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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 3.3 years Observations: These animals can live up to 3.3 years (Ronald Nowak 1999).
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Reproduction

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The female estrus cycle lasts for 9.6 days, occuring several times in the breeding season, which runs from January to September (it may begin early depending on the severity of the weather). After a 19-21 day gestation, a litter of between 1 and 11 is born. A female typically has two to three litters per year in the wild; however, in captivity they can have up to five. The young weigh 3.8 g (average) at partruition and are weaned at 15-20 days (Marsden, 1964; Nowak, 1999).

Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

Average birth mass: 4.35 g.

Average gestation period: 20 days.

Average number of offspring: 3.4.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male:
85 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female:
40 days.

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Poloskey, T. 2000. "Dicrostonyx groenlandicus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Dicrostonyx_groenlandicus.html
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Tara Poloskey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Untitled

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Predators of the Varying Lemming include Norwegian snowy owls, Norwegian short-eared owls, ermines, foxes, wolves, pomarine jaegars, least weasels, falcons, gulls, hawks, wolverines and the polar bear (HInton, 191926; Wooding, 1982)

It is uncommon for this species to live longer than one year in the wild (Marsden, 1964).

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Poloskey, T. 2000. "Dicrostonyx groenlandicus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Dicrostonyx_groenlandicus.html
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Tara Poloskey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Behavior

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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Poloskey, T. 2000. "Dicrostonyx groenlandicus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Dicrostonyx_groenlandicus.html
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Tara Poloskey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Conservation Status

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US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Poloskey, T. 2000. "Dicrostonyx groenlandicus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Dicrostonyx_groenlandicus.html
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Tara Poloskey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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Eskimos use the soft white winter coats of the collared lemming for clothing decoration and toys for the children (Nowak, 1999).

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Poloskey, T. 2000. "Dicrostonyx groenlandicus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Dicrostonyx_groenlandicus.html
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Tara Poloskey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Trophic Strategy

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The diet of D. groenlandicus consists of willow buds, fruits, flowers, grasses and twigs (Wooding, 1982). They will eat mushrooms and mosses in captivity. The morphology of the teeth suggests that they prey on insects, but this behavior has not been observed by individuals in the wild (Marsden, 1964; Nowak, 1999).

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Poloskey, T. 2000. "Dicrostonyx groenlandicus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Dicrostonyx_groenlandicus.html
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Tara Poloskey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Distribution

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Tundra biomes of Alaska; arctic islands of Canada, Northwest Territories; Greenland; St. Lawrence Island and Wrangel Island(Siberia) (Nowak, 1999; Wooding, 1982).

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); palearctic (Native )

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Poloskey, T. 2000. "Dicrostonyx groenlandicus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Dicrostonyx_groenlandicus.html
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Tara Poloskey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Habitat

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D. groenlandicus is mainly terrestrial and fossorial, however, this lemming can also be found swimming in the arctic waters.

Terrestrial Biomes: tundra

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Poloskey, T. 2000. "Dicrostonyx groenlandicus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Dicrostonyx_groenlandicus.html
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Tara Poloskey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Life Expectancy

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Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
3.3 years.

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Poloskey, T. 2000. "Dicrostonyx groenlandicus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Dicrostonyx_groenlandicus.html
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Tara Poloskey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Morphology

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The collared lemming is short and stocky with a very heavy coat year round. Pelage varies with the seasons: in summer the coat is light to dark grey with a buffy to reddish brown tone. Dark lines down the back and on the sides of the head are characteristic, however, the length of the stripe varies from ending just before the withers, to continuing down the length of the back (Hinton, 1926). The winter coat color is uninterrupted white. Dicrostonyx is the only genus in Rodentia in which the individuals have completely white coats in the winter season.

The head and body length equal approximately 100-157 mm with a tail of between 10 and 20 mm. This species is fossorial, developing a unique double digging claw in the winter to break through the ice and snow of the tundra (Marsden, 1964; Nowak, 1999). D. groenlandicus can easily be distinguished from other species of the genus by its narrow rostrum, smaller, straighter incisors and the unusually short hind foot (Hinton, 1926).

Range mass: 30 to 112 g.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.459 W.

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Poloskey, T. 2000. "Dicrostonyx groenlandicus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Dicrostonyx_groenlandicus.html
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Tara Poloskey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Northern collared lemming

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The northern collared lemming or Nearctic collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus), sometimes called the Peary Land collared lemming in Canada, is a small North American lemming. At one time, it was considered to be a subspecies of the Arctic lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus). Some sources believe several other species of collared lemmings found in North America are actually subspecies of D. groenlandicus.[2]

It has a short chunky body covered with thick grey fur with a thin black stripe along its back and light grey underparts. It has small ears, short legs and a very short tail. It has a pale brown collar across its chest. In winter, its fur turns white (believed to be the only rodent to do so), and it has large digging claws on its front feet. It is 14 cm long with a 1.5 cm tail and weighs about 40 g.

This animal is found in the tundra of northern Canada, Alaska and Greenland. It feeds on grasses, sedges and other green vegetation in summer, and twigs of willow, aspen and birches in winter. Predators include snowy owls, gulls, wolverines, the Arctic fox and the polar bear.

Female lemmings have two or three litters of four to eight young in a year. The young are born in a nest in a burrow or concealed in vegetation.

It is active year-round, day and night. It makes runways through the surface vegetation and also digs burrows above the permafrost. It burrows under the snow in winter. Lemming populations go through a three- or four-year cycle of boom and bust. When their population peaks, lemmings disperse from overcrowded areas.

References

  1. ^ a b Cassola, F. (2016). "Dicrostonyx groenlandicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016 (errata version published in 2017): e.T42618A115195764. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T42618A22331908.en.{{cite iucn}}: error: |doi= / |page= mismatch (help)|volume= / |doi= mismatch
  2. ^ Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M.D. (2005). "Superfamily Muroidea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 971–972. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
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Northern collared lemming: Brief Summary

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The northern collared lemming or Nearctic collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus), sometimes called the Peary Land collared lemming in Canada, is a small North American lemming. At one time, it was considered to be a subspecies of the Arctic lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus). Some sources believe several other species of collared lemmings found in North America are actually subspecies of D. groenlandicus.

It has a short chunky body covered with thick grey fur with a thin black stripe along its back and light grey underparts. It has small ears, short legs and a very short tail. It has a pale brown collar across its chest. In winter, its fur turns white (believed to be the only rodent to do so), and it has large digging claws on its front feet. It is 14 cm long with a 1.5 cm tail and weighs about 40 g.

This animal is found in the tundra of northern Canada, Alaska and Greenland. It feeds on grasses, sedges and other green vegetation in summer, and twigs of willow, aspen and birches in winter. Predators include snowy owls, gulls, wolverines, the Arctic fox and the polar bear.

Female lemmings have two or three litters of four to eight young in a year. The young are born in a nest in a burrow or concealed in vegetation.

It is active year-round, day and night. It makes runways through the surface vegetation and also digs burrows above the permafrost. It burrows under the snow in winter. Lemming populations go through a three- or four-year cycle of boom and bust. When their population peaks, lemmings disperse from overcrowded areas.

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