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Mytilicola orientalis

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Mytilicola orentalis (known as 'oyster redworm'[3] or 'red worm disease') is an intestinal copepod parasite of bivalves with a direct life cycle. It is native to the waters around Japan and was first described in the Japanese Sea and was introduced to Europe in the 1960s and 70's with oyster imports.[4] Since then it has also been observed in the Wadden[5] and the Baltic Sea.[6] It has a wide range of host species in both its native range and in Europe.

Ecology

In a naturally infected population of pacific oysters 14% of the oysters were infected, with up to 20 M. orientalis in one oyster.[7]

The diet of this parasitic species in the blue mussel host consists of both host tissue and organic material in the gut of the host.[5] The latter means that in some respects the species can be seen as a commensal and does not have to negatively impact its host.[7]

Females are often larger than males.[5]

Distribution and host species

Mytilicola orentalis originates in the Japanese Sea[4] and is known to occur on the Pacific coast of the United States and Europe.[8]

Since its introduction in Europe it has been observed across European waters, including locations in France, Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.[4][8] Although this is a marine species, it has been observed in mussels in brackish water in the Kiel bay.[6]

Host species in the native range include a wide variety of bivalve species. These include, but are not limited to, Barnea dilatata japonica,[9] Barnea manilensis,[9] the blue mussels,[4] the Mediterranean mussel,[2] the pacific oyster,[4] the European flat oyster,[2] and the Japanese carpet shell.[4]

Mytilicola orentalis infection in pacific oysters correlates with the co-infection with Polydora sp.[7] In the Mytilida co-infections between M. orientalis and M. intestinalis sometimes occur.[2]

References

  1. ^ Mori, T. "Mytilicola orientalis, a new species of parasitic Copepoda". Zoological Magazine (Dobutsugaku Zasshi), Tokyo.
  2. ^ a b c d Kinne, Otto (1983). Introduction, Bivalvia to Scaphopoda (PDF). Hamburg: Biolog. Anst. Helgoland. ISBN 398008180X.
  3. ^ McLaughlin, P.A.; Camp, D.K.; Angel, M.V.; Bousfield, E.L.; Brunel, P.; Brusca, R.C.; Cohen, A.C.; Conlan, K.; Eldredge, L.G.; Felder, D.L.; Goy, J.W.; Haney, T.; Hann, B.; Heard, R.W.; Hendrycks, E.A.; Hobbs III, H.H.; Holsinger, J.R.; Kensley, B.; Laubtiz, D.R.; Le, S.E. (2005). Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada. Crustaceans. Bethesda, Md.: American Fisheries Society. p. 545. ISBN 1-888569-64-6.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Goedknegt, M. Anouk; Bedolfe, Sarah; Drent, Jan; van der Meer, Jaap; Thieltges, David W. (29 March 2018). "Impact of the invasive parasitic copepod Mytilicola orientalis on native blue mussels Mytilus edulis in the western European Wadden Sea" (PDF). Marine Biology Research. 14 (5): 497–507. doi:10.1080/17451000.2018.1442579. S2CID 33574045.
  5. ^ a b c Goedknegt, M. Anouk; Shoesmith, David; Jung, A. Sarina; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C.; van der Meer, Jaap; Philippart, Catharina J. M.; van der Veer, Henk W.; Thieltges, David W. (2018). "Trophic relationship between the invasive parasitic copepod Mytilicola orientalis and its native blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) host". Parasitology. 145 (6): 814–821. doi:10.1017/S0031182017001779.
  6. ^ a b Brenner, Matthias; Schulze, Jona; Fischer, Johanna; Wegner, K. Mathias (2019). "First record of the parasitic copepod (Mytilicola orientalis Mori, 1935) in blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) of the Baltic Sea". BioInvasions Records. 8 (3): 623–632. doi:10.3391/bir.2019.8.3.19.
  7. ^ a b c Steele, S; Mulcahy, MF (2001). "Impact of the copepod Mytilicola orientalis on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in Ireland". Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 47: 145–149. doi:10.3354/dao047145.
  8. ^ a b De Grave, S; Xie, Q; Casey, D (1995). "The intensity of infestation by the intestinal copepod, Mytilicola orientalis, does not affect the condition of Pacific oysters". Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists. 15: 129–131.
  9. ^ a b Kim, Il-hoi (2004). "Poecilostomatoid copepods associated with bivalves in Korea and their distribution". Zoological Studies. 43: 187–192.
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Mytilicola orientalis: Brief Summary

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Mytilicola orentalis (known as 'oyster redworm' or 'red worm disease') is an intestinal copepod parasite of bivalves with a direct life cycle. It is native to the waters around Japan and was first described in the Japanese Sea and was introduced to Europe in the 1960s and 70's with oyster imports. Since then it has also been observed in the Wadden and the Baltic Sea. It has a wide range of host species in both its native range and in Europe.

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Distribution

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Japan; Pacific coast of USA; The Netherlands
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bibliographic citation
Molnar, J. L.; Gamboa, R. L.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. <em>Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.</em> 6(9): 485-492. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway DAISIE - European Invasive Alien Species Gateway Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484.
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