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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 29.8 years (captivity)
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Reproduction

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The life span of the copperhead is 18 years. Both sexes reach sexual maturity at 4 years when they are about two feet in length. However, Ernst (1989) notes that the age and size of maturity in the male copperhead is unknown. The breeding season is from February to May and from August to October. Females who breed in autumn can store the sperm until after she emerges from the overwintering site (Tyning 1990). The length of time that the sperm can be stored appears to differ depending on where it is being stored. If the sperm is stored in the cloaca, it only lasts a relatively short time, whereas if it is stored in the upper end of the oviducts in vascular tissues specialized as seminal receptacles it seems to last much longer (Ernst 1989). Copperheads have a gestation period of 3-9 months. They are a live-bearing snake, typically producing 2-10 young, where larger females produce larger broods. After birth, the female provides no direct care for the young (Tyning 1990).

Females are ovoviviparous. Eggs develop in the body of the female and hatch within or immediately after being expelled. They produce large, yolk-filled eggs and store the eggs in the reproductive tract for development. The embryo, during this time, receives no nourishment from the female, only from the yolk. The young are expelled in a membranous sac. At birth they weigh less than an ounce and are 7-10 inches in length (Ohio DNR 1999).

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; sexual ; ovoviviparous

Average number of offspring: 6.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male:
730 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female:
730 days.

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Herrmann, B. 2000. "Agkistrodon contortrix" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Agkistrodon_contortrix.html
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Untitled

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Venom and Bites:

The copperhead has solenogiyphous fangs that tend to be 1.1-7.2 mm in length. The length of the snake relates to the length of the fangs; the longer the snake, the longer the fangs. Even newborn copperheads have fully functional fangs that are capable of injecting venom. These newborns have venom that is just as toxic as adults do. The fangs are replaced periodically with each snake having a series of five to seven replacement fangs in the gums behind and above the current functional fang.

The venom, which is highly hemolytic, causes massive hemorrhaging to the copperhead's prey. As for humans, recorded symptoms include pain, swelling, weakness, giddiness, breathing difficulty, hemorrhage, either an increased or decreased pulse, nausea, vomiting, gangrene, ecchymosis, unconsciousness, stupor, fever, sweating, headache and intestinal discomfort. The copperhead is the cause of many snakebites yearly but they are rarely fatal. Bites occur by accidentally stepping on or touching the snake, which tends to be well camouflaged with its surroundings. When touched, the copperhead quickly strikes or remains quiet and tries to crawl away. Sometimes when touched, they emit a musk that smells like cucumbers (Ernst 1989).

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Herrmann, B. 2000. "Agkistrodon contortrix" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Agkistrodon_contortrix.html
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Conservation Status

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No special status federally, however it is listed in the state of Massachusetts as endangered (Umass 1999).

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Herrmann, B. 2000. "Agkistrodon contortrix" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Agkistrodon_contortrix.html
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Trophic Strategy

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The Copperhead is primarily a carnivore, as an adult eating mostly mice but also small birds, lizards, small snakes, amphibians and insects-especially cicadas (Conant and Collins 1998). The snakes are capable of swallowing prey that is several times larger than their own diameter. This is possible because they have a very flexible jaw and it has digestive juices that allow it to digest both bones and fur. Copperheads have fangs that inject its prey with a hemolytic venom (causes the breakdown of red blood cells) which subdues its prey, making it easy for the snake to swallow it. The copperhead seeks out its prey using its heat sensitive pits to detect objects that are warmer then its environment. This also enables them to find nocturnal mammalian prey (Ohio DNR 1999). Adult copperheads are primarily ambushers. When attacking large prey, the copperhead bites then releases immediately to allow the venom to take its effect then later tracks its prey. Whereas the smaller prey is held in its mouth until it dies (Ernst 1989). When the copperhead eats depends on the time of the year. They are most active April through late October, diurnal in the spring and fall, and nocturnal during the summer months (Ohio DNR 1999). When carrying young, some females will not eat at all because the embryos occupy so much of the body cavity. It has been found that some copperheads consume only eight meals in a single growing season. The only possible explanations for this could be due to a slow metabolism and/or difficulty finding prey ( Tyning 1990).

Young copperheads eat mostly insects, especially caterpillars, and use their yellow tipped tails to function as a worm-like lure to attract prey (Georgia Wildlife Federation 1999).

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Herrmann, B. 2000. "Agkistrodon contortrix" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Agkistrodon_contortrix.html
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Distribution

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Overall, the species inhabits the Florida panhandle north to Massachusetts and west to Nebraska (Georgia Wildlife Federation 1999)

The Northern Copperhead (A. c. mokasen) inhabits northern Georgia and Alabama north to Massachusetts and west to Illinois.

The Southern Copperhead (A. c. contortrix) inhabits the Florida panhandle north to Southern Delaware and west to SE Missouri, SE Oklahoma and E Texas.

The Broad-banded Copperhead (A. contortrix laticinctus) ranges from northern Oklahoma to south-central Texas.

The Osage Copperhead (A. c. phaeogaster) lives in eastern Missouri to eastern Kansas and south to northeastern Oklahoma.

The Trans-pecos Copperhead (A. c. pictigaster) lives in west Texas.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

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Habitat

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Copperheads prefer terrestrial to semi-aquatic habitats, which include rocky-forested hillsides and various wetlands (Tyning 1990). They have also been known to occupy abandoned and rotting slab or sawdust piles (Conant 1998).

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

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Life Expectancy

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Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
29.8 years.

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Morphology

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Average length of adult copperheads is 30 inches. They have an unmarked copper-colored head, reddish-brown, coppery bodies with chestnut brown crossbands that constrict towards the midline. Copperheads are thick-bodied and have keeled scales.

There is a temperature sensitive pit organ on each side of the head between the eye and the nostril. There is a single row of scales beneath the tail (Schmidt 1941, Tyning 1990).

Tails have no rattle (Ernst 1989).

Young copperheads are 7-10 inches long and grayer in color than adults. They have a sulfur yellow tipped tail, which fades with age and is lost by age 3 or 4.

Copperheads are sexually dimorphic in size. Males have longer tails than females and females grow to greater lengths (Tyning 1990).

The head of the Northern Copperhead is a red, copper color with the rest of its body being pinkish to gray-brown with a dark chestnut colored hourglass shaped pattern. The hourglass pattern is narrow on the top of its back and wider on its sides. It has elliptical pupils and facial pits between its eyes and nostrils (Ohio DNR 1999).

The underside, belly area, of the northern subspecies is dark (Schmidt & Davis 1941).

The southern copperhead subspecies is similar to the northern copperhead but the coloration is paler and the crossbands fail to meet at the midline. Also the belly of the southern subspecies is light in color (Schmidt & Davis 1941).

Broad-banded copperheads have bright coloration with a sharp contrast between the pattern and the ground color. The crossbands are very broad at the midline and always meet. The belly is dark (Schmidt and Davis 1941).

The osage copperhead is similar to those of the northern subspecies but the crossbands are often edged in white (Conant and Collins 1998).

The belly of the Trans-pecos Copperhead is strongly patterned. Also there is a pale area located at the base of each broad crossband (Conant and Collins 1998).

Other Physical Features: heterothermic

Sexual Dimorphism: female larger

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Distribution

provided by ReptileDB
Continent: Middle-America North-America
Distribution: USA (Texas, E/C Oklahoma, E Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, S Illinois, S Indiana, S Ohio, Iowa, Pennsylvania, Maryland, New Jersey, Delaware, S New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts), Mexico (NE Chihuahua, N Coahuila) laticinctus: C/NC Texas, into C Oklahoma, north to Kansas mokasen: Massachussetts, Connecticut, SE New York, N New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, North Carolina, east to Indiana and Illinois. phaeogaster: Kansas, Missouri pictigaster: Texas, adjacent Mexico; Type locality.”Maple Canyon, Chisos Mountains, 5,200 feet elevation, Brewster County, Texas; Holotype: Chicago Acad. Sci. No. 4857.
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Agkistrodon contortrix

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Agkistrodon contortrix is a species of venomous snake, a pit viper, endemic to Eastern North America; it is a member of the subfamily Crotalinae in the family Viperidae. The generic name is derived from the Greek words ancistro (hooked) and odon (tooth), and the specific name comes from the Latin contortus (twisted, intricate, complex);[3] thus, the scientific name translates into "twisted hook-tooth". The common name for this species is the copperhead. Its behavior may lead to accidental encounters with humans. Five subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here.[4]

Description

"
Detail of head

Adults grow to a typical length (including tail) of 50–95 cm (20–37 in). Some may exceed 1 m (3.3 ft), although that is exceptional for this species.[5] Males are usually larger than females. Good-sized adult males usually do not exceed 74 to 76 cm (29 to 30 in), and females typically do not exceed 60 to 66 cm (24 to 26 in).[6][7] In one study, males were found to weigh from 101.5 to 343 g (3.58 to 12.10 oz), with a mean of roughly 197.4 g (6.96 oz).[8] According to a different study, females have a mean body mass of 119.8 g (4.23 oz).[9] The maximum length reported for this species is 134.6 cm (53.0 in) for A. c. mokasen (Ditmars, 1931). Brimley (1944) mentions a specimen of A. c. mokasen from Chapel Hill, North Carolina, that was "four feet, six inches" (137.2 cm), but this may have been an approximation. The maximum length for A. c. contortrix is 132.1 cm (52.0 in) (Conant, 1958).[10]

The body is relatively stout and the head is broad and distinct from the neck. Because the snout slopes down and back, it appears less blunt than that of the cottonmouth, A. piscivorus. Consequently, the top of the head extends further forward than the mouth.[11]

The scalation includes 21–25 (usually 23) rows of dorsal scales at midbody, 138–157 ventral scales in both sexes and 38–62 and 37–57 subcaudal scales in males and females, respectively. The subcaudals are usually single, but the percentage thereof decreases clinally from the northeast, where about 80% are undivided, to the southwest of the geographic range where as little as 50% may be undivided. On the head are usually 9 large symmetrical plates, 6–10 (usually 8) supralabial scales, and 8–13 (usually 10) sublabial scales.[10]

The color pattern consists of a pale tan to pinkish-tan ground color that becomes darker towards the foreline, overlaid with a series of 10–18 (13.4) crossbands. Characteristically, both the ground color and crossband pattern are pale in A. c. contortrix. These crossbands are light tan to pinkish-tan to pale brown in the center, but darker towards the edges. They are about two scales wide or less at the midline of the back, but expand to a width of 6–10 scales on the sides of the body. They do not extend down to the ventral scales. Often, the crossbands are divided at the midline and alternate on either side of the body, with some individuals even having more half bands than complete ones. A series of dark brown spots is also present on the flanks, next to the belly, and are largest and darkest in the spaces between the crossbands. The belly is the same color as the ground color, but may be a little whitish in part. At the base of the tail are one to three (usually two) brown crossbands followed by a gray area. In juveniles, the pattern on the tail is more distinct: 7–9 crossbands are visible, while the tip is yellow. On the head, the crown is usually unmarked, except for a pair of small dark spots, one near the midline of each parietal scale. A faint postocular stripe is also present; diffuse above and bordered below by a narrow brown edge.[11]

Several aberrant color patterns for A. c. contortrix, or populations that intergrade with it, have also been reported. In a specimen described by Livezey (1949) from Walker County, Texas, 11 of 17 crossbands were not joined middorsally, while on one side, three of the crossbands were fused together longitudinally to form a continuous, undulating band, surmounted above by a dark stripe that was 2.0–2.5 scales wide. In another specimen, from Lowndes County, Alabama, the first three crossbands were complete, followed by a dark stripe that ran down either side of the body, with points of pigment reaching up to the midline in six places, but never getting there, after which the last four crossbands on the tail were also complete. A specimen found in Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana, by Ernest A. Liner, had a similar striped pattern, with only the first and last two crossbands being normal.[11]

Common names

Common names for A. contortrix include: copperhead (snake), chunk head, highland moccasin, (dry-land) moccasin, narrow-banded copperhead, northern copperhead, pilot snake, poplar leaf, red oak, red snake, southeastern copperhead, white oak snake,[12] American copperhead,[13] southern copperhead,[11] and cantil cobrizo (Spanish).[4]

Distribution and habitat

It is found in North America; its range within the United States is in Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Northern Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia. In Mexico, it occurs in Chihuahua and Coahuila. The type locality is "Carolina". Schmidt (1953) proposed the type locality be restricted to "Charleston, South Carolina".[2]

Unlike some other species of North American pit vipers, such as the timber rattlesnake and Sistrurus catenatus, A. contortrix has mostly not re-established itself north of the terminal moraine after the last glacial period (the Wisconsin glaciation),[14] though it is found in southeastern New York and southern New England, north of the Wisconsin glaciation terminal moraine on Long Island.

Within its range, it occupies a variety of different habitats. In most of North America, it favors deciduous forest and mixed woodlands. It is often associated with rock outcroppings and ledges, but is also found in low-lying, swampy regions. During the winter, it hibernates in dens or limestone crevices, often together with timber rattlesnakes and black rat snakes.[15] In the states around the Gulf of Mexico, however, this species is also found in coniferous forest. In the Chihuahuan Desert of West Texas and northern Mexico, it occurs in riparian habitats, usually near permanent or semipermanent water and sometimes in dry arroyos (brooks).[10]

Conservation status

This species is classified as least concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (v3.1, 2001).[1] This means that relative to many other species, it is not at risk of extinction in the near future. The population trend was stable when assessed in 2007.[16]

Behavior

"
Southern copperhead, A. c. contortrix, at the southern limit of its range, in Liberty Co., Florida, camouflaged in dead leaves

Like all pit vipers, A. contortrix is generally an ambush predator; it takes up a promising position and waits for suitable prey to arrive. One exception to ambush foraging occurs when copperheads feed on insects such as caterpillars and freshly molted cicadas. When hunting insects, copperheads actively pursue their prey.[17] Juveniles use a brightly colored tail to attract frogs and perhaps lizards, a behavior termed caudal luring (see video: [1]). In the Southern United States, they are nocturnal during the hot summer, but are commonly active during the day during the spring and fall.

Like most viperids, these snakes prefer to avoid humans and, given the opportunity, will leave the area without biting. However, unlike other viperids, they often "freeze" instead of slithering away, and as a result, many bites occur due to people unknowingly stepping on or near them.[18] This tendency to freeze most likely evolved because of the extreme effectiveness of their camouflage. When lying on dead leaves or red clay, they can be almost impossible to notice. They frequently stay still even when approached closely, and generally strike only if physical contact is made. Like most other New World vipers, copperheads exhibit defensive tail vibration behavior when closely approached. This species is capable of vibrating its tail in excess of 40 times per second— faster than almost any other non-rattlesnake snake species.[19]

Feeding

Roughly 90% of its diet consists of small rodents, such as mice and voles. It has also shown fondness for large insects and frogs, and though highly terrestrial, has been known to climb trees to gorge on emerging cicadas.

Reproduction

Agkistrodon contortrix breeds in late summer, but not every year; sometimes females produce young for several years running, then do not breed at all for a time. They give birth to live young, each of which is about 20 cm (7.9 in) in total length. The typical litter size is four to seven, but as few as one, or as many as 20 may be seen. Their size apart, the young are similar to the adults, but lighter in color, and with a yellowish-green-marked tip to the tail, which is used to lure lizards and frogs.

Agkistrodon contortrix males have longer tongue tine lengths than females during the breeding season, which may aid in chemoreception of males searching for females.[20]

Facultative parthenogenesis

"
The effects of central fusion and terminal fusion on heterozygosity

Parthenogenesis is a natural form of reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization. A. contortrix can reproduce by facultative parthenogenesis, that is, they are capable of switching from a sexual mode of reproduction to an asexual mode.[21] The type of parthenogenesis that likely occurs is automixis with terminal fusion, a process in which two terminal products from the same meiosis fuse to form a diploid zygote. This process leads to genome-wide homozygosity, expression of deleterious recessive alleles, and often to developmental failure (inbreeding depression). Both captive-born and wild-born A. contortrix snakes appear to be capable of this form of parthenogenesis.[21]

Venom

Although venomous, these snakes are generally not aggressive and bites are rarely fatal. Copperhead venom has an estimated lethal dose around 100 mg, and tests on mice show its potency is among the lowest of all pit vipers, and slightly weaker than that of its close relative, the cottonmouth. Copperheads often employ a "warning bite" when stepped on or agitated and inject a relatively small amount of venom, if any at all. "Dry bites" involving no venom are particularly common with the copperhead, though all pit vipers are capable of a dry bite.

Bite symptoms include extreme pain, tingling, throbbing, swelling, and severe nausea. Damage can occur to muscle and bone tissue, especially when the bite occurs in the outer extremities such as the hands and feet, areas in which a large muscle mass is not available to absorb the venom. A bite from any venomous snake should be taken very seriously and immediate medical attention sought, as an allergic reaction and secondary infection are always possible.

The venom of the southern copperhead has been found to hold a protein called "contortrostatin" that halts the growth of cancer cells in mice and also stops the migration of the tumors to other sites.[22] However, this is an animal model, and further testing is required to verify safety and efficacy in humans.[23]

Although technically the antivenin CroFab could be used to treat an envenomation, it is usually not administered for copperheads, as the risk of complications of an allergic reaction to the treatment are greater than the risk from the snakebite itself in most cases. The antivenin can cause an immune reaction called serum sickness. Pain management, antibiotics, and medical supervision in the case of complications is usually the course of action.[24] In 2002, an Illinois poison control center report on the availability of antivenin stated it used 1 Acp to 5 Acp depending on the symptoms and circumstances. The symptoms of a mild envenomation include swelling of the hand, mild cellulitis, and respiratory distress. The symptoms of a moderate envenomation would include swelling of the hand, vomiting, mild bleeding, ecchymosis, diaphoresis, sinus tachycardia, and hypotension.[25]

Subspecies

Subspecies[4] Taxon author[4] Common name[11] Geographic range[11] A. c. contortrix (Linnaeus, 1766) Southern copperhead The United States, in the lower Mississippi Valley and the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico, from eastern Texas and southeastern Oklahoma to southern Illinois, on the South Atlantic Coastal Plain from the Florida panhandle to South Carolina A. c. laticinctus Gloyd & Conant, 1934 Broad-banded copperhead The United States, from south-central Texas (Victoria to Frio Counties), north through central Oklahoma to the extreme south of Cowley County, Kansas. A. c. mokasen Palisot de Beauvois, 1799 Northern copperhead The United States, in southern Illinois, extreme northeastern Mississippi, northern Alabama, northern Georgia northeast to Massachusetts, the Appalachian Mountain region and associated plateaus A. c. phaeogaster Gloyd, 1969 Osage copperhead The United States, in eastern Kansas, extreme southeastern Nebraska and a large part of Missouri A. c. pictigaster Gloyd & Conant, 1943 Trans-Pecos copperhead The United States, in western Texas from the vicinity of the Pecos and Devils Rivers to the counties of Jeff Davis and Presidio, Mexico, in northern Chihuahua and Coahuila

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b Frost DR; Hammerson GA; Santos-Barrera G (2007). "Agkistrodon contortrix". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2007. Retrieved 2017-05-20.old-form url
  2. ^ a b McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T (1999). Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Washington, District of Columbia: Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  3. ^ "Illinois Natural History Survey Agkistrodon contortrix". www.inhs.illinois.edu. Retrieved 2019-07-22.
  4. ^ a b c d "Agkistrodon contortrix ". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 28 November 2006.
  5. ^ Ernst, Carl H.; Barbour, Roger W. (1989). Snakes of Eastern North America. Fairfax, Virginia: George Mason University Press. 282 pp. ISBN 978-0913969243.
  6. ^ Palmer, William M.; Braswell, Alvin L. (1995). Reptiles of North Carolina. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press. 448 pp. ISBN 978-0807821589.
  7. ^ Stejneger, L (1895). The Poisonous Snakes of North America. Washington, District of Columbia: United States Government Printing Office.
  8. ^ Schuett GW; Grober MS (2000). "Post-fight levels of plasma lactate and corticosterone in male copperheads, Agkistrodon contortrix (Serpentes, Viperidae): differences between winners and losers". Physiology & Behavior. 71 (3): 335–341. doi:10.1016/s0031-9384(00)00348-6. PMID 11150566.
  9. ^ Shine R (1992). "Relative clutch mass and body shape in lizards and snakes: is reproductive investment constrained or optimized?". Evolution 46 (3): 828-833.
  10. ^ a b c Campbell JA, Lamar WW (2004). The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Ithaca and London: Comstock Publishing Associates. 870 pp., 1,500 plates. ISBN 0-8014-4141-2.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Gloyd HK, Conant R (1990). Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 614 pp., 52 plates. LCCN 89-50342. ISBN 0-916984-20-6.
  12. ^ Wright AH, Wright AA (1957). Handbook of Snakes of the United States and Canada. Ithaca and London: Comstock Publishing Associates. (7th printing, 1985). 1,105 pp. (in two volumes) ISBN 0-8014-0463-0. (Ancistrodon contortrix, pp. 903-916 + Figures 259, 261-263 + Map 64).
  13. ^ United States Navy (1991). Poisonous Snakes of the World. New York: U.S. Government / Dover Publications Inc. 203 pp. ISBN 0-486-26629-X.
  14. ^ Anonymous. (year?). Copperhead Snake, Life History Notes. Ohio Division of Wildlife. Publication 373 (399).
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  16. ^ 2001 Categories & Criteria (version 3.1) at the IUCN Red List. Accessed 13 September 2007.
  17. ^ Reiserer RS (2002). "Stimulus control of caudal luring and other feeding responses: A program for research on visual perception in vipers". pp. 361-383. In: Schuett GW, Höggren M, Douglas ME, Greene HW (editors) (2002). Biology of the Vipers. Eagle Mountain, Utah: Eagle Mountain Publishing. 580 pp. ISBN 978-0972015400.
  18. ^ "Venomous Snakes". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved on November 10, 2008.
  19. ^ Allf BC, Durst PA, Pfennig DW (2016). "Behavioral plasticity and the origins of novelty: the evolution of the rattlesnake rattle". The American Naturalist 188 (4): 475-483.
  20. ^ Smith CF; Schwenk K; Earley RL; Schuett GW (2008). "Sexual size dimorphism of the tongue in a North American pitviper". Journal of Zoology. 274 (4): 367–374. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2007.00396.x.
  21. ^ a b Booth W, Smith CF, Eskridge PH, Hoss SK, Mendelson JR, Schuett GW (2012). "Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates". Biol. Lett. 8 (6): 983–5. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2012.0666. PMC 3497136. PMID 22977071.
  22. ^ Finn, Robert (2001). "Snake Venom Protein Paralyzes Cancer Cells". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 93 (4): 261–262. doi:10.1093/jnci/93.4.261. PMID 11181769.
  23. ^ Pyrko P, Wang W, Markland FS, Swenson SD, Schmitmeier S, Schönthal AH, Chen TC (2005). "The role of contortrostatin, a snake venom disintegrin, in the inhibition of tumor progression and prolongation of survival in a rodent glioma model". J. Neurosurg. 103 (3): 526–537. doi:10.3171/jns.2005.103.3.0526. PMID 16235686.
  24. ^ Bush, Sean P., MD (July 23, 2014). "Moccasin Envenomation". Medscape. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
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Agkistrodon contortrix: Brief Summary

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Agkistrodon contortrix is a species of venomous snake, a pit viper, endemic to Eastern North America; it is a member of the subfamily Crotalinae in the family Viperidae. The generic name is derived from the Greek words ancistro (hooked) and odon (tooth), and the specific name comes from the Latin contortus (twisted, intricate, complex); thus, the scientific name translates into "twisted hook-tooth". The common name for this species is the copperhead. Its behavior may lead to accidental encounters with humans. Five subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here.

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