dcsimg

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

provided by AnAge articles
Maximum longevity: 3.9 years (captivity) Observations: Although anecdotal reports suggest a higher longevity, which seems unlikely but not impossible, the maximum longevity of this species is 3.9 years (Richard Weigl 2005). Their average longevity is 2-3 years with peak fecundity occurring at about 1 year of age (Ronald Nowak 1999).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Joao Pedro de Magalhaes
editor
de Magalhaes, J. P.
partner site
AnAge articles

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Females indicate their receptiveness to males primarly through olfactory cues in vaginal secretions. When the female is ready to mate, she will increase the frequency of vaginal marking, a behavior characterized by pressing the vaginal region against a surface and moving forward a few inches.

Mating System: polygynous

Ovulation in mature female golden hamsters is mainly determined by photoperiod. Ovulation is induced by long photoperiods (>12.5 hours) and will continue indefinitely as long as the photoperiod remains long. If the photoperiod is reduced, or if females are exposed to complete darkness in a lab setting, they will stop ovulating. However, after 5 months, the females will acclimate to this shorter photoperiod and begin ovulating spontaneously. In the wild, this photoperiodic cycle ensures that young are born during the season most favorable for their survival.

Golden hamsters have a gestation period of 16 days, the shortest gestation period among eutherian mammals. Average parturition time is 1.5 to 2.5 hours, during which 8 to 12 young are born. The young are altricial at birth, born with their eyes closed. They first open their eyes at 12 to 14 days of age. Weaning occurs at 19 to 21 days, and the young become sexually mature at about 1 month of age.

Breeding interval: Females can give birth every month or so during the breeding season.

Breeding season: Golden hamsters breed during seasons with long photoperiods.

Range number of offspring: 4 to 15.

Average number of offspring: 8-12.

Average gestation period: 16 days.

Average weaning age: 19-21 days.

Average time to independence: 1 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 20 (low) days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 26-30 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 42 days.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 2.45 g.

Average gestation period: 16 days.

Average number of offspring: 9.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male:
48 days.

Despite a short gestation period, golden hamsters exhibit prenatal investment sufficient for the offspring to exhibit genital development at birth that is comparable to animals with longer gestation periods. The mother alone cares for the young. In some situations, the mother may reduce the size of her litter through cannibalism. In the wild, this is likely a strategy employed in times of limited resources, but in captivity, cannibalism is often a response to some sort of anthropogenic disturbance.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Champagne, A. 2006. "Mesocricetus auratus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Mesocricetus_auratus.html
author
Alex Champagne, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Golden hamsters communicate mainly by scent marking, but they also employ a variety of auditory signals. They produce squeaking sounds in several situations, usually in association with sudden body movements. In addition, hamsters exhibit teeth chattering. Teeth chattering behavior is a sign of aggression. It has been recorded in 92% of male to male interactions observed, in 39% of female to female interactions, and in only 5% of male to female encounters. Young hamsters are able to produce ultrasonic squeaks that likely are important in maternal care of the young. Hamsters also rely on visual signals in communicating with conspecifics. In interactions between dominant and submissive individuals, the submissive individual will arch its back and lift its tail. The dominant individual will then mount the subordinate to assert dominance. In male to female interactions, the female will signal that she is ready to mate by taking a quick series of short steps, and assuming a posture in which the body is stretched out, the back legs are splayed, and the tail is up. This posture is referred to as the Lordosis posture. The female may remain in this position for up to 10 minutes. The male will follow the female and sniff and lick her genital region, likely to gather chemical signals. There has additionally been some speculation that the pelage of an individual hamster has a bearing on its social status. However, studies have had contradictory results.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; ultrasound ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Champagne, A. 2006. "Mesocricetus auratus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Mesocricetus_auratus.html
author
Alex Champagne, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Golden hamsters are listed as endangered by the IUCN because of their small geographic range and localized distribution. The greatest threat to wild populations is human encroachment on habitat. Hamsters continue to be trapped and poisoned as agricultural pests. Because of the wide use of golden hamsters as pets and research animals, the species is in no danger of becoming fully extinct, but wild populations are under threat.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Champagne, A. 2006. "Mesocricetus auratus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Mesocricetus_auratus.html
author
Alex Champagne, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Golden hamsters are considered agricultural pests in the wild. The government of Syria provides rodenticides to farmers in hopes of controlling hamsters.

Negative Impacts: crop pest

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Champagne, A. 2006. "Mesocricetus auratus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Mesocricetus_auratus.html
author
Alex Champagne, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Because of their short gestation period and ability to spontaneously ovulate, golden hamsters are an excellent model organism for use in research. Many studies have been conducted in which hamsters were the test subjects. Hamsters are also extremely popular as pets. Many domestic varieties have been developed for the pet trade.

Positive Impacts: pet trade ; research and education

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Champagne, A. 2006. "Mesocricetus auratus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Mesocricetus_auratus.html
author
Alex Champagne, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Like many small rodents, golden hamsters serve as a food source for many other animals. As a result of their diet of seeds and grains, they also disperse seeds, as seeds are often lost in the process of caching. Abandoned hamster burrows are often used by other animals, such as toads.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

Mutualist Species:

  • toads
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Champagne, A. 2006. "Mesocricetus auratus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Mesocricetus_auratus.html
author
Alex Champagne, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Golden hamsters are omnivorous, feeding on seeds, nuts, and insects, including ants (Formicidae), flies (Diptera), cockroaches (Blattaria), and wasps (Hymenoptera).

Animal Foods: insects

Plant Foods: seeds, grains, and nuts

Foraging Behavior: stores or caches food

Primary Diet: omnivore

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Champagne, A. 2006. "Mesocricetus auratus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Mesocricetus_auratus.html
author
Alex Champagne, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Golden hamsters are ubiquitous worldwide as pets and research animals. Wild populations are restricted to a small area of the Middle East. The majority of the species' range is encompassed by the Aleppinian plateau in Syria. Golden hamsters have also been reported in areas of Eastern Turkey.

Biogeographic Regions: palearctic (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Champagne, A. 2006. "Mesocricetus auratus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Mesocricetus_auratus.html
author
Alex Champagne, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Historically, golden hamsters probably inhabited open steppe habitat, which once characterized the Aleppinian plateau and adjacent areas. As their range has become increasingly populated however, golden hamsters have shown an affinity for agricultural areas. Hamster burrows are often found in legume plots or near irrigation wells. The climate of the region inhabited by golden hamsters is seasonal. Summers are hot (35-38 degrees C) at midday and cold (6-15 degrees C) at night. Winters are cold (~10 degrees C) and wet. Overall, precipitation is very low (~336 mm/year).

Average elevation: 280-300 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland

Other Habitat Features: agricultural

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Champagne, A. 2006. "Mesocricetus auratus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Mesocricetus_auratus.html
author
Alex Champagne, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Golden hamsters have relatively short life spans, 1.5 to 2 years on average. They can live nearly twice as long in captivity as in the wild.

Range lifespan
Status: captivity:
4 (high) years.

Typical lifespan
Status: wild:
1.5 to 2 years.

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
1.5-2 years.

Typical lifespan
Status: captivity:
2 to 2.5 years.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Champagne, A. 2006. "Mesocricetus auratus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Mesocricetus_auratus.html
author
Alex Champagne, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Golden hamsters are medium-sized hamsters, with adult mass ranging from 100 to 125 g. They are significantly smaller than common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) of eastern Europe and western Asia,and larger than Roborovski's desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii) of China and Mongolia. As with many hamsters, golden hamsters have a blunt rostrum, relatively small eyes, large ears, and a short (1.5 cm) tail. The fur is golden-brown above, fading to gray or white on the ventral surface. Some individuals may also possess a dark forehead patch and a black stripe on each side of the face running from the cheek to the neck.

Range mass: 100 to 125 g.

Range length: 13 to 13.5 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.69 W.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Champagne, A. 2006. "Mesocricetus auratus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Mesocricetus_auratus.html
author
Alex Champagne, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Golden hamsters serve as a food source for many different predators, including foxes, mustelids, birds of prey, and snakes. Golden hamsters avoid predation by seeking shelter in their burrows and through vigilance. Their rapid reproductive rate means that golden hamster populations can withstand relatively high rates of predation.

Known Predators:

  • Barn Owl (Tyto alba)
  • other birds of prey (Falconiformes)
  • foxes (Vulpes)
  • mustelids (Mustelidae)
  • snakes (Serpentes)

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Champagne, A. 2006. "Mesocricetus auratus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Mesocricetus_auratus.html
author
Alex Champagne, Michigan State University
editor
Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Golden hamster

provided by wikipedia EN

The golden or Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent belonging to the hamster subfamily, Cricetinae.[2] Their natural geographical range is limited to arid areas of northern Syria and southern Turkey. Their numbers have been declining in the wild due to a loss of habitat from agriculture and deliberate elimination by humans.[1] Thus, wild golden hamsters are now considered vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.[3]

However, captive breeding programs are well-established, and captive-bred golden hamsters are often kept as small house pets. Syrian hamsters are larger than many of the dwarf hamsters kept as pocket pets (up to 5x larger), and weigh about the same as a sugar glider, though the wild European hamster exceeds Syrian hamsters in size. They are also used as scientific research animals throughout the world.

Characteristics

 src=
Skull of a Golden hamster

The size of adult animals ranges from 7 to 9 in (18 to 23 cm) long, with a lifespan of three years.[4] Body mass is in the range of 120-125 g.[5]

 src=
Filling the cheek pouches with food

Like most members of the subfamily, the golden hamster has expandable cheek pouches, which extend from its cheeks to its shoulders. In the wild, hamsters are larder hoarders; they use their cheek pouches to transport food to their burrows. Their name in the local Arabic dialect where they were found roughly translates to "mister saddlebags" (Arabic: أبو جراب) due to the amount of storage space in their cheek pouches.[6] If food is plentiful, the hamster stores it in large amounts

Sexually mature female hamsters come into season (estrus) every four days. Golden hamsters and other species in the genus Mesocricetus have the shortest gestation period in any known placental mammal at around 16 days. Gestation has been known to last up to 21 days, but this is rare and almost always includes complications. They can produce large litters of 20 or more young, although the average litter size is between eight and 10 pups. If a mother hamster is inexperienced or feels threatened, she may abandon or eat her pups. A female hamster enters estrus almost immediately after giving birth, and can become pregnant despite already having a litter. This act puts stress on the mother's body and often results in very weak and undernourished young.

Discovery

Golden hamsters originate from Syria and were first described and officially named in 1839 by British zoologist George Robert Waterhouse. Waterhouse's original specimen was a female hamster; he named it Cricetus auratus or the "golden hamster". The skin of the specimen is kept at the Natural History Museum in London.[7]

 src=
An orange-colored golden hamster

In 1930, Israel Aharoni, a zoologist and professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, captured a mother hamster and her litter of pups in Aleppo, Syria. The hamsters were bred in Jerusalem as laboratory animals. Some escaped from the cage through a hole in the floor, and most of the wild golden hamsters in Israel today are believed to be descended from this litter.[7]

Descendants of the captive hamsters were shipped to Britain in 1931, where they came under the care of the Wellcome Bureau of Scientific Research. They bred well and two more pairs were given to the Zoological Society of London in 1932. The descendants of these were passed on to private breeders in 1937. A separate stock of hamsters was exported from Syria to the United States in 1971, but apparently none of today's North American pets is descended from these (at least in the female line), because recent mitochondrial DNA studies have established that all domestic golden hamsters are descended from one female – probably the one captured in 1930 in Syria.[7] (this citation does not provide this information.)

Since the species was named, the genus Cricetus has been subdivided and this species (together with several others) was separated into the genus Mesocricetus, leading to the currently accepted scientific name for the golden hamster of Mesocricetus auratus.[8]

Behavior

 src=
A long-haired male golden hamster

Hamsters are very territorial and intolerant of each other; attacks against each other are ubiquitous. Exceptions do occur, usually when a female and male meet when the female is in heat, but even so, the female may attack the male after mating. Even siblings, once mature, may attack one another. In captivity, babies are separated from their mother and by sex after four weeks, as they sexually mature at four to five weeks old. Same-sex groups of siblings can stay with each other until they are about eight weeks old, at which point they will become territorial and fight with one another, sometimes to the death. Infanticide is not uncommon among female golden hamsters. In captivity, they may kill and eat healthy young as a result of the pups interacting with humans, for any foreign scent is treated as a threat. Females also eat their dead young in the wild.[9]

Golden hamsters mark their burrows with secretions from special scent glands on their hips. Male hamsters in particular lick their bodies near the glands, creating damp spots on the fur, then drag their sides along objects to mark their territory. Females also use bodily secretions and faeces.

Survival in the wild

Following Professor Aharoni's collection in 1930, only infrequent sightings and captures were reported in the wild. Finally, to confirm the current existence of the wild golden hamster in northern Syria and southern Turkey, two expeditions were carried out during September 1997 and March 1999. The researchers found and mapped 30 burrows. None of the inhabited burrows contained more than one adult. The team caught six females and seven males. One female was pregnant and gave birth to six pups. All these 19 caught golden hamsters, together with three wild individuals from the University of Aleppo, were shipped to Germany to form a new breeding stock.[10]

Observations of females in this wild population have revealed, contrary to laboratory populations, activity patterns are crepuscular rather than nocturnal, possibly to avoid nocturnal predators such as owls.[11] Owls, however, have also evolved to hunt at dusk and dawn, and even during the day on rare occasions, so the predator avoidance advantage may not apply to owls in particular. Another theory is that hamsters, which are extremely sensitive to temperature fluctuations, may be crepuscular to avoid the extreme temperatures of full daylight and night time temperatures.[12]

Golden hamsters in captivity run two to five miles per 24-hour period and can store up to one ton of food in a lifetime. They keep their food carefully separated from their urination and nesting areas. Very old hamsters with weak teeth break this "rule" by soaking hard seeds and nuts with urine to soften it for eating. Hamsters are extraordinary housekeepers and often sort through their hoards to clean and get rid of molding or rotting food. They gather food in the wild by foraging and carrying it home in their cheek pouches, which they empty by pushing it out through their open mouths, from back to front, with their paws, until it is empty. If a lot of food is available to carry, they may stuff the pouches so full that they cannot even close their mouths. Although these observations refer to studies using captive hamsters, they shine some light on the hamsters' natural behaviors in the wild.[12]

As research animals

Golden hamsters are used to model the human medical conditions including various cancers, metabolic diseases, non-cancer respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, infectious diseases, and general health concerns.[13] In 2006-07, golden hamsters accounted for 19% of the total animal research participants in the United States.[14]

Animation showing the gait of a lab-bred hamster from the underside

As pets

 src=
A golden hamster listening from its plastic exercise wheel

Golden hamsters are popular as house pets due to their docile, inquisitive nature, cuteness, and small size. However, these animals have some special requirements that must be met for them to be healthy. Although some people think of them as a pet for young children, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals recommends hamsters as pets only for people over age 6 and the child should be supervised by an adult.[15] Cages should be a suitable size, safe, comfortable, and interesting. If a hamster is consistently chewing, then it needs more stimulation or a larger cage. The minimum recommended size for a hamster cage is 450 square inches or 2903.22 square centimeters, of continuous floor space (although the source of this recommendation is unknown). These can be made from a plastic storage bin or a large glass tank. The majority of hamster cages sold in pet stores do not meet these size requirements. HSS (Hamster Society Singapore) recommend a minimum of 4000 cm2 (620 in2) for Syrian Hamsters.[16] While TVT (Tierärztliche Vereinigung für Tierschutz) recommend you give Syrian Hamsters as much space as you can and at minimum 100 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm (L x W x H) which is 5000 cm2 (775 in2).[17]

A hamster wheel is a common type of environmental enrichment, and it is important that hamsters have a wheel in their cage. TVT (Tierärztliche Vereinigung für Tierschutz) recommend wheels should be at least 30 cm for Syrian Hamsters, since smaller diameters lead to permanent spinal curvatures, especially in young animals. They also recommend a solid running surface because rungs or mesh can cause injury.[18] A hamster should be able to run on its wheel without arching its back. A hamster that has to run with an arched back can have back pain and spine problems. A variety of toys, either shop-bought or home-made can help to keep them entertained. Cardboard tubes and boxes are stimulating. Golden hamsters are energetic and need space to exercise.[19]

Most hamsters in American and British pet stores are golden hamsters. Originally, golden hamsters occurred in just one color – the mixture of brown, black, and gold, but they have since developed a variety of color and pattern mutations, including cream, white, blonde, cinnamon, tortoiseshell, black, three different shades of gray, dominant spot, banded, and dilute.

Breeding

The practice of selective breeding of golden hamsters requires an understanding of their care, knowledge about breed variations, a plan for selective breeding, scheduling of the female body cycle, and the ability to manage a colony of hamsters.

 src=
A hamster mother emerging from a tube to see her two young, which are less than a week old

Breed variations

Often long-haired hamsters are referred to by their nickname "teddy bear". They are identical to short-haired Syrians except for the hair length and can be found in any color, pattern, or other coat type available in the species. Male long-haired hamsters usually have longer fur than the female, culminating in a "skirt" of longer fur around their backsides. Long-haired females have a much shorter coat although it is still significantly longer than that of a short-haired female.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Yigit, N. & Kryštufek, B. (2008). "Mesocricetus auratus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T13219A3421173. Retrieved 3 December 2017.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M.D. (2005). "Superfamily Muroidea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 1044. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  3. ^ "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species - Golden Hamster". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  4. ^ Hamsters For Dummies. Hoboken: Wiley Publishing. 2007. p. 8.
  5. ^ Champagne, A. (19 May 2006). "Mesocricetus auratus: golden hamster". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  6. ^ Dunn, Rob (24 March 2011). "The Untold Story of the Hamster, a.k.a Mr. Saddlebags". Smithsonianmag.com.
  7. ^ a b c Henwood, Chris (2001). "The Discovery of the Syrian Hamster, Mesocricetus auratus". The Journal of the British Hamster Association (39).
  8. ^ Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). "Mesocrictus". Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  9. ^ Siegel, Harold I.; Rosenblatt, Jay S. (1980). "Hormonal and behavioral aspects of maternal care in the hamster: A review". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 4 (1): 17–26. doi:10.1016/0149-7634(80)90023-8. ISSN 0149-7634.
  10. ^ Gattermann, R.; Fritzsche, P.; Neumann, K.; Al-Hussein, I.; Kayser, A.; Abiad, M.; Yakti, R. (2001). "Notes on the current distribution and the ecology of wild golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)". Journal of Zoology. Cambridge University Press. 254 (3): 359–365. doi:10.1017/S0952836901000851.
  11. ^ Gattermann, R.; Johnston, R. E.; Yigit, N; Fritzsche, P; Larimer, S; Ozkurt, S; Neumann, K; Song, Z; et al. (2008). "Syrian hamsters are nocturnal in captivity but diurnal in nature". Biology Letters. 4 (3): 253–255. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2008.0066. PMC 2610053. PMID 18397863.
  12. ^ a b Stacey OBrien; field notes
  13. ^ Valentine 2012, p. 875-898. sfn error: no target: CITEREFValentine2012 (help)
  14. ^ United States Department of Agriculture (September 2008), Animal Care Annual Report of Activities - Fiscal Year 2007 (PDF), United States Department of Agriculture, retrieved 14 January 2016
  15. ^ "Hamster Care" (PDF). American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 2010.
  16. ^ Hamster Society Singapore
  17. ^ Tierärztliche Vereinigung für Tierschutz e.V., Merkblatt Nr. 156 - Heimtiere: Goldhamster (Stand: 2014), pets: golden hamster, Housing
  18. ^ Tierärztliche Vereinigung für Tierschutz e.V., Merkblatt Nr. 62 - Heimtierhaltung, Tierschutzwidriges Zubehör (Stand: Jan. 2010), II. Anti-animal welfare accessories for small mammals, 7. Wheels
  19. ^ Alderton, David (2002). Hamster. Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-712282-0.

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Golden hamster: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The golden or Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent belonging to the hamster subfamily, Cricetinae. Their natural geographical range is limited to arid areas of northern Syria and southern Turkey. Their numbers have been declining in the wild due to a loss of habitat from agriculture and deliberate elimination by humans. Thus, wild golden hamsters are now considered vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

However, captive breeding programs are well-established, and captive-bred golden hamsters are often kept as small house pets. Syrian hamsters are larger than many of the dwarf hamsters kept as pocket pets (up to 5x larger), and weigh about the same as a sugar glider, though the wild European hamster exceeds Syrian hamsters in size. They are also used as scientific research animals throughout the world.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN