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Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Trees, shrubs or herbs. Stipules 2. Leaves usually alternate, simple. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic (Rinorea) or zygomorphic (Hybanthus and Viola). Sepals 5, usually free. Petals 5, free, the anterior one (in zygomorphic genera) spurred. Stamens 5, often bearing appendages. Ovary superior, 1-locular. Fruit a loculicidal capsule.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Violaceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=232
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Violaceae

provided by wikipedia EN

Violaceae is a family of flowering plants consisting of about 1000 species in about 25 genera. It takes its name from the genus Viola, the violets and pansies.

Older classifications such as the Cronquist system placed the Violaceae in an order named after it, the Violales. However, more recent classifications such as that of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group locate it in the Malpighiales.

Description

Though the best-known genus, Viola, is herbaceous, most species are shrubs, lianas or small trees.[1] The simple leaves are alternate or opposite, often with leafy stipules or the stipules are reduced in size. Some species have palmate or deeply dissected leaves. Many species are acaulescent. Inflorescences have solitary flowers or are paniculate; some species have cleistogamous flowers produced after or before the production of typically petaled flowers. Flowers are bisexual or unisexual (e.g. Melicytus), typically zygomorphic or actinomorphic with a calyx of five sepals that are persistent after flowering. Corollae have five mostly unequal petals, and the anterior petal is larger and often spurred. Plants have five stamens with the abaxial stamen often spurred at the base. The gynoecium is a compound pistil of three united carpels with one locule. Styles are simple, with the ovary superior, and many ovules. The fruits are capsules split by way of three seams. Seeds have endosperm.

Taxonomy

Violaceae, as a suprageneric rank, was described by Batsch (1802), under the name of Violariae, and bears his name as the botanical authority.[2] Batsch included eight genera in this family.[3] Although Violariae continued to be used by some authors, such as Bentham and Hooker in 1862 (as Violarieae),[4] most authors adopted the alternative name Violaceae, proposed by Gingins in 1823.[5]

Violaceae is one of a large number of families within the modern eudicot order Malpighiales. They are a medium sized family with about 22–28 genera, and about 1,000–1,100 species. Most of the genera are monotypic or oligotypic, but the three genera Viola (about 600 species), Rinorea (about 250 species), and Hybanthus include 98% of the species.[1][6][7]

Phylogeny

Violaceae, as one of 42 families, is placed in a clade of 10 families within the order.[8][1]

   

Oxalidales (outgroup)

Malpighiales[8]   euphorbioids    

Euphorbiaceae

   

Peraceae

      phyllanthoids  

Picrodendraceae

   

Phyllanthaceae

    linoids  

Linaceae

   

Ixonanthaceae

          parietal clade   salicoids        

Salicaceae

   

Scyphostegiaceae

     

Samydaceae

     

Lacistemataceae

         

Passifloraceae

   

Turneraceae

     

Malesherbiaceae

         

Violaceae

   

Goupiaceae

       

Achariaceae

     

Humiriaceae

          clusioids      

Hypericaceae

   

Podostemaceae

     

Calophyllaceae

       

Clusiaceae

   

Bonnetiaceae

      ochnoids  

Ochnaceae

     

Quiinaceae

   

Medusagynaceae

             

Rhizophoraceae

   

Erythroxylaceae

     

Ctenolophonaceae

       

Pandaceae

   

Irvingiaceae

        chrysobalanoids      

Chrysobalanaceae

   

Euphroniaceae

       

Dichapetalaceae

   

Trigoniaceae

       

Balanopaceae

    malpighioids    

Malpighiaceae

   

Elatinaceae

     

Centroplacaceae

     

Caryocaraceae

  putranjivoids  

Putranjivaceae

   

Lophopyxidaceae

         

Subdivision

Many attempts have been made at an intrafamilial classification, but these have largelybeen artificial, based on floral characteristics, but molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that many of these divisions were not monophyletic, partly due to homoplasy. These studies demonstrate four major clades within the family.[1]

The historical subdivisions shown here are those of the system of Hekking (1988). Three subfamilies are recognized: the Violoideae, Leonioideae, and Fusispermoideae.[9][1]

Subfamily Fusispermoideae

Subfamily Leonioideae

Subfamily Violoideae

Tribe Rinoreeae
Subtribe Hymenantherinae
Subtribe Isodendriinae
Subtribe Paypayrolinae
Subtribe Rinoreinae
Tribe Violeae

Clades

The molecularly defined subdivisions are;[1]

In Clade 1, Schweiggeria and Noisettia are monotypic and form a sister group to Viola. In addition to the major clades, there were a number of unplaced segregates.[1]

Distribution and habitat

The Violaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution.[1]

References

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wikipedia EN

Violaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Violaceae is a family of flowering plants consisting of about 1000 species in about 25 genera. It takes its name from the genus Viola, the violets and pansies.

Older classifications such as the Cronquist system placed the Violaceae in an order named after it, the Violales. However, more recent classifications such as that of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group locate it in the Malpighiales.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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wikipedia EN