dcsimg

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

provided by AnAge articles
Observations: It has been estimated that these animals live up to 5 years in the wild (Bernhard Grzimek 1990). Without more detailed studies, however, their maximum longevity must be classified as unknown.
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Joao Pedro de Magalhaes
editor
de Magalhaes, J. P.
partner site
AnAge articles

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The mating system and behavior of this species has not been characterized.

These moles mate in March or April. Testes reach their maximum size in March then decrease sharply in mid-May. The testes reach their resting size in October. Females produce one litter per year and become reproductive at 10 months. The usual litter size is four or five. Estimated gestation time is four to six weeks (Hallett ,1978).

Breeding season: March or April

Average number of offspring: 4 or 5.

Range gestation period: 4 to 6 weeks.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 10 (low) months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 10 (low) months.

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); viviparous

Average birth mass: 10.1 g.

Average number of offspring: 4.

Although parental care in this species has not been characterized, females are known to care for and nurse their young. Nestling moles are whitish, wrinkled, and naked except for short whiskers on the snout and facial hairs near the eyes and on the lips. The postnatal pelage is slightly grayer and much shorter than that of adults in summer (Hallett ,1978).

Parental Investment: altricial ; female parental care

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Lindahl, M. 2003. "Parascalops breweri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Parascalops_breweri.html
author
Molly Lindahl, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
editor
Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Untitled

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Hairy-tailed moles house certain endoparasites: Acanthocephalid worms are fequently found in the intestine, roundworms are found in the stomachs of some of the moles, fleas and mites are the most numerous ectoparasites, occurring in the greatest abundance in the spring and summer. The louse, Euhaematopinus abnormis and the beetle, Leptinus americanus have been found on some specimens (Hallett, 1978).

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Lindahl, M. 2003. "Parascalops breweri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Parascalops_breweri.html
author
Molly Lindahl, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
editor
Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Lindahl, M. 2003. "Parascalops breweri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Parascalops_breweri.html
author
Molly Lindahl, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
editor
Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The amount of records from the area may indicate either genuine absence or rarity, or it may reflect the lack of thorough surveys (Hecnar, 1996). This seems likly because of the fossorial nature of the mole.

US Migratory Bird Act: no special status

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Lindahl, M. 2003. "Parascalops breweri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Parascalops_breweri.html
author
Molly Lindahl, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
editor
Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Hairy-tailed moles are probably economically neutral due to the species' local distribution, doing some damage to lawns, gardens, and golf courses (Hallett ,1978).

Negative Impacts: crop pest

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Lindahl, M. 2003. "Parascalops breweri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Parascalops_breweri.html
author
Molly Lindahl, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
editor
Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Hairy-tailed moles consume large numbers of harmful insects (Hallett,1978).

Positive Impacts: controls pest population

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Lindahl, M. 2003. "Parascalops breweri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Parascalops_breweri.html
author
Molly Lindahl, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
editor
Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Because these are tunneling mammals, hairy-tailed moles assist in aeration of soil. They also likely play a role in regulating populations of invertebrates upon which they feed.

Ecosystem Impact: soil aeration

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Lindahl, M. 2003. "Parascalops breweri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Parascalops_breweri.html
author
Molly Lindahl, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
editor
Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Hairy-tailed moles are insectivores. Their diet consists mainly of earthworms, ants, beetle larvae, centipedes, and small rootlets. Ants may be an important food item when other foods are scarce. These moles starve when only vegetable matter is offered (Hallett, 1978).

Animal Foods: insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; terrestrial worms

Plant Foods: roots and tubers

Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore , Vermivore)

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Lindahl, M. 2003. "Parascalops breweri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Parascalops_breweri.html
author
Molly Lindahl, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
editor
Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Hairy-tailed moles are found from southern Quebec and Ontario to central Ohio, and south as far as western North Carolina in the Appalachian Mountains (Walker, 1964). In 1995 a hairy-tailed mole was observed near the north end of Agawa Bay in Lake Superior Provincial Park. This is approximately 45km north of the previous peripheral record of Pancake Bay, Ontario (Hecnar, 1996).

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Lindahl, M. 2003. "Parascalops breweri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Parascalops_breweri.html
author
Molly Lindahl, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
editor
Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Hairy-tailed moles are found mainly in secondary growth hardwood forests, edge habitats, and meadows, with soils that are light and well drained (Hecnar, 1996). The elevation range is from sea level to about 900 meters (Walker, 1964).

Range elevation: sea level to 900 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; mountains

Other Habitat Features: suburban ; agricultural

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Lindahl, M. 2003. "Parascalops breweri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Parascalops_breweri.html
author
Molly Lindahl, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
editor
Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Hairy-tailed moles live an average of 3 years in the wild. They live 3-4 years in captivity. (The Wildlife Fact File, 1991)

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
3 years.

Typical lifespan
Status: captivity:
3 to 4 years.

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
4.0 years.

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
5.0 years.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Lindahl, M. 2003. "Parascalops breweri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Parascalops_breweri.html
author
Molly Lindahl, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
editor
Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Hairy-tailed moles can be distinguished from other moles that are in Ontario by their short snout, hairy tail, and lack of protuberances on the snout (Hecnar, 1996). The length of the head and body is 116 to 140 mm, and the length of the tail is 23 to 36 mm. Adults weigh from 40 to 85 grams. The fur is thick, and soft, but it is slightly coarser than in the eastern American mole (Scalopus). The color is blackish . White spots are often present on the breast or abdomen; the snout, tail, and feet may become almost pure white with age. The snout is shorter than in Scalopus or Scapanus and has a median longitudinal groove on the anterior half. The nostrils are lateral and directed upward. There are no external ears, and the eyes are nearly hidden by the fur. The palms of the hands are as broad as they are long, and the digits are not webbed. The tail is thick and fleshy, with a constriction at the base. The tail is also annulated with scales, and covered with long hairs. Females have four pairs of mammae (Walker, 1964). Sexual dimorphism is evident with males being slighly larger than females (Hallett, 1978).

Range mass: 40 to 85 g.

Range length: 116 to 140 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Lindahl, M. 2003. "Parascalops breweri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Parascalops_breweri.html
author
Molly Lindahl, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
editor
Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Hairy-tailed moles travel on the surface of the ground at night and are sometimes captured by owls or other animals (Walker, 1964). Other known predators include red fox, opossum, cats, dogs, gray owl, barn owl, copperhead snake, and an adult mole was taken from the stomach of a bullfrog (Hallett,1978). There are no reports in the literature on any anti-predator adaptations in this species.

Known Predators:

  • red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)
  • Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana)
  • domestic cats (Felis silvestris)
  • domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)
  • great gray owls (Strix nebulosa)
  • barn owls (Tyto alba)
  • copperhead snakes (Agkistrodon contortrix)
  • bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Lindahl, M. 2003. "Parascalops breweri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Parascalops_breweri.html
author
Molly Lindahl, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
editor
Chris Yahnke, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Hairy-tailed mole

provided by wikipedia EN

The hairy-tailed mole (Parascalops breweri), also known as Brewer's mole, is a medium-sized North American mole. It is the only member of the genus Parascalops.[1] The species epithet breweri refers to Thomas Mayo Brewer, an American naturalist.

Appearance

This animal has dark grey fur with lighter underparts, a pointed nose and a short, hairy tail.[6] It is about 15 centimeters (5.9 in) in length, including a 3-centimeter-long (1.2 in) tail, and weighs about 55 grams (1.9 oz).[6] Its front paws are broad and spade-shaped, specialized for digging.[7] It has 44 teeth. Its eyes are covered by fur and its ears are not external.[7] Its feet and snout are pinkish, but become white in older animals.[6] Several adaptations to living primarily underground can be seen in the hairy-tailed mole. Its pelage is very dense and silky, and its feet are broad, flat, and heavy.[7] Moles rely very little on their eyesight and have very small optic nerves.[8] To accommodate its lack of vision, the hairy-tailed mole has sensitive whiskers and hairs on the tip of its nose and feet to feel its surroundings.[7]

Habitat

It is found in forested and open areas with dry loose soils in eastern Canada and the northeastern United States.[2] Since it is a fossorial mammal, it needs moist but well-drained soil so that it can dig easily.[6] The hairy-tailed mole prefers deciduous and coniferous woods, oldfields, and roadsides.[6][2]

Behavior

The hairy-tailed mole is cathemeral.[6] Since it lives primarily underground in shallow tunnels it can forage throughout the day and will also forage on the ground's surface at night.[6] The hairy-tailed mole is more active near the surface during warmer summer months and digs deeper underground in the cooler fall and winter months.[6]

This mole spends most of its time underground, foraging in shallow burrows for insects and their larvae and earthworms.[2] It emerges at night to feed. It is active year-round. Predators include owls, foxes and large snakes.[9]

This animal is mainly solitary except during mating in early spring.[9] The female has a litter of 4 to 5 young in a deep burrow.[6][2] This mole may live 3 to 4 years.[9]

Diet

Hairy-tailed moles are insectivores and have been shown to starve if vegetable matter is the only food source available.[9] The hairy-tailed mole's diet is mostly grubs, earthworms, beetle larvae, slugs, and ants, particularly when other food sources are not available.[2][9]

References

  1. ^ a b Hutterer, R. (2005). "Order Soricomorpha". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 301. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Cassola, F. (2017) [2016]. "Parascalops breweri (Hairy-tailed Mole)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T41469A115188181. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T41469A22322790.en.{{cite iucn}}: error: |doi= / |page= mismatch (help)|date= / |doi= mismatch
  3. ^ True, Frederick W. (1894). "Diagnoses of New North American Mammals". Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 17 (999): 242. doi:10.5479/si.00963801.999.241.
  4. ^ Bachman, J. (1843). "Observations on the Genus Scalops, (Shrew Moles,) with Descriptions of the Species found in North America". Boston Journal of Natural History. 4 (1): 32–34.
  5. ^ Hallett, James G. (1978). "Parascalops breweri". Mammalian Species (98): 1–4. doi:10.2307/3503954. JSTOR 3503954.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Reid, Fiona (2006). A field guide to mammals of North America (The Peterson field guide series) (4th ed.). New York, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 387–388. ISBN 978-0-395-93596-5.
  7. ^ a b c d "North American Mammals: Parascalops breweri : Image Information". naturalhistory.si.edu. Archived from the original on 2018-06-25. Retrieved 2016-12-08.
  8. ^ Leitch, Duncan B.; Sarko, Diana K.; Catania, Kenneth C. (2014-09-01). "Brain Mass and Cranial Nerve Size in Shrews and Moles". Scientific Reports. 4: 6241. Bibcode:2014NatSR...4E6241L. doi:10.1038/srep06241. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 4150104. PMID 25174995.
  9. ^ a b c d e "Parascalops breweri (hairy-tailed mole)". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2016-12-08.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Hairy-tailed mole: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The hairy-tailed mole (Parascalops breweri), also known as Brewer's mole, is a medium-sized North American mole. It is the only member of the genus Parascalops. The species epithet breweri refers to Thomas Mayo Brewer, an American naturalist.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN