DistributionRead full entry
Range DescriptionCircumboreal range throughout North America, Europe, and Asia, from Greenland and the Canadian and Siberian Arctic islands south to about 35°N (King 1983, Fagerstone 1987). In North America, this species is found throughout Alaska and Canada south through most of the northern United States to central California, northern Arizona (Berna 1991), northern New Mexico, Iowa, the Great Lakes region, Pennsylvania, and northern Virginia (Fagerstone 1987). It has been introduced to New Zealand. In Europe, it is present as far south as 41ºN in Portugal (Santos Reis, 1983), and is found on most islands with the exception of Iceland, Svalbard, and some small North Atlantic islands. It does not occur on Mediterranean islands. In Japan, it is present in central mountains (northern and central Japan Alps) to northern part of Honshu (primarily above 1,200 m) and Hokkaido (Abe et al., 2005). Its vertical range is from sea level to 3,000 m (Pulliainen, 1999).