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General: Ephedra Family (Ephedraceae). Gray ephedra is a dioecious, xerophytic shrub with jointed or fluted stems and scale-like leaves. Leaf scales are in twos, 2-6mm long, sheathing to about the middle, and obtuse to acute at the apex. The inflorescence is conelike and the staminate flowers have united filaments. The ovulate spikes are distinctly stalked and the seeds are usually paired.