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Biology

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There is currently a lack of detailed information about the life history of the Philippine brown deer. It is known that breeding most commonly occurs from September to January, with females giving birth to a single fawn marked with light coloured spots, which disappear after a few weeks. During the rut, females may form small groups of up to eight individuals, but the males remain solitary and are aggressive (7). Resting during the day, hidden in dense vegetation, the Philippine brown deer commences activity in the evenings which continues throughout the night until dawn. This species generally favours the edges of forests or forest clearings, browsing upon a variety of vegetation such as grasses, leaves, fallen fruit and berries (7). In the regions where it has been introduced, the Philippine brown deer has caused significant damage to indigenous ecosystems, preventing forest regeneration as well as eating large amounts of crops (6) (8) (9).
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Conservation

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In the areas where it has been introduced, the Philippine brown deer is afforded some protection, as it is illegal to hunt the deer on Saipan, and hunting regulations are in effect on Guam and Rota. Unfortunately, despite this regulation, illegal hunting continues unabated (8). In its native range, there are currently no specific measures in place to conserve the Philippine brown deer. In order to effectively protect this species, National Park regulations must be properly enforced and the protective area network expanded (1). Conservation International-Philippines is currently collaborating with the Field Museum in Chicago, the Haribon Foundation and local partners in the Philippines to identify and delineate Key Biodiversity Areas containing globally threatened or geographically restricted species. These areas will help to inform policy makers about where the most important areas requiring protection are situated (10).
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Description

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The Philippine brown deer is a diminutive, compactly-built deer with relatively short antlers that only reach 20 to 40 centimetres in length. In general, this species is entirely brown, with the exception of the underside of the tail, which is white. However, there are regional variations in colour, such as one population found on Mindanao where the deer's coat has been reported to be a pale, sandy grey (2). Certain populations of the Philippine brown deer also differ significantly in body size (3). Consequently, the Philippine brown deer has been split by some authorities into a number of regionally separated subspecies (4) (5).
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Habitat

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The Philippine brown deer occupies a variety of habitats, from wooded lowlands to forested mountain slopes, up to 2,900 metres above sea level (2).
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Range

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The Philippine brown deer occurs throughout most of the Philippines, with the exception of the islands of Negros, Panay, Palawan, Sulu, and the Babuyan and Batanes island groups (3). In addition to its native range, introduced populations of this species are found on the islands of Guam, Saipan and Rota in the Mariana Islands and Pohnpei in the Caroline Islands (2). The Philippine brown deer was also historically introduced to Japanese Bonin Islands, where it later became extinct (6).
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Status

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Classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List (1).
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Threats

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The main threat to the Philippine brown deer is hunting for its meat, compounded by the ongoing destruction of its habitat (2) (8). Despite portions of this species' range being located in protected areas within the Philippines, poor enforcement of regulations allows widespread illegal logging activity, mining, and conversion of land to agriculture (10). As a consequence of these threats, the Philippine brown deer's population is highly fragmented and declining throughout most of its range (1).
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Philippine deer

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The Philippine deer (Rusa marianna) (Filipino: Usa; Waray: Bugsok), also known as the Philippine sambar or Philippine brown deer, is a vulnerable deer species endemic to the Philippines.[1] It was first described from introduced populations in Guam and the Marianas Islands, hence the specific name.

Taxonomy

Cervus mariannus was the scientific name proposed by Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest in 1822. It was subordinated to the genus Rusa.[2] Four subspecies are currently recognized:[1]

  • R. m. marianna in Luzon biogeographic region
  • R. m. barandana in Mindoro
  • R. m. nigella in isolated upland areas of Mindanao
  • R. m. nigricans in lowland sites of Mindanao

Characteristics

The Philippine brown deer is relatively smaller than its relative, the sambar deer. Its head-and-body length and shoulder height measures 100 to 151 cm (39 to 59 in), and 55 to 70 cm (22 to 28 in), respectively. Its weight usually ranges from 40 to 60 kg. Generally, its color is brown with white tail underside. Antlers are common among males which measures 20 to 40 cm. Variations in morphology were observed especially in Mindanao populations, but is still unknown at present.

Distribution and habitat

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In Davao on the island of Mindanao

The Philippine deer is endemic to the Philippines, where it occurs in the islands of Luzon, Polillo and Catanduanes, Mindoro, Samar and Leyte. It is possibly extinct in Biliran, Bohol and Marinduque.[3][4][5] It has been also been declared extinct in Dinagat and Siargao Islands.[6][7] Across the country, its population is severely fragmented and reduced.

The Philippine brown deer generally thrives in a terrestrial environment from sea level up to at least 2,900 m (9,500 ft). It prefers to forage in grasslands under primary and secondary forests.[8][9][10][11] However, due to forest denudation and excessive hunting, they are driven uphill to hide in the remaining patches of forests.[1]

It was introduced to Guam by Mariano Tobias sometime around 1771 to 1772 to be used in recreational hunting. The deer subsequently populated other neighboring locales in Micronesia, including the islands of Rota, Saipan and Pohnpei. However, in the absence of a natural predator, its population is rapidly expanding in Guam, posing serious threats to the native ecosystem and agricultural lands due to overgrazing. Hence, management programs are imposed to significantly reduce the deer population.[12] In addition, there have been reports of introduction in Ogasawara Islands, Japan during the late 18th and 19th centuries, which immediately went extinct in 1925. A population from Guam was re-introduced after World War II, but followed the same fate years later.[13]

Behaviour and ecology

They are generally nocturnal which means that they look for food: grasses, leaves, fallen fruits and berries at night. During daytime, they rest in the dense forest thickets. Mating season is usually between September to January. During this time, females organize in small groups composed of at most eight (8) individuals, while males are solitary and are aggressive. After approximately six (6) months, females give birth to a single fawn with light-colored spots that eventually disappear after several weeks.

As a cultural keystone

The Bagobo-Tagabawa tribe in Barangay Sibulan, Toril, Davao City identified the Philippine brown deer as a "cultural keystone species" (CKS). This means that the deer plays a vital role in their culture. As a matter of fact, tribesmen claimed that their tribe would be incomplete if without the deer. To preserve their cultural pride by avoiding over-hunting, the tribe has declared hunting and non-hunting zones in the forest.[14]

Threats

There are several threats that contribute to the rapidly declining population of the Philippine brown deer. Habitat loss and fragmentation drive the deer to hide in the remaining patches of forest with scarce food to eat. While they forage in grasslands, the deer prefer forest shade as hiding places, especially during daytime. The deer also has low fertility, giving birth to a single fawn in each conception. This means that excessive hunting has a high tendency of declining their population. The deer is hunted for meat, usually sold at PhP150-250 per kilogram. Ethnoecological evidences also reveal that the antler of the deer aside from being a common household decoration, is also used to treat stomach ache, tooth ache, fever, etc. This is done by scratching the surface of the antler with a sharp object (e.g. knife), then adding the powder into a glass of water before drinking.[15]

Conservation

The deer was rare (R) in 1994, data deficient (DD) in 1996, and vulnerable (VU) since 2008 up to present. This is because of the rapid population decline estimated to be more than 30% in the last 24 years or three generations due to excessive hunting, shrinkage in distribution, and habitat loss and fragmentation.[1]

Fossil record

n prehistoric times, the Sunda island of Borneo might have been connected to Palawan during the penultimate and previous glacial events, judging from the molecular phylogeny of murids.[16] In Palawan, two articulated phalanx bones of a tiger were found amidst an assemblage of other animal bones and stone tools in Ille Cave near the village of New Ibajay. The other animal fossils were ascribed to deer, macaques, bearded pigs, small mammals, lizards, snakes and turtles. From the stone tools, besides the evidence for cuts on the bones, and the use of fire, it would appear that early humans had accumulated the bones.[17][18]

Using the work of Von den Driesch,[19] all chosen anatomical features of appendicular elements' anatomical features which were chosen, besides molars, were measured to distinguish between taxa that had close relationships, and see morphometric changes over ages, though not for pigs or deer. For the latter two, cranial and mandibular elements, besides teeth of deer from Ille Cave were compared with samples of the Philippine brown deer, Calamian hog deer, and Visayan spotted deer, and thus two taxa of deer have been identified from the fossils: Axis and Cervus.[20] Throughout deposits of the Terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene and Terminal Pleistocene at Ille Cave, elements of deer skeletons are regular, gradually becoming less before vanishing in the Terminal Holocene. One 'large' and one 'small' taxon can be easily differentiated by the significant change in size observed in the postcranial elements and dentition.[20] The Philippine brown deer from Luzon appears to be closely matched to the 'large' taxon of deer found in the Palawanese fossils, from dental biometric comparisons which are similar between the latter and extant members of the genus Cervus or Rusa, particularly the Philippine brown deer (C. mariannus) and spotted deer (C. alfredi). However, the Philippine brown deer shows significant variation across its range, with populations on Mindanao Island being smaller than those of Luzon. Thus, it is possible that the overlap between the Luzonese brown deer and the archaeological material is coincidental, and that the fossils could belonged to another species of Cervus that had occurred in Palawan, with the taxonomic classification being unresolved.[21] Otherwise, members of the genus Cervus are no longer seen in the region of Palawan.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e MacKinnon, J. R.; Ong, P.; Gonzales, J. (2015). "Rusa marianna". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T4274A22168586. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T4274A22168586.en.
  2. ^ Meijaard, I. and Groves, C. P. 2004. Morphometrical relationships between South-east Asian deer (Cervidae, tribe Cervini): evolutionary and biogeographic implications. Journal of Zoology 263: 179–196.
  3. ^ Oliver, W.L.R., Dolar, M L. and Alcala, E. 1992. The Philippine spotted deer, Cervus alfredi Sclater,conservation program. Silliman Journal 36: 47–54.
  4. ^ Rickart, E.A., Heaney, L.R., Heidman, P.D. and Utzurrum, R.C.B. 1993. The distribution and ecology of mammals on Leyte, Biliran, and Maripipi islands, Philippines. Fieldiana: Zoology 72: 1–62.
  5. ^ Oliver, W.L.R., Dolar, M L. and Alcala, E. 1992. The Philippine spotted deer, Cervus alfredi Sclater,conservation program. Silliman Journal 36: 47–54.
  6. ^ Heaney, L.R., Balete, D.S., Dollar, M.L., Alcala, A.C., Dans, A.T.L., Gonzales, P.C., Ingle, N.R., Lepiten, M.V., Oliver, W.L.R., Ong, P.S., Rickart, E.A., Tabaranza Jr., B.R. and Utzurrum, R.C.B. 1998. A synopsis of the mammalian fauna of the Philippine Islands. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 88: 1–61.
  7. ^ Heaney, L.R., Gonzales, P.C., Utzurrum, R.C.B. and Rickart, E.A. 1991. The mammals of Cataduanes Island: Implications for the biogeography of small land-bridge islands in the Philippines. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 104(2): 399–415.
  8. ^ Taylor, E.H. 1934. Philippine land mammals. Manila.
  9. ^ Sanborn, C.C. 1952. Philippine Zoological Expedition 1946-1947. Fieldiana: Zoology 33: 89–158.
  10. ^ Rabor, D. S. 1986. Guide to the Philippine flora and fauna. Natural Resources Management Centre. Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippines.
  11. ^ Heaney, L. R., Balete, D. S., Dollar, M. L., Alcala, A. C., Dans, A. T. L., Gonzales, P. C., Ingle, N. R., Lepiten, M. V., Oliver, W. L. R., Ong, P. S., Rickart, E. A., Tabaranza Jr., B. R. and Utzurrum, R. C. B. 1998. A synopsis of the mammalian fauna of the Philippine Islands. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 88: 1–61.
  12. ^ Wiles, G., Buden, D., & Worthington, D. (1999). History of introduction, population status, and management of Philippine deer (Cervus mariannus) on Micronesian Islands. Mammalia 63(2). doi:10.1515/mamm.1999.63.2.193
  13. ^ Miura, S. and Yoshihara, M. 2002. The fate of Philippine brown deer Cervus mariannus of the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Mammalia 66: 451–452.
  14. ^ Villegas, J.P. 2017. The Tree Horn: A Story of the Philippine Brown Deer (Rusa marianna)
  15. ^ Villamor, C.I. 1991. Deer captive breeding practices at a glance. Canopy International (Philippines):10–12.
  16. ^ Van der Geer, A.; Lyras, G.; De Vos, J.; Dermitzakis, M. (2011). "15 (The Philippines); 26 (Carnivores)". Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 220–347.
  17. ^ Piper, P. J.; Ochoa, J.; Lewis, H.; Paz, V.; Ronquillo, W. P. (2008). "The first evidence for the past presence of the tiger Panthera tigris (L.) on the island of Palawan, Philippines: extinction in an island population". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 264 (1–2): 123–127. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.04.003.
  18. ^ Ochoa, J.; Piper, P. J. (2017). "Tiger". In Monks, G. (ed.). Climate Change and Human Responses: A Zooarchaeological Perspective. Springer. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-9-4024-1106-5.
  19. ^ Von den Driesch, A. (1976). "A Guide to the Measurement of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites". Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University.
  20. ^ a b c Piper, Philip J.; Ochoa, Janine; Robles, Emil C.; Lewis, Helen; Paz, Victor (2011-03-15). "Palaeozoology of Palawan Island, Philippines". Quaternary International. Elsevier. 233 (2): 142–158. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2010.07.009.
  21. ^ Meijaard, E.; Groves, C. (2004). "Morphometrical relationships between South-east Asian deer (Cervidae, tribe Cervini): evolutionary and biogeographic implications". Journal of Zoology. London. 263 (263): 179–196. doi:10.1017/S0952836904005011.
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Philippine deer: Brief Summary

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The Philippine deer (Rusa marianna) (Filipino: Usa; Waray: Bugsok), also known as the Philippine sambar or Philippine brown deer, is a vulnerable deer species endemic to the Philippines. It was first described from introduced populations in Guam and the Marianas Islands, hence the specific name.

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