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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 13.7 years (captivity)
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Reproduction

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Side-striped jackals are among the few mammalian species in which the male and female mate for life; hence they are monogamous.

Mating System: monogamous

Mating occurs every year just before or during the rainy season. This usually takes place from June to July, or September to October. Litters range in size from 3 to 6 offspring; however, evidence suggests that there may be some resorption of fetuses in the womb or other sorts of early reduction in the litter size, ultimately resulting in a litter of only 3 to 6. The average gestation period lasts between 57 and 70 days. Lactation occurs for 8 to 10 weeks. Sexual maturity is reached around 6 to 8 months and dispersal follows at 11 months of age.

Range number of offspring: 1 to 6.

Range gestation period: 57 to 70 days.

Range weaning age: 56 to 70 days.

Average weaning age: 42 days.

Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

Average number of offspring: 4.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male:
274 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female:
274 days.

Parental Investment: altricial ; post-independence association with parents; extended period of juvenile learning

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Brensike, J. 2000. "Canis adustus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Canis_adustus.html
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Untitled

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Side-striped jackals are prey to leopards, hyenas and eagles. For small pups, eagles are an especially dangerous threat.

On a different note, it is an interesting fact that side-striped jackals are more closely related to wolves than are any other species of jackal, despite their smaller size and single family social structure.

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Brensike, J. 2000. "Canis adustus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Canis_adustus.html
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Julie Brensike, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Behavior

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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Brensike, J. 2000. "Canis adustus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Canis_adustus.html
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Julie Brensike, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Conservation Status

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Despite distemper epidemics killing off thousands of jackals in the early part of the century and common trapping and poisoning during rabies outbreaks, no direct threat to the species is known. They are relatively rare throughout their range, but are not considered endangered. Conservation efforts have been made by incorporating Canis adustus into numerous national parks and reserves including: Serengeti National Park and Akagera National Park.

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Brensike, J. 2000. "Canis adustus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Canis_adustus.html
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Benefits

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Jackals have historically been known to cause outbreaks of rabies as well as distemper. They represent reservoirs for both of these diseases and are often trapped and poisoned during outbreaks to prevent spreading. The obvious negative affect is the spread of these diseases to game animals, as well as to humans that come into contact with these sick animals.

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Brensike, J. 2000. "Canis adustus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Canis_adustus.html
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Benefits

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Jackals are the subject of much superstition. In Kampala, their skin and nails are sold as fetish components to ward off evil spirits. In the Buganda tribe, their hearts are cut out and boiled as a method of treating epilepsy.

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Brensike, J. 2000. "Canis adustus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Canis_adustus.html
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Trophic Strategy

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Side-striped jackals are more completely omnivorous scavengers than any other type of jackal. Their diet varies from area to area, however, they are generally known to feed mainly on insects, fruits, small vertebrates, carrion, and plant material. They catch various insects, mice, and birds by making a quick dash or pouncing action, but have never been recorded to run anything down. Rather, they tend to feed on the leftovers of other faster predators.

Animal Foods: birds; mammals; carrion ; insects

Plant Foods: fruit

Primary Diet: omnivore

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Brensike, J. 2000. "Canis adustus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Canis_adustus.html
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Distribution

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Side-striped jackals are found predominantly in tropical Africa ranging from 15 degrees North to 23 degrees South lattitude. They inhabit moist wooded areas in east, west, and central Africa, and have been known to inhabit areas as high as 2,700 meters. They do not, however, inhabit the rain forests of west or central Africa.

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

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Brensike, J. 2000. "Canis adustus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Canis_adustus.html
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Habitat

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Side-striped jackals are most common in moister habitats. They inhabit a vast array of regions including moist wooded areas, savannahs and thickets, marshes, bushlands, grasslands, swamps and mountainous areas up to 2,700 meters. They are also common in cultivated areas and have been seen crossing major highways on numerous occasions.

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; scrub forest

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Brensike, J. 2000. "Canis adustus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Canis_adustus.html
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Life Expectancy

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Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
10.0 years.

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Brensike, J. 2000. "Canis adustus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Canis_adustus.html
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Morphology

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The side-striped jackal is easily distinguishable from its other jackal relatives. It is slightly more drab in color, and has shorter legs and ears. These jackals tend to be light gray to tan and are distinguishable by a white tip on their relatively dark tails. They tend to have a white stripe from elbow to hip and black side stripes which are not always conspicuous. This jackal species tends to be heavily built and is sexuallly dimorphic in size, males are somewhat larger than females. Males range from 7.3 to 12 kg, whereas females are seldom known to weigh more than 10 kg.

Range mass: 7 to 12 kg.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

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Brensike, J. 2000. "Canis adustus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Canis_adustus.html
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Side-striped jackal

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The side-striped jackal (Canis adustus[2] or Lupulella adusta[3]) is a canine native to Central and southern Africa.[1] Unlike the smaller black-backed jackal which dwells in open plains, the side-striped jackal primarily dwells in woodland and scrub areas.[4]

Taxonomy and evolution

Phylogenetic tree of the extant wolf-like canids Caninae 3.5 Ma 3.0 2.7 1.9 1.6 1.3 1.1      

Domestic dog Tibetan mastiff (white background).jpg

   

Gray wolf Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate I).jpg

     

Himalayan wolf Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III).jpg

     

Coyote Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate IX).jpg

     

African golden wolf Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XI).jpg

     

Ethiopian wolf Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate VI).jpg

     

Eurasian golden jackal Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate X).jpg

     

Dhole Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XLI).jpg

     

African wild dog Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XLIV).jpg

      2.6  

Side-striped jackal Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XIII).jpg

   

Black-backed jackal Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XII).jpg

        Phylogenetic relationships between the extant wolf-like clade of canids based on nuclear DNA sequence data taken from the cell nucleus,[5][6] except for the Himalayan wolf, based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.[6][7] Timing in millions of years.[6]

Fossil remains of C. adustus date back to the Pliocene era.[8] A mitochondrial DNA sequence alignment for the wolf-like canids gave a phylogenetic tree with the side-striped jackal and the black-backed jackal being the most basal members of this clade, which means that this tree is indicating an African origin for the clade.[5][9]

In 2019, a workshop hosted by the IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group recommends that because DNA evidence shows the side-striped jackal (Canis adustus) and black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) to form a monophyletic lineage that sits outside of the Canis/Cuon/Lycaon clade, that they should be placed in a distinct genus, Lupulella Hilzheimer, 1906 with the names Lupulella adusta and Lupulella mesomelas.[3]

Description

The side-striped jackal is a medium-sized canid, which tends to be slightly larger on average than the black-backed jackal. Body mass ranges from 6.5 to 14 kg (14 to 31 lb), head-and-body length from 69 to 81 cm (27 to 32 in) and tail length from 30 to 41 cm (12 to 16 in).[10] Shoulder height can range from 35 to 50 cm (14 to 20 in).[11] Its pelt is coloured buff-grey. The back is darker grey than the underside, and the tail is black with a white tip. Indistinct white stripes are present on the flanks, running from elbow to hip. The boldness of the markings varies between individuals, with those of adults being better defined than those of juveniles.[4]

The side-striped jackal's skull is similar to that of the black-backed jackal's, but is flatter, with a longer and narrower rostrum. Its sagittal crest and zygomatic arches are also lighter in build. Due to its longer rostrum, its third upper premolar lies almost in line with the others, rather than at an angle. Its dentition is well suited to an omnivorous diet. The long, curved canines have a sharp ridge on the posterior surface, and the outer incisors are canine-like. Its carnassials are smaller than those of the more carnivorous black-backed jackal. Females have four inguinal teats.[4]

Dietary habits

The side-striped jackal tends to be less carnivorous than other jackal species, and is a highly adaptable omnivore whose dietary preferences change in accordance to seasonal and local variation.[12] It tends to forage solitarily, though family groups of up to 12 jackals have been observed to feed together in western Zimbabwe. In the wild, it feeds largely on invertebrates during the wet season and small mammals, such as the springhare, in the dry months. It frequently scavenges from campsites and the kills of larger predators. In the wild, fruit is taken exclusively in season, while in ruralised areas, it can account for 30% of their dietary intake. The side-striped jackal tends to be comparatively less predatory when compared to other jackal species. It typically does not target prey exceeding the size of neonatal antelopes, and one specimen was recorded to have entered a duck's pen to eat their feed, whilst ignoring the birds.[4]

Social behaviour and reproduction

The side-striped jackal lives both solitarily and in family groups of up to seven individuals. The family unit is dominated by a breeding pair, which remains monogamous for a number of years.[4]

The breeding season for this species depends on where they live; in southern Africa, breeding starts in June and ends in November. The side-striped jackal has a gestation period of 57 to 70 days, with average litter of three to six young. The young reach sexual maturity at six to eight months of age, and typically begin to leave when 11 months old. The side-striped jackal is among the few mammal species that mate for life, forming monogamous pairs.

Subspecies

There are seven recognized subspecies of side-striped jackal:[2][13]

  • Canis adustus adustus (Western Africa to most of Angola) – Sundevall's side-striped jackal
  • Canis adustus bweha (Eastern Africa; Kisumu, Kenya)
  • Canis adustus centralis (Central Africa; Cameroon, near the Uham River)
  • Canis adustus grayi (Northern Africa; Morocco and Tunisia)
  • Canis adustus kaffensis (Kaffa, southwestern Ethiopia) – Kaffa side-striped jackal
  • Canis adustus lateralis (Eastern Africa; Kenya, Uasin Gishu Plateau, south of Gabon)
  • Canis adustus notatus (Eastern Africa; Kenya, Loita Plains, Rift Valley Province) – East African side-striped jackal

Further reading

  • The New Encyclopedia of Mammals edited by David Macdonald, Oxford University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-19-850823-9
  • Cry of the Kalahari, by Mark and Delia Owens, Mariner Books, 1992.
  • The Velvet Claw: A Natural History of the Carnivores, by David MacDonald, BBC Books, 1992.
  • Foxes, Wolves, and Wild Dogs of the World, by David Alderton, Facts on File, 2004.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Atkinson RPD, Loveridge AJ (2008). "Canis adustus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-12.old-form url
  2. ^ a b c Wozencraft, C. W. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reader, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 1 (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 573. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.
  3. ^ a b Alvares, Francisco; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Campbell, Liz A.D.; Godinho, Rachel; Hatlauf, Jennifer; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Kitchener, Andrew C.; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Krofel, Miha; Moehlman, Patricia D.; Senn, Helen; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Viranta, Suvi; Werhahn, Geraldine (2019). "Old World Canis spp. with taxonomic ambiguity: Workshop conclusions and recommendations. CIBIO. Vairão, Portugal, 28th - 30th May 2019" (PDF). IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d e IUCN SSC Canid Specialist Group. "Side-Striped Jackal". Wildlife Conservation Research Unit. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  5. ^ a b Lindblad-Toh, K.; Wade, C. M.; Mikkelsen, T. S.; Karlsson, E. K.; Jaffe, D. B.; Kamal, M.; Clamp, M.; Chang, J. L.; Kulbokas, E. J.; Zody, M. C.; Mauceli, E.; Xie, X.; Breen, M.; Wayne, R. K.; Ostrander, E. A.; Ponting, C. P.; Galibert, F.; Smith, D. R.; Dejong, P. J.; Kirkness, E.; Alvarez, P.; Biagi, T.; Brockman, W.; Butler, J.; Chin, C. W.; Cook, A.; Cuff, J.; Daly, M. J.; Decaprio, D.; et al. (2005). "Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog". Nature. 438 (7069): 803–819. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..803L. doi:10.1038/nature04338. PMID 16341006.
  6. ^ a b c Koepfli, K.-P.; Pollinger, J.; Godinho, R.; Robinson, J.; Lea, A.; Hendricks, S.; Schweizer, R. M.; Thalmann, O.; Silva, P.; Fan, Z.; Yurchenko, A. A.; Dobrynin, P.; Makunin, A.; Cahill, J. A.; Shapiro, B.; Álvares, F.; Brito, J. C.; Geffen, E.; Leonard, J. A.; Helgen, K. M.; Johnson, W. E.; O'Brien, S. J.; Van Valkenburgh, B.; Wayne, R. K. (2015-08-17). "Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species". Current Biology. 25 (16): 2158–65. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.06.060. PMID 26234211.
  7. ^ Werhahn, Geraldine; Senn, Helen; Kaden, Jennifer; Joshi, Jyoti; Bhattarai, Susmita; Kusi, Naresh; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; MacDonald, David W. (2017). "Phylogenetic evidence for the ancient Himalayan wolf: Towards a clarification of its taxonomic status based on genetic sampling from western Nepal". Royal Society Open Science. 4 (6): 170186. Bibcode:2017RSOS....470186W. doi:10.1098/rsos.170186. PMC 5493914. PMID 28680672.
  8. ^ Garrido, Guiomar; Arribas, Alfonso (2008). "Canis accitanus nov. sp., a new small dog (Canidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) from the Fonelas P-1 Plio-Pleistocene site (Guadix basin, Granada, Spain)". Geobios. 41 (6): 751. doi:10.1016/j.geobios.2008.05.002.
  9. ^ Juliane Kaminski & Sarah Marshall-Pescini (2014). "Chapter 1 - The Social Dog:History and Evolution". The Social Dog:Behavior and Cognition. Elsevier. p. 4. ISBN 9780124079311.
  10. ^ Burnie D and Wilson DE (Eds.), Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult (2005), ISBN 0789477645
  11. ^ "Side-Striped Jackal". Botswana Travel Guide. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
  12. ^ "Side-Striped Jackal in the Kruger Park". www.krugerpark.co.za. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
  13. ^ "Canis adustus". Planet-mammiferes.org. Retrieved 2009-09-07.

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Side-striped jackal: Brief Summary

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The side-striped jackal (Canis adustus or Lupulella adusta) is a canine native to Central and southern Africa. Unlike the smaller black-backed jackal which dwells in open plains, the side-striped jackal primarily dwells in woodland and scrub areas.

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