dcsimg

Online Identification Guides

provided by EOL authors
LSU Interactive Identification Keys - North America, Central America, Europe
Ontario Grasses - Ontario, Canada
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Online Identification Guides Collection on EOL
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Annual or perennial herbs. Roots fibrous. Leaves grass-like or cylindric, sheathing at the base. Inflorescence terminal, umbellate or paniculate, the flowers solitary or in capitula; bracts leaf-like, scarious or membranous; bracteoles sometimes present. Flowers bisexual. Perianth segments 6, in two series, subequal, green or brown, usually membranous at the edges. Stamens 3 or 6. Carpels 3, joined; ovary superior, 1- or 3-locular; stigmas 3. Fruit a many-seeded loculicidal capsule.
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Juncaceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=112
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
partner site
Flora of Zimbabwe

Juncaceae

provided by wikipedia EN

Juncaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the rush family. It consists of 8 genera and about 464 known species[2] of slow-growing, rhizomatous, herbaceous monocotyledonous plants that may superficially resemble grasses and sedges. They often grow on infertile soils in a wide range of moisture conditions. The best-known and largest genus is Juncus. Most of the Juncus species grow exclusively in wetland habitats. A few rushes, such as Juncus bufonius are annuals, but most are perennials.

Description

The leaves are evergreen and well-developed in a basal aggregation on an erect stem. They are alternate and tristichous (i.e., with three rows of leaves up the stem, each row of leaves arising one-third of the way around the stem from the previous leaf). Only in the genus Distichia are the leaves distichous. The rushes of the genus Juncus have flat, hairless leaves or cylindrical leaves. The leaves of the wood-rushes of the genus Luzula are always flat and bear long white hairs.

The plants are hermaphroditic or, rarely, dioecious. The small flowers are arranged in inflorescences of loose cymes, but also in rather dense heads or corymbs at the top of the stem or at its side. This family typically has reduced perianth segments called tepals. These are usually arranged in two whorls, each containing three thin, papery tepals. They are not bright or flashy in appearance, and their color can vary from greenish to whitish, brown, purple, black, or hyaline. The three stigmas are in the center of the flowers. As is characteristic of monocots, all of the flower parts appear in multiples of three.

The fruit is usually a nonfleshy, three-sectioned dehiscent capsule containing many seeds.

Uses

The dried pith of plants of this family were used to make a type of candle known as a rushlight.[3]

The common rush (Juncus effusus) is called igusa in Japanese and is used to weave the soft surface cover of tatami mats.[4]

In medieval Europe, loose fresh rushes would be strewn on earthen floors in dwellings for cleanliness and insulation. Particularly favored for such a purpose was Acorus calamus (sweet flag), but despite its alternate vernacular name "sweet rush", it is a plant from a different monocot order, Acorales.[5] Up until the 1960s in Ireland, rushes were spread on the earthen floor of homes during wet weather to help keep the floor dry during periods of snow or rain, or during hot weather to keep rooms cool. Rushes used in Ireland included Juncus effusus, Juncus glaucus, and Juncus conglomeratus.[3]

The stems and leaves of Juncus kraussii were used by Indigenous Australians for fibre, for string, fishing lines, woven rugs and woven baskets. It is commonly used today for stabilisation of the banks of estuaries, around salt marshes and riparian zones next to sites developed for human use. It is also used in biofiltration systems and rain gardens.[6]

References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
  2. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
  3. ^ a b O'Dowd, Anne (2015). Straw, Hay & Rushes in Irish Folk Tradition. Dublin. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-7165-3311-5. OCLC 933524857.
  4. ^ "Structure of Tatami". kyo-tatami.com. Motoyama Tatami Shop. 2015-06-28. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  5. ^ Burton, Alfred. Rush-bearing: An Account of the Old Custom of Strewing Rushes: Carrying Rushes to Church; The Rush-Cart; Garlands in Churches; Morris-Dancers; The Wakes; The Rush. Manchester: Brook & Chrystal, 1891; pp. 1-12
  6. ^ "Juncus kraussii". Botanic Gardens of South Australia. Retrieved 24 November 2020.

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Juncaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Juncaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the rush family. It consists of 8 genera and about 464 known species of slow-growing, rhizomatous, herbaceous monocotyledonous plants that may superficially resemble grasses and sedges. They often grow on infertile soils in a wide range of moisture conditions. The best-known and largest genus is Juncus. Most of the Juncus species grow exclusively in wetland habitats. A few rushes, such as Juncus bufonius are annuals, but most are perennials.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Juncaceae

provided by wikipedia FR

La famille des joncacées ou juncacées regroupe des plantes monocotylédones. Elle comprend environ 400 espèces réparties en 6-9 genres.

Ce sont des plantes herbacées ou des arbustes (rarement) des lieux humides, des zones froides à tempérées (jusqu'aux zones montagneuses tropicales). Dans cette famille on trouve les joncs genre Juncus L. à feuilles généralement cylindriques et les luzules genre Luzula DC. à feuilles planes.

Étymologie

Le nom vient du genre Juncus de junc nom latin de ces plantes, peut-être dérivé du latin jungere (joindre) : les Joncs étant utilisés comme liens[1].

Classification

En classification classique de Cronquist (1981) cette famille était dans l'ordres des Juncales.

La classification phylogénétique APG II (2003) situe l'espèce Prionium serratum dans les Thurniaceae.

Liste des genres

Selon World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) (20 avr. 2010)[2] et NCBI (20 avr. 2010)[3] :

Selon Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (19 mai 2010)[4] :

Selon DELTA Angio (20 avr. 2010)[5] :

Selon ITIS (20 avr. 2010)[6] :

Notes et références

  1. Paul-Victor Fournier, Les quatre flores de la France : Corse comprise (Générale, Alpine, Méditerranéenne, Littorale), Paris, Lechevalier, 1990, 1104 p. (ISBN 978-2-7205-0529-4), p. 144
  2. WCSP. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet ; http://wcsp.science.kew.org/, consulté le 20 avr. 2010
  3. NCBI, consulté le 20 avr. 2010
  4. Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]." will do. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/, consulté le 19 mai 2010
  5. DELTA Angio, consulté le 20 avr. 2010
  6. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), www.itis.gov, CC0 https://doi.org/10.5066/F7KH0KBK, consulté le 20 avr. 2010

license
fr
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia FR

Juncaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

La famille des joncacées ou juncacées regroupe des plantes monocotylédones. Elle comprend environ 400 espèces réparties en 6-9 genres.

Ce sont des plantes herbacées ou des arbustes (rarement) des lieux humides, des zones froides à tempérées (jusqu'aux zones montagneuses tropicales). Dans cette famille on trouve les joncs genre Juncus L. à feuilles généralement cylindriques et les luzules genre Luzula DC. à feuilles planes.

license
fr
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia FR

골풀과

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

골풀과(--科, 학명: Juncaceae 융카케아이[*])는 벼목이다.[1]

세계의 온대 및 극지·고산 등지의 추운 습지에 분포하며, 세계적으로 약 8속의 471종 가량이 알려져 있다. 대부분 초본이지만, 남아프리카에는 관목 모양인 속(屬)도 있다.

줄기는 곧게 뻗으며 대부분 가지로 나누어지지 않는다. 잎은 대개 줄기 밑부분에 달리고, 꽃은 방사대칭이며 보통 6개의 작은 꽃덮이조각을 가지고 있다. 수술은 6개 또는 3개이며, 꽃덮이조각과 마주난다. 씨방은 상위로, 1-3개의 방을 가지며 암술머리는 3개가 있다. 열매는 삭과로 그 안에는 3개 또는 여러 개의 씨가 있다. 풍매화로서 사초과와 비슷하며 또한 백합과(충매화)와도 가깝다고 한다.

하위 분류

  • 골풀속(Juncus L.)
  • 꿩의밥속(Luzula DC.)
  • Distichia Nees & Meyen
  • Marsippospermum Desv.
  • Oreojuncus Záv.Drábk. & Kirschner
  • Oxychloe Phil.
  • Patosia Buchenau
  • Rostkovia Desv.

계통 분류

다음은 벼목의 계통 분류이다.[2][3]

벼목 파인애플군  

파인애플과

   

부들과

      사초군    

물이끼풀과

   

라파테아과

       

투르니아과

     

사초과

   

골풀과

          크시리스군  

곡정초과

   

크시리스과

      벼군  

플라겔라리아과

     

벼과

     

에크데이오콜레아과

   

조인빌레아과

        레스티오군  

아나르트리아과

     

켄트롤레피스과

   

레스티오과

             

각주

  1. Jussieu, Antoine Laurent de. Genera Plantarum 43. 1789.
  2. Bouchenak-Khelladi, Yanis; Muasya, A. Muthama; Linder, H. Peter (2014). “A revised evolutionary history of Poales: origins and diversification”. 《Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society》 175 (1): 4–16. doi:10.1111/boj.12160. ISSN 0024-4074. 오픈 액세스로 게시된 글 - 무료로 읽을 수 있습니다
  3. Briggs, Barbara G.; Marchant, Adam D.; Perkins, Andrew J. (2014). “Phylogeny of the restiid clade (Poales) and implications for the classification of Anarthriaceae, Centrolepidaceae and Australian Restionaceae”. 《Taxon》 63 (1): 24–46. doi:10.12705/631.1. ISSN 0040-0262.
Heckert GNU white.svgCc.logo.circle.svg 이 문서에는 다음커뮤니케이션(현 카카오)에서 GFDL 또는 CC-SA 라이선스로 배포한 글로벌 세계대백과사전의 내용을 기초로 작성된 글이 포함되어 있습니다.
 title=
license
ko
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/