dcsimg

Distribution in Egypt

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Nile region (Fariskur, Embaba).

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Global Distribution

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Pantropical.

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Comments

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The ‘water cabbage’ is found floating in tanks, ponds etc. in most parts of India, and is to be expected in the Punjab. Reported from Razmak, S. Waziristan at 2100 m by Fernandez (R.R. Stewart, Cat. Vase. Pl. W. Pak. 35. 1972). The species has the appearance of halfgrown lettuce plants. The leaves are demulcent and the roots are used as a laxative.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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Comments

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Pistia stratiotes has been collected north and west of its U.S. range in Arizona, California, Georgia, Missouri, New Jersey, Ohio, and South Carolina. These are probably populations that do not persist. Although P. stratiotes is often reported as occurring from Florida to Texas, I saw no verifying herbarium specimens from Alabama or Mississippi, nor were any populations located during my fieldwork in those states.
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Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Description

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Leaves up to 10 cm long, in rosettes. Spathe c. 13 mm long, white, hairy without and contracted above the middle, the limb ± orbicular. Fruit membraneous.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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Description

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Roots to 50 cm, with short branches. Leaves light green to grayish green, 2--15(--20) cm, spongy, pubescence dense, white; major veins 5--13(--15), nearly parallel, abaxially prominent. Inflorescences: spathe white to pale green, convolute basally, slightly constricted above middle, spreading apically, pwhite to pale green, pubescent outside, glabrous inside; spadix adnate to spathe more than 1/2 its length, shorter than spathe; axis naked at base of staminate part and sometimes extending beyond staminate flowers. Flowers: staminate flowers (2--)6--8, in single whorl around central stalk, stamens 2, connate; pistillate flower solitary; ovariesy 1-locular, 4--5 mm; ovules 4--15(--20), orthotropous; styles ca. 3 mm; stigmas obtuse, with small hairs. ; staminate flowers (2--)6--8, in single whorl around central stalk; stamens 2, connate. Fruits with thin pericarp. Seeds light brown, cylindric, 2 ´ 1 mm. 2n = 28 (India, Borneo).
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Distribution

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Pantropic.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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Distribution

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Distribution: Pantropical. India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Fla., La., Tex.; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America; Asia; Africa; Pacific Islands; Australia.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Elevation Range

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200-600 m
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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Flower/Fruit

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Fl. Per.: During the hot season.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering mainly late summer--early winter (although; plants have been collected in flower in almost all months).
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Habitat

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Slow-moving streams, canals, drainage ditches, ponds, lakes, and springs; 0--10m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Synonym

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Pistia spathulata Michaux
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Free-floating aquatic herb. Leaves in a rosette, densely velvety; base cuneate; apex truncate to emarginate; primary veins prominent, parallel. Inflorescences small, hidden among the leaves. Flowers unisexual; perianth segments absent. Fruit a small dehiscent berry.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Pistia stratiotes L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=112070
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Worldwide distribution

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Widespread throughout the tropics.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Pistia stratiotes L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=112070
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Pistia

provided by wikipedia EN

Pistia is a genus of aquatic plant in the arum family, Araceae. It is the sole genus in the tribe Pistieae which reflects its systematic isolation within the family.[4] The single species it comprises, Pistia stratiotes, is often called water cabbage, water lettuce, Nile cabbage, or shellflower. Its native distribution is uncertain, but probably pantropical; it was first discovered from the Nile near Lake Victoria in Africa. It is now present, either naturally or through human introduction, in nearly all tropical and subtropical fresh waterways and considered an invasive species as well as a mosquito breeding habitat. The genus name is derived from the Greek word πιστός (pistos), meaning "water," and refers to the aquatic nature of the plants.[5]

Description

 src=
19th century illustration of Pistia stratiotes
 src=
Water lettuce in a home aquarium
 src=
Water lettuce spread over a Field in Kerala

Pistia is a perennial monocotyledon with thick, soft leaves that form a rosette. It floats on the surface of the water, its roots hanging submersed beneath floating leaves. The leaves can be up to 14 cm long and have no stem. They are light green, with parallel veins, wavy margins and are covered in short hairs which form basket-like structures which trap air bubbles, increasing the plant's buoyancy. The flowers are dioecious, and are hidden in the middle of the plant amongst the leaves. Small green berries form after successful fertilization. The plant can also undergo asexual reproduction. Mother and daughter plants are connected by a short stolon, forming dense mats.

Ecology

Water lettuce is among the world's most productive freshwater aquatic plants and is considered an invasive species.[6] In waters with high nutrient content, particularly those that have been contaminated with human loading of sewage or fertilizers, water lettuce can often exhibit weedy overgrowth behavior. It may also become weedy in hydrologically altered systems such as canals and reservoirs.[7]

It is a common aquatic plant in the southeastern United States, particularly in Florida. It was first reported in Florida by the explorers John and William Bartram during the period 1765-1774, and a fossil specimen and fossil pollen that have been found in Florida date from the late Pleistocene (~12,000 BP) and early Holocene (~3,500 BP), indicating that Pistia is native to southeastern North America.[8][9]

Severe overgrowth of water lettuce can block gas exchange at the air-water interface, reducing the oxygen in the water and killing fish. Large mats can also block light, shade native submerged plants, and alter immersed plant communities by crushing them.[10]

Mosquitoes of the genus Mansonia complete their life cycle only in the presence of aquatic plants such as Pistia, laying their eggs under the leaves. The emerging larvae fall into the water within 24 hours and stay attached to the Pistia root (which is rich with air sacs) with the help of a serrated siphon tube for respiration and develop into pupa. The pupa is also attached to the pistia root with the serrated piercing siphon tube. The egg to adult mosquito development is completed within 7 days.[11]

The moth Samea multiplicalis also uses Pistia as its primary host plant. Eggs are laid among leaves and stems of the host plant and larvae hatch and feed intensively as they develop.[12]

Control

Pistia can be controlled with mechanical harvesters that remove the water lettuce from the water and transport it to disposal on shore. Aquatic herbicides may also be used. Two species of insects are also being used as a biological control. Adults and larvae of the South American weevil Neohydronomous affinis feed on Pistia leaves, as do the larvae of the moth Spodoptera pectinicornis from Thailand. Both are proving to be useful tools in the management of Pistia.

In the Amazon basin, Pistia is a food source of freshwater turtles.[13]

Native range

The center of origin of Pistia stratiotes is uncertain. It has been found in the fossil record throughout much of the world. Although it is depicted in Egyptian hieroglyphics and the ancient Greek botanists Dioscorides and Theophrastus described it from the Nile River, suggesting an African origin, it hosts many co-evolved specialist insect herbivores in Brazil and Argentina, suggesting the possibility of a South American origin.[14] The claim that Pistia is not native to Florida and the southeastern United States is controversial.[8]

Fossil record

Pistia-like plants appear in the fossil record during the Late Cretaceous epoch in rock strata from the western interior of North America. They were first described as †Pistia corrugata by Leo Lesquereux in 1876 based on specimens from the Almond Formation of Wyoming (late Campanian age). However, based on more complete specimens from the Campanian Dinosaur Park Formation of southern Alberta, Canada, and other areas, they were redescribed as a separate genus, †Cobbania, primarily due to differences in leaf morphology.[15][16] Younger fossils attributed to Pistia have described from Eocene strata in the southeastern United States,[8] and 350 fossil seeds of †Pistia sibirica have been described from middle Miocene strata of the Fasterholt area near Silkeborg in Central Jutland, Denmark. Fossils of this species have also been described from the Oligocene and Miocene of Western Siberia and from the Miocene of Germany.[17]

A specimen of Pistia from the Florida peninsula dating from at least 3,550 years Before Present, as well as a report of early Holocene Pistia pollen from a lake in Florida, have cast doubt on the claim that Pistia is not native to the southeastern United States.[8][9]

Uses

Water lettuce is often used in tropical aquariums to provide cover for fry and small fish. It is also helpful as it outcompetes algae for nutrients in the water, thereby preventing massive algal blooms.

Consumption

In some parts of the world pistia is considered edible for humans, at least in famine, or as animal feed. Caution is advised, as the plant can accumulate toxic materials, especially heavy metals, being an hyperaccumulator. Its high level of calcium oxalate is also a cause for concern.[18]

Pistia also has medicinal use in Asian folk medicine.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Pistia stratiotes". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  2. ^ "Genus: Pistia L". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-02-23. Archived from the original on 2012-09-15. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  3. ^ "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". wcsp.science.kew.org.
  4. ^ Buzgo, Matyas (1994). "Inflorescence development of Pistia stratiotes (Araceae)". Botanische Jahrbücher fur Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie. 115: 557. doi:10.1186/1999-3110-55-30.
  5. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. Volume III: M-Q. CRC Press. p. 2084. ISBN 978-0-8493-2677-6. |volume= has extra text (help)
  6. ^ Muniappan, Rangaswamy; Reddy, Gadi; Raman, Anantanarayanan (2009). Biological Control of Tropical Weeds Using Arthropods. Cambridge University Press. pp. 332–352. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511576348.017. ISBN 9780511576348.
  7. ^ Kasulo, V. 2000. The impact of invasive species in African lakes. In: The economics of biological invasions (eds. C. Perrings, M. Williamson and S. Dalmozzone). Pp. 183-207. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
  8. ^ a b c d Evans, Jason M. (July 1, 2013). "Pistia stratiotes L. in the Florida Peninsula: Biogeographic Evidence and Conservation Implications of Native Tenure for an 'Invasive' Aquatic Plant". Conservation and Society. 11 (3): 233. doi:10.4103/0972-4923.121026 – via www.conservationandsociety.org.
  9. ^ a b Berry, E.W. 1917 (1917). "The fossil plants from Vero, Florida". The Journal of Geology. 25 (7): 661–666. Bibcode:1917JG.....25..661B. doi:10.1086/622533. JSTOR 30062509. S2CID 128893139.
  10. ^ Ramey, Victor (2001). "Water Lettuce (Pistia stratiotes)". Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  11. ^ Park, K (2007). Parks Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine (19th ed.). Jabalpur India.
  12. ^ Wheeler, G.S; Halpern, M.D (1999). "Compensatory responses of Samea multiplicalis larvae when fed leaves of different fertilization levels of the aquatic weed Pistia stratiotes". Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 92 (2): 205–216. doi:10.1046/j.1570-7458.1999.00539.x. S2CID 84780873.
  13. ^ Salo, Matti; Sirén, Anders; Kalliola, Risto (20 November 2013). Diagnosing Wild Species Harvest: Resource Use and Conservation. Academic Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-12-397755-7. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  14. ^ Laboratory, NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research. "NOAA National Center for Research on Aquatic Invasive Species (NCRAIS)". nas.er.usgs.gov.
  15. ^ Stockey, R.A., Rothwell, G.R. and Johnson, K.R. 2007. Cobbania corrugata gen. et comb. nov. (Araceae): A floating aquatic monocot from the Upper Cretaceous of western North America. American Journal of Botany, vol. 94, no. 4, p. 609-624.
  16. ^ Stockey, R.A., Rothwell, G.R. and Johnson, K.R. 2016. Evaluating relationships among floating aquatic monocots: A new species of Cobbania (Araceae) from the Upper Maastrichtian of South Dakota. International Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 177, no. 8, p. 706-725.
  17. ^ Angiosperm Fruits and Seeds from the Middle Miocene of Jutland (Denmark) by Else Marie Friis, The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters 24:3, 1985
  18. ^ http://www.eattheweeds.com/water-lettuce/

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Pistia: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Pistia is a genus of aquatic plant in the arum family, Araceae. It is the sole genus in the tribe Pistieae which reflects its systematic isolation within the family. The single species it comprises, Pistia stratiotes, is often called water cabbage, water lettuce, Nile cabbage, or shellflower. Its native distribution is uncertain, but probably pantropical; it was first discovered from the Nile near Lake Victoria in Africa. It is now present, either naturally or through human introduction, in nearly all tropical and subtropical fresh waterways and considered an invasive species as well as a mosquito breeding habitat. The genus name is derived from the Greek word πιστός (pistos), meaning "water," and refers to the aquatic nature of the plants.

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