches (Ref. 2850). Feeds on crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 37955). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Has a small venom apparatus which has limited use as a defense organ (Ref. 37955). Maximum length reported to reach 150 cm (Ref. 37955).
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
i18n: Recorder
Rainer Froese
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

Importance

provided by Fishbase
fisheries: minor commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: unreliable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this order
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
i18n: Recorder
Rainer Froese
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

California butterfly ray

provided by wikipedia EN
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

California butterfly ray: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The California butterfly ray (Gymnura marmorata) is a species of ray in the family Gymnuridae. It is found in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, and the United States. Its natural habitats are shallow seas, subtidal aquatic beds, coral reefs, estuarine waters, intertidal marshes, and coastal saline lagoons.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN