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Slash Pine

Pinus elliottii Engelm.

Description

provided by eFloras
Trees to 30m; trunk to 0.8m diam., straight to contorted; crown conic, becoming rounded or flattened. Bark orange- to purple-brown, irregularly furrowed and cross-checked into large, irregularly rectangular, papery-scaly plates. Branches spreading to ascending; twigs stout (to ca. 1cm thick), orange-brown, aging darker brown, rough-scaly. Buds cylindric, silvery brown, 1.5--2cm; scale margins fringed. Leaves 2 or 3 per fascicle, spreading or ascending, persisting ca. 2 years, 15--20(--23)cm ´ 1.2--1.5mm, straight, slightly twisted, pliant, yellow- to blue-green, all surfaces with stomatal lines, margins finely serrulate, apex abruptly acute to acuminate; sheath 1--2cm, base persistent. Pollen cones cylindric, 30--40mm, purplish. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, falling the year after seed-shed, single or in pairs, symmetric, lance-ovoid before opening, ovoid or ovoid-cylindric when open, (7--)9--18(--20)cm, light chocolate brown, on stalks to 3cm; apophyses lustrous (as if varnished), slightly raised, strongly cross-keeled; umbo central, depressed-pyramidal, with short, stout prickle. Seeds ellipsoid, oblique-tipped; body 6--7mm, dark brown; wing to 20mm.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Description

provided by eFloras
Trees to 30 m tall; trunk to 0.8 m d.b.h. in native range; bark orange- or purple-brown, furrowed into irregularly oblong, large, papery, scaly plates; crown conical, becoming rounded or flat topped; branchlets orange-brown, aging darker brown, stout, roughly scaly, producing 3 or 4 nodes each year; winter buds silvery brown, cylindric, scales fringed at margin. Needles 2 or 3 per bundle, slightly twisted, yellow- or blue-green, 15-20 (-24) cm × 0.2-1.5 mm, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, base with persistent sheath 1-2 cm, margin finely serrulate. Seed cones solitary or paired, pedunculate (peduncle to 3 cm), pale brown, ovoid or ovoid-cylindric when open, (7-)9-18(-20) cm, maturing in 2 years, then falling the year after seeds shed. Apophyses lustrous, slightly raised, strongly cross keeled; umbo depressed-pyramidal, with a short, stout prickle. Seeds dark brown, ellipsoid, 6-7 mm, apex oblique; wing to 2 cm.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 20 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Habitat & Distribution

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Cultivated. Anhui (Jing Xian), Fujian (Minhou Xian), Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei (Wuhan Shi), Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi (Ji’an Xian), Taiwan, Yunnan (Kunming Shi), Zhejiang [native to SE United States]
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 20 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Synonym

provided by eFloras
Pinus heterophylla (Elliott) Sudworth, 1893, not K. Koch, 1849; P. taeda Linnaeus var. heterophylla Elliott
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: backfire, headfire, root collar, wildfire

Seedlings of the South Florida variety are more fire resistant than the
typical slash pine variety but less resistant than longleaf pine
seedlings [46]. In Florida, 2-year-old seedlings of both varieties
averaging 3 feet (0.9 m) in height were burned by wildfire in December.
Twenty-three percent of the South Florida variety burned by headfire and
56 percent burned by backfire survived. Less than one percent of the
typical variety survived either headfires or backfires. One-third of
the Florida slash pine survivors sprouted from dormant buds at or
near the root collar and along the bole. Root collar sprouts died back
after new needle growth appeared below the fire-killed leader [19].

A cool, prescribed winter fire in a Florida slash pine stand
killed many older pines, but young pines survived. Although there was
no outward sign of fire damage, fire may have killed the feeder roots,
and only young, vigorous pines were able to recover [43].
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: swamp

slash pine
yellow slash pine
swamp pine

Florida slash pine
South Florida slash pine
Dade County slash pine
Dade County pine
Cuban pine
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Description

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Slash pine is a native evergreen conifer with thick platy bark and
relatively long needles. It grows rapidly and lives approximately 200
years. Slash pine has an extensive lateral root system and a moderate
taproot [24]. The typical slash pine variety has a straight bole and a
narrow ovoid crown. Mature trees of this variety vary in height from 60
to 100 feet (18-30.5 m) and average 24 inches (61 cm) in d.b.h. [13].

The two varieties differ considerably in morphology. South Florida
slash pine has longer needles, smaller cones, denser wood, and a thicker
and longer taproot [24]. The trunk forks into large spreading branches
which form a broad, rounded crown [13,46]. Mature trees attain only 56
feet (17 m) in height. The relatively short stature of South Florida
slash pine probably evolved to avoid tropical storm damage [21].
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The native range of the typical slash pine variety includes the Coastal
Plain from southern South Carolina to central Florida and west to
eastern Louisiana. Slash pine has been planted as far north as Kentucky
and Virginia [37], and as far west as eastern Texas, where it now
reproduces naturally [24]. South Florida slash pine occurs in central
and southern Florida and in the lower Florida Keys [2,24].







Overall disritbution of slash pine (above), and distributions of typical variety of slash pine (lower left) slash pine and Florida slash pine (lower right). Maps courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database.
National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC [2018, June 12] [37].

license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Ecology

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: competition, fire frequency, fire interval, fire regime, frequency, fuel, hardwood, natural, root collar

Young slash pine is susceptible to fire, but mature trees are fire
resistant [4]. Thick bark and high, open crowns allow individuals to
survive fire. Slash pine, however, is less fire resistant than longleaf
or sand pine [27]. Seedlings grow fast, and in 10 to 12 years slash
pine is resistant to fire that does not crown [46].

Estimates of the natural fire frequency of slash pine flatwoods range
from 3 to 15 fires per century [8,21]. A fire interval of at least 5 to
6 years allows young trees to develop some fire resistance. Fires are
ignited by lightning in late spring and summer [10,41]. Ample soil
moisture and seasonally wet depressions and drainages of slash pine
habitat impede fire entry. Occasional fire serves to reduce hardwood
competition and expose mineral soil which enhances germination [21,24].

The bark structure of slash pine is important to its fire resistance.
Outer bark layers overlap and protect grooves where the bark is thinner
[6]. The platy bark flakes off to dissipate heat [21].

The South Florida variety is more fire resistant than the typical
variety because seedlings and saplings have thicker bark [1,2,24,42].
The estimated natural fire frequency of Florida slash pine
communities is 25 fires per century [21]. Crown fires are rare because
frequent fires reduce fuel build-up, trees self-prune well, and stands
are open [1]. In addition to adaptations of the typical slash pine
variety, the South Florida variety is fire resistant in the seedling
grass stage. A dense tuft of needles protects the terminal bud. If
top-killed by fire, the grass-stage seedling may sprout from the root
collar [45]. See the longleaf pine review for further information on
grass-stage seedlings.

FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find FIRE REGIMES".
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Management Considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fuel, litter, seed

If a poor seed crop is expected, prescribed burning should be done prior
to seedfall to enhance germination. Prescribed burning before stand
establishment also reduces fire hazard in young stands. Prescribed
burning at 3 to 5 year intervals throughout the stand rotation will
facilitate future seedbed preparation, and control but not eradicate
hardwoods. Hardwoods benefit wildlife and complete eradication is not
necessary. At the end of the rotation, successive summer fires can be
used for site preparation [22]. In the southern Florida pine rocklands,
fire every 3 to 7 years has effectively controlled hardwoods [42].

Young slash pine stands should not be burned for the first 5 years or
until the stand is 12 to 15 feet (3.7-4.6 m) tall [22,26,46]. Cattle
can be used to reduce fuel buildup until young pine stands are resistant
to light fire [12,46].

Prescribed winter and spring burning is usually done in pine flatwoods
every 2 to 3 years to increase range grasses for cattle [41].

In the Coastal Plain, prescribed burning before and after thinning
reduced infection by root rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum. The
fire destroyed the litter that is associated with sporophore development
of the fungus. A fungal competitor, Trichloderma spp., increased in the
soil after burning and may have contributed to the reduced infection
[9].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat characteristics

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fire suppression, mesic, tree

Slash pine grows in a warm, humid climate and up to about 500 feet (150
m) in elevation. Slash pine grows best on mesic flatwood sites and on
pond or stream margins where soil moisture is ample but not excessive,
and drainage is poor [24]. Established stands grow well on flooded
sites, but flooding restricts seedling establishment [14]. Soils
include Spodosols, Ultisols, and Entisols. Slash pine's native range
was probably more restricted by frequent fire than by soil types or soil
moisture. With fire suppression, slash pine has spread to drier sites
[2,14].

The Florida slash pine variety grows from near sea level to about
70 feet (20 m) in elevation [8]. This variety grows in a wide range of
conditions, from wet sites in the northern part of its range to
well-drained sandy soils and rocky limestone outcrops in the South
[2,21].

Tree associates of slash pine include live oak (Quercus virginiana),
water oak (Q. nigra), post oak (Q. stellata), blackjack oak (Q.
marilandica), myrtle oak (Q. myrtifolia), bluejack oak (Q. incana),
turkey oak (Q. laevis), southern red cedar (Juniperus silicicola), pond
cypress (Taxodium ascendens), cabbage palmetto (Sabal palmetto), red
maple (Acer rubrum), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) [8].

Understory species on drier sites include pineland threeawn (Aristida
stricta), bluestem (Andropogon spp.), saw-palmetto (Serenoa repens),
gallberry (Ilex glabra), fetterbush (Lyonia lucida), and pitcher plant
(Sarracenia spp.). On moist to wet sites, understory species include
southern bayberry (Myrica cerifera), buckwheat-tree (Cliftonia
monophylla), yaupon (Ilex vomitoria), and dahoon (I. cassine).
Undergrowth on very wet sites is primarily Sphagnum spp. [8].

More than fifteen species of herbs are endemic to the Miami rock ridge
pinelands where Florida slash pine dominates [36].
license
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Cover Types

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the terms: hardwood, swamp

70 Longleaf pine
74 Cabbage palmetto
81 Loblolly pine
82 Loblolly pine - hardwood
83 Longleaf pine - slash pine
84 Slash pine
85 Slash pine - hardwood
97 Atlantic white cedar
98 Pond pine
100 Pond cypress
103 Water tupelo - swamp tupelo
104 Sweetbay - swamp tupelo - redbay
111 South Florida slash pine
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine
FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine
FRES14 Oak - pine
FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Plant Associations

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the term: forest

K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest
K112 Southern mixed forest
K113 Southern floodplain forest
K114 Pocosin
K116 Subtropical pine forest
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Immediate Effect of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: low-severity fire, moderate-severity fire, wildfire

One- and two-year-old slash pine are killed by low-severity fire. After
3 to 4 years, seedlings survive low-severity fire but not
moderate-severity fire. Ten- to fifteen-foot-tall (3.0-4.6 m) saplings
survive moderate-severity fires. Once slash pine is 10 to 12 years old,
it survives fire that does not crown [10,24,41,46].

Slash pine is tolerant of crown scorch. Scorched foliage is replaced by
new shoots. Slash pine as young as 5 years old may recover from 100
percent crown scorch [6,41]. Slash pine taller than 5 feet (1.5 m)
seldom die if less than 70 percent of the crown is scorched [26]. In
New South Wales, Australia, a fall wildfire burned a slash pine
plantation averaging 20 feet (6.1 m) in height. The fire crowned in
most areas. Trees with no green needles, few or no brown needles, and a
drooping apical branch had 31 percent survival, trees with mostly brown
needles and few or no green needles present had 93.8 percent survival,
and trees with clearly visible green needles at the top had 96.9 percent
survival [39].

Slash pine needles were killed instantly when immersed in water at 147
degrees Fahrenheit (64 deg C) but survived 9.5 minutes at 126 degrees
Fahrenheit (52 deg C) [5].

If slash pine bark is thicker than 0.6 inch (1.5 cm), mortality due to
cambium damage is unlikely from a low-severity fire. In one study,
0.08-inch (0.2 cm) thick bark protected the cambium from externally
applied heat at a temperature of 572 degrees Fahrenheit (300 deg C) for
1 minute. Bark which was 0.47 inch (1.2 cm) thick protected the cambium
from 1110 degrees Fahrenheit (600 deg C) for 2 minutes [6].
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

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More info for the term: cover

Slash pine seeds are eaten by birds and small mammals. Cattle and deer
occasionally browse seedlings [24]. In the St. Vincent National
Wildlife Refuge of northwestern Florida, slash pine made up 0.7 percent
of Indian sambar deer rumens and 0.6 percent of white-tailed deer rumens
[34].

The dense foliage of slash pine provides cover and shelter for wildlife
[24]. The endangered red-cockaded woodpecker is known to nest in slash
pine, although it is not this cavity dweller's preferred species [15].
Large slash pine provide nest sites for bald eagles [48].
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Key Plant Community Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: forest

The published classifications listing slash pine as dominant in
community types (cts) are presented below:

Area Classification Authority

SC general veg. cts Nelson 1986
se US: Gulf Coast general forest cts Pessin 1933
se US general forest cts Waggoner 1975
se US general veg. cts Christensen 1988
nc FL general forest cts Monk 1968
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Life Form

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More info for the term: tree

Tree
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Management considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: competition, forest, hardwood, litter, seed, seed tree, tree

Slash pine forest management requires integration of three primary uses:
turpentine, wood, and forage production. Intense production and
management for one use will likely reduce production for another use.
For instance, turpentining reduces slash pine growth by 25 percent while
the tree is worked, a closed canopy reduces understory forage
production, and fire used to improve forage production and quality may
damage young trees [26].

Slash pine is best regenerated using even-aged management. Both the
seed tree and shelterwood silviculture systems are effective. For
adequate regeneration, leave 6 to 10 seed trees per acre and 25 to 40
shelterwood trees per acre. Overstory trees should be removed 1 to 3
years after seedlings are established. Seedbed preparation increases
seedling establishment. Pine growth is enhanced by site preparation and
removal of hardwood and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) understory
competition [22].

Cattle grazing is extensive on pine flatwoods in the Southeast. Pearson
[31] reported that light to moderate grazing did not affect
establishment, survival, or growth of seeded or planted slash pine up to
5 years old. Heavy grazing decreased survival, but most losses occurred
in the first year. It is recommended that cattle be withheld from
grazing young stands until after the first growing season [31].

Disease: The two most serious diseases of slash pine are fusiform rust
(Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme) and annosus root rot
(Heterobasidion annosum) [22,24]. Fusiform rust is a stem disease that
affects seedlings and saplings. The younger the pine is when it becomes
infected, the more likely it is to die [35]. Removing trees with severe
stem galls minimizes timber losses and improves stand quality [3].

Annosus root rot infects thinned stands. The fungus colonizes on
freshly cut stumps and spreads by root contact. Thick litter is
associated with sporophore development [9]. Annosus root rot is most
damaging to slash pine if there is good surface drainage. Slash pine
grown on shallow soils with a heavy subsoil clay layer are not
susceptible to annosus root rot [24].

Lophodermella cerina, a needle-blight-causing fungus, mainly affects
slash pine close to metropolitan areas. Air pollution is thought to
worsen this disease [38]. Pitch canker, caused by Fusarium moniliforme
var. subglutinans, is common in plantations and can girdle a pine [24].

Insects: Insects that attack slash pine include pales weevil (Hylobius
pales), black turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus terebrans), engraver
beetles (Ips spp.), and defoliators such as pine web worm (Tetralopha
robustella), blackheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion excitans), redheaded
pine sawfly (N. lecontei), and Texas leafcutting ant (Atta texana) [24].

Florida slash pine is less susceptible to insects and disease than
the typical variety of slash pine. Grass-stage seedlings of South
Florida slash pine are attacked by brown-spot needle blight (Scirrhia
acicola) [24].
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Occurrence in North America

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
AL AR FL GA KY LA MS NC OK SC
TN TX VA
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Other uses and values

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Slash pine is the preferred naval stores species. Its resin is used for
gum turpentine and rosin production [24,41].
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Phenology

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More info for the term: seed

Male strobili begin to develop in June, grow for several weeks, and then
go dormant until midwinter. Pollen is shed from late January to
February. Female strobili begin to develop in late August and grow
until they are fully developed. Cones mature in September,
approximately 20 months after pollinization. Seed fall is in October
[24].
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Plant Response to Fire

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Slash pine's growth response to fire is variable. Slash pine damaged by
fire may suffer a short-term reduction in growth, although fires that
result in light or no scorch may actually enhance growth [41]. In the
Georgia Coastal Plain, a 9-year-old stand averaging 24.5 feet (7.5 m) in
height and 3.5 inches (8.9 cm) in d.b.h. was prescribed burned in
February. In the first postfire growing season, slash pine with 0 to 15
percent crown scorch outgrew the control, pine with 15 to 40 percent
crown scorch was not significantly different in growth from the control,
and pine with more than 40 percent scorch showed reduced growth. Growth
returned to normal in the second postfire growing season [16].

Severely scorched, 25-year-old slash pine in Georgia, averaging 8 inches
(20 cm) in d.b.h., lost almost a full year's growth in two growing
seasons. Growth of trees with less than 10 percent crown scorch was
only 85 percent of unburned trees after 2 years [17]. In Louisiana,
annual and biennial prescribed backfires initiated in a 4-year-old stand
averaging 7.8 feet (2.4 m) in height reduced growth, but trienniel fires
did not. Whether the fires were in May or March had no effect on growth
[12].

Height growth is slightly more sensitive to needle scorch than diameter
growth. McCulley [26] reported that height growth loss occurred in
trees with no crown scorch if they were smaller than 7 inches (18 cm) in
d.b.h., but diameter growth loss only occurred in trees with greater
than 30 percent crown scorch.
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Post-fire Regeneration

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More info for the term: seed

Crown-stored residual colonizer; short-viability seed in on-site cones
off-site colonizer; seed carried by wind; postfire years one and two
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regeneration Processes

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More info for the terms: cone, epigeal, monoecious, root collar, tree

Seed production and dissemination: Slash pine is monoecious. Trees
usually begin producing cones between 10 and 15 years of age. Good cone
crops occur every 3 years for the typical variety and every 4 years for
the South Florida variety. Ninety percent of the light, winged seeds
fall within 150 feet (46 m) of the source tree [24].

Germination and seedling development: Germination is epigeal and occurs
within 2 weeks of seedfall. Slash pine seeds have good viability.
Exposed mineral soil enhances germination [24].

Open-grown seedlings of the typical slash pine variety grow 16 inches
(41 cm) in the first year. Root development is best in clayey soil and
worst in sandy soil [24].

Seedlings of the South Florida variety have a 2- to 6-year grass stage
similar to that of longleaf pine. During the grass stage, seedlings
develop an extensive root system and a thick root collar. Once
initiated, height growth is rapid [13]. Florida slash pine
seedlings are more drought and flood tolerant than those of the typical
variety [1,2].

Vegetative reproduction: Florida slash pine grass-stage seedlings
can sprout from the root collar if top-killed [24].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Successional Status

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More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: climax, competition, hardwood, succession

Slash pine is relatively intolerant of competition and intolerant of
shade [24]. It will reproduce in small openings and invade open
longleaf pine stands, but growth is reduced by competition and partial
shade [22]. Slash pine invades fallow agricultural fields and disturbed
areas. It will invade longleaf pine stands where fire has been absent
for at least 5 to 6 years. In the absence of fire, slash pine flatwoods
are replaced by southern mixed hardwood forests on drier sites and by
bayheads on wetter sites [29].

Florida slash pine may be an edaphic or fire climax on flatwood
sites [8]. In the absence of fire, this variety is also replaced by
hardwoods. In pine rocklands, hardwood succession is rapid, but in pine
flatwoods, vegetative changes occur more slowly [42].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Synonyms

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Pinus densa (Little & Dorman) Gaussen
Pinus caribaea Morelet (misapplied)
Pinus heterophylla (Ell.) Sudworth
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

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The scientific name of slash pine is Pinus elliottii Engelm.
There are two geographic varieties [23,24]:

Pinus elliottii var. elliottii, slash pine (typical variety)
Pinus elliottii var. densa Little & Dorman, Florida slash pine

There is a transitional zone where morphological traits of the two
varieties show clinal variation. Both varieties will be discussed in
this report with emphasis on the typical slash pine variety, P. elliottii
var. elliottii.

Slash pine occasionally hybridizes with loblolly pine (P. taeda),
late flowering sand pine (P. clausa), and early flowering longleaf pine
(P. palustris) [23,24].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

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Because of slash pine's rapid growth, it is used to stabilize soil and
rehabilitate mine spoils. It grows well on coal mine spoils in
northern Alabama [24,40].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Wood Products Value

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Slash pine is an important timber species in the southeastern United
States. Its strong, heavy wood is excellent for construction purposes.
Because of its high resin content, the wood is also used for railroad
ties, poles, and piling [7,24,26,27].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Associated Forest Cover

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Slash pine is a major component of three forest cover types including Longleaf Pine-Slash Pine (Society of American Foresters Type 83), Slash Pine (Type 84), and Slash Pine-Hardwood (Type 85) (18).

The species is also included as an associate in the following cover types:

70 Longleaf Pine
74 Cabbage Palmetto
81 Loblolly Pine
82 Loblolly Pine-Hardwood
97 Atlantic White-Cedar
98 Pond Pine
100 Pondcypress
103 Water Tupelo-Swamp Tupelo
104 Sweetbay-Swamp Tupelo-Redbay
111 South Florida Slash Pine

Since it has been artificially propagated far outside its natural range, slash pine can now be found in association with many other species.

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Climate

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The climate within the natural range of slash pine is warm and humid with wet summers and drier falls and springs. Rainfall averages about 1270 mm (50 in) per year and summer rains of 13 mm (0.5 in) or more occur about four times per month. The mean annual temperature in the slash pine region is 17° C (63° F), with extremes of 41° C (106° F) and -18° C (0° F), and a growing season of 250 days. It has been suggested that the average minimum temperature may be the most critical factor limiting the distribution of slash pine; however, precipitation, fire, or competition may be important in specific areas (21).

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Damaging Agents

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The most serious disease of slash pine is fusiform rust caused by the fungus Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme. Most of the southern oaks serve as alternate hosts but the fungus damages only pines. Many trees are killed and others may become too deformed for high value products. Site treatments such as fertilization or vegetation control increase susceptibility to the disease. Resistance to the fungus is inherited, and attempts are being made to breed resistant strains.

Annosus root rot, caused by the fungus Heterobasidion annosum, is another serious disease of slash pine. It is most damaging on soils with good surface and internal drainage and is not a problem in flatwoods or shallow soils with heavy clay within 30 cm (12 in) of the surface. Infections begin when spores germinate on a fresh stump surface; the fungus then spreads to adjacent trees through root contacts. Diseased or dead and dying trees are usually found in groups.

Pitch canker, caused by the fungus Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans, causes heavy damage to slash pines in nurseries, seed orchards, and plantations. Cankers high in the crown may kill only the leader and a few laterals; the tree survives with a stem deformity and reduced growth. Cankers below the crown may eventually girdle the trunk and kill the tree (8).

The pales weevil (Hylobius pales) invades logging areas, feeds on the bark of seedlings, and may girdle the stem, causing wilting and eventual death. Small trees may be defoliated by the pine webworm (Tetralopha robustella), blackheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion excitans), redheaded pine sawfly (N. lecontei), and Texas leafcutting ant (Atta texana). The black turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus terebrans) and engraver beetles (Ips spp.) can become problems. Slash pine is not particularly susceptible to injury by the southern pine beetle (D. frontalis) except where it is growing under environmental stress.

Other agents generally cause little damage, but some cause considerable losses under certain conditions. Senna seymeria (Seymeria cassioides) is one of a number of native root parasites that attack slash pine. Damage of economic importance is well documented but rare. Root rots may be a problem in tree nurseries or overmature stands. Red heart (Phellinus pini) is usually associated with mature or overmature timber and is not a problem in well-managed stands. Southern cone rust (Cronartium strobilinum) may destroy a cone crop and is particularly damaging in seed orchards as are several seed and cone insects (17).

Young slash pines are susceptible to injury by wildfires until they are 3.0 to 4.6 m (10 to 15 ft) tall and the bark has thickened. Up to 50 percent of the needles may be scorched, but not consumed, with little mortality or growth loss.

Slash pine may suffer severe damage from glaze, particularly heavily thinned stands. It is subject to windthrow on shallow soils and wherever it does not develop a strong root system (14).

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Flowering and Fruiting

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Slash pine is monoecious and wind pollinated. Flowering begins at a relatively early age for conifers, usually between 10 and 15 years, but occasionally as early as 3 years (2). Bisexual cones have been observed (41). Open-grown trees that are fertilized and irrigated tend to flower at an early age. Similar treatments in close-spaced plantings do not result in earlier flowering. Mature scions grafted to seedling rootstocks begin flowering after 2 to 3 years and flower normally by 8 years if planted at wide spacings.

Early development of male strobili begins in June and continues for several weeks. Strobili become visible as small knobs near the base of vegetative buds in the fall. They usually occur in clusters of 12 or more, arranged spirally around the base of the current year's branches in the middle or lower crown. Further growth is delayed until midwinter. The staminate strobili are purple and 5 cm (2 in) long when pollen is shed in late January and February.

Development of female strobili begins between late August and mid-September. The female strobili are visible by December or January; they occur singly or in clusters and are most abundant on primary and secondary branches in the upper crown. They continue to grow until fully developed, by February in Florida and March further north. Female strobili are about 2.5 cm (1 in) long and red to purple at the time of pollination. They are receptive to pollen for a few days; receptivity of all strobili on a single tree may span a 2-week period. Outcrossing is normal because pollen shed and receptivity of female strobili occur at different times on the same tree. Selfing can occur under natural conditions and in seed orchards, but both yield of viable seed and vigor of trees produced is low.

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Genetics

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Population Differences Geographic variation among slash pine stands in different locations tends to be clinal due to a gradual change from a north temperate to a subtropical climate (15). The variation among stands is less in the north than in the south.

Slash pine seeds from many sources have been grown in replicated provenance tests at several geographic locations (51,57). When north Florida- south Georgia seed sources were planted north or west of their natural range they did not survive planting or grow as well as trees from South Carolina or Louisiana (51). Trees from southern sources planted in the north do not grow or survive as well as those from northern sources (28). In a northeast Florida plantation, all the trees broke bud at the same time, but trees grown from northern seed sources attained most of their growth early in the season, while trees from southern sources grew the most in the latter part of the season. The southern trees were never able to attain the growth of the northern trees (3).

Seed source plantings outside the natural range of slash pine in South Carolina, western Louisiana, and central Mississippi have shown that trees from the southern part of the range are not well adapted to the more extreme northern and western environmental stresses of cold, ice, and extreme drought (51,54).

A provenance test in western Louisiana showed that trees from seed sources in northeast Florida and south Georgia did not survive or grow as well in Louisiana as those from the western part of the slash pine range (51). The most rapidly growing trees in east-to-west plantings came from seed sources in Georgia, western Florida, and southern Mississippi (22).

Twelve morphological traits have been studied in cones, seeds, and foliage of five parent trees from each of 54 locations, and 13 traits have been studied in their seedlings (52). The coefficients of variation tended to be highest for seedlings within mother trees and lower among stands and among mother trees within stands. Genetic variation among mother trees within stands was usually not much greater than stand-to-stand variation, suggesting that genetic gains are feasible through selection among stands as well as among individuals within stands.

The highest incidence of fusiform rust occurs among sources in southern Georgia, but no clear geographic patterns are apparent. There is also a strong interaction of seed source with site in the occurrence of fusiform rust (22).

Races South Florida slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. densa Little & Dorman) is a variety of slash pine found on about 121 410 ha (300,000 acres) (48) in the southern half of the peninsula of Florida (21,32,35). It grows in pure stands on flatwood sites in the southern part of its range and on swampy or streamside sites in the northern part (32). Where its range overlaps with the typical slash pine, there is a transition zone where morphological traits show clinal variation between the two varieties (52). The range of South Florida slash pine also overlaps with that of longleaf pine(P. palustris) in transition zones between wet and dry sites, with longleaf more numerous on the drier sites (32). South Florida slash pine is characterized by long needles, although they are not as long as those of longleaf, in fascicles of two, rarely three (21); a thick needle hypodermus; 5 to 10 resin canals per needle (58); thick branches with needles appearing clumped at the end; hard wood; whitish bud scales; a high specific gravity of 0.894, due to wide summerwood rings; and cones 20 percent smaller than typical slash pine (27). The seedlings have a grass stage similar to longleaf pine and a thick taproot (21). Mature trees have an irregular crown (58).

Even-aged management, accomplished by leaving 15 to 25 trees per hectare (6 to 10 trees/acre) after a cut of 62 to 99 shelterwood trees per hectare (25 to 40/acre), appears to be the most successful silvicultural system for South Florida slash pine (33,34). If a stand is clearcut, direct seeding in the fall will give the best stand (40). Intensive site preparation is highly beneficial in reducing competition and available ground fuel. Problems with uneven-aged stand management include a lack of full stocking, fire hazard, since ground fuel accumulates when prescribed burning is prohibited, and root rot. Heavy thinning will give more sawtimber quickly, while light thinnings will give more total growth for pulpwood (33).

When wildfires occurred in young stands, one-third of the surviving grass stage seedlings were observed to sprout from the root collar, but sprouts on the leader died back (25). South Florida slash pine is more fire resistant than the typical variety in the seedling and sapling growth stages due to its thicker bark (6,34). Controlled burns are possible when the trees are 3.7 to 4.6 m (12 to 15 ft) tall (25).

South Florida slash pine was found to be superior to other southern yellow pines for wood properties except elasticity and shear parallel to the grain. This makes it an excellent timber for construction purposes (42).

In its natural range, direct seeded South Florida slash pine will survive and grow as well as the typical variety but will not have as good survival and growth if nursery stock is planted (6,40). For plantings, it is recommended that the typical variety be planted in the South Florida slash pine range using seed from Alachua County in northern Florida (16). Height growth is better if seedlings are planted on beds (21). Drought does not affect diameter growth of older trees, but excessive water will slow it down (31).

Once height growth commences, South Florida slash pine has fewer insect and disease problems than the typical variety (6). Pitch canker does affect this variety (7), and as a grass stage seedling it is susceptible to brown spot (Scirrhia acicola).

Site index curves and volume tables have been developed for South Florida slash pine (29,30). With a site index of 15.2 m (50 ft) at base age 50 years the average d.b.h. of 1,112 trees per hectare (450/acre) at 20 years was 15 cm (6 in) with growth of 4.6 m³/ha (65 ft³/acre) per year.

Hybrids Slash pine crosses naturally with the South Florida variety where their ranges meet and introgression has occurred among trees in the transition zone to the degree that it is difficult to distinguish between the two varieties (52).

In areas where the natural distribution of slash pine overlaps that of the other pines, natural hybridization is usually precluded by phenology. Sand pine (P. clausa) is the earliest flowering pine and is followed by slash, longleaf, loblolly, and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines, the latter of which tend to shed pollen when slash pine strobili are no longer receptive. Late flowering sand pine or early flowering longleaf pine may hybridize with slash pine. Successful artificial hybridization depends on the choice of the female parent species as well as the particular individual of the species. There has been more successful sound seed produced in the slash x longleaf cross than in the reciprocal and no sound seeds were obtained in the sand x slash pine cross.

Slash pine has been artificially crossed with longleaf, loblolly, shortleaf, pitch (P. rigida), and Caribbean (P. caribaea) pines. None of the offspring show potential hybrid vigor. The longleaf x slash hybrid shows the most potential because height growth begins quickly; it grows almost as fast as slash pine, self prunes well, is fairly resistant to both brown-spot needle disease and fusiform rust, and resembles longleaf pine in form and branching habit. On swampy sites in Australia there is some indication the Caribbean x slash hybrid progeny show superior yield to either parent alone. Slash x shortleaf hybrids have up to 16 percent dwarfs with some polyploids and mixoploids.

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Growth and Yield

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Slash pine makes rapid volume growth at early ages and is adaptable to short rotations under intensive management. Yield tables have been available for natural stands since 1929 (4,45,47,56) and for plantations since 1955 (13,21).

Stand basal area density has a strong influence on merchantable yield at any age (table 1). Also, almost three-fourths of the 50-year yield is produced by age 30, regardless of stand basal area.

Table 1- Estimated merchantable yields for unthinned natural stand of slash pine on average sites, 24.4 m (80 ft) at 50 years, by age and stand density¹ Yields at basal areas of
Age 11.5 m²/ha or
50 ft²/acre 23.0 m²/ha or
100 ft²/acre 34.4 m²/ha or
150 ft²/acre yr m³/ha 20   76.8 140.6 200.3 30 113.6 208.0 296.2 40 138.2 253.0 360.4 50 155.4 284.5 405.2 yr ft³/acre 20 1,097 2,008 2,861 30 1,623 2,971 4,232 40 1,974 3,614 5,148 50 2,220 4,064 5,789 ¹Adapted from Bennett (5). Yields are for volumes (outside bark) above a 15.2 cm (6 in) stump for trees 11.7 cm (4.6 in) in d.b.h. and larger to a 10.2 cm (4 in) diameter top outside bark. Current merchantable volume increment in thinned stands reaches a maximum rate before 20 years and declines thereafter (table 2). The instantaneous volume growth rate culminates at a high density in young stands and at progressively lower densities as age increases. Heavy thinning reduces periodic growth in young stands, but any density above 23 m²/ha (100 ft²/acre) at 20 to 30 years, or above 17 m²/ha (75 ft²/acre) at age 40, results in near-maximum volume growth.

Table 2- Estimated annual merchantable volume growth in thinned natural stands of slash pine on average sites, 24.4 m (80 ft) at 50 years, by age and stand density¹ Growth at basal areas of
Age 11.5 m²/ha or
50 ft²/acre 23.0 m²/ha or
100 ft²/acre 34.4 m²/ha or
150 ft²/acre yr m³/ha 20 7.98 10.50 11.41 30 6.23   7.56   7.49 40 5.04   5.74   5.25 50 4.13   4.55   3.92 yr ft³/acre 20 114 150 163 30   89 108 107 40   72   82   75 50   59   65   56 ¹Adapted from Bennett (5). Plantation yields are influenced by previous land use and interspecies competition, so there is wide variation in estimated wood production (table 3). Early yields are usually highest on recently abandoned fields where the young trees apparently benefit from the residual effects of tillage or fertilizer and the nearly complete lack of vegetative competition. Plantations established after the harvest of natural stands and without any site treatment other than burning generally have lower survival and, consequently, lower basal area and volume than stands on old fields (13). Yields in plantations established after timber harvest and intensive site preparation such as disking or bedding are usually intermediate (10).

Table 3- Range of estimated merchantable yields in unthinned slash pine plantations on average sites, 18.3 m (60 ft) at 25 years, by age and number of surviving trees¹ Merchantable yield when surviving trees number Age 741/ha or 300/acre 988/ha or 400/acre 1235/ha or
500/acre yr m³/ha 20 109.3 to 147.6 125.5 to 166.7 139.8 to 182.7 25 156.0 to 194.4 175.8 to 218.3 189.4 to 238.1 30 190.2 to 232.8 212.6 to 262.8 230.4 to 287.9 yr ft³/acre 20 1,562 to 2,109 1,793 to 2,382 1,997 to 2,610 25 2,228 to 2,777 2,511 to 3,118 2,706 to 3,402 30 2,717 to 3,325 3,037 to 3,754 3,291 to 4,113 ¹Adapted from Clutter an Dell (10). Yields are for volumes outside bark above a 15.2 cm (6 in) stump for trees 11.7 cm (4.6 in) in d.b.h. and larger to a 10.2 cm (4 in) top diameter outside bark. Below age 30, maximum cubic volume yields are usually produced in unthinned plantations, so landowners seeking maximum yields on a short rotation will seldom find commercial thinning beneficial. Where sawtimber is the objective, commercial thinnings provide early returns while improving the growth and quality of the sawtimber and maintaining the stands in a vigorous and healthy condition (11).

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Reaction to Competition

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Slash pine is relatively intolerant of competition and is classed as intolerant of shade. Stands protected from fires are invaded and replaced by more tolerant hardwood species. Unreleased seedlings established by direct seeding under a hardwood overstory seldom exceed 15 cm (6 in) in height the first year, while those freed from competition may reach 41 cm (16 in) (38). Increased survival and growth of young trees on intensively prepared sites is attributed largely to the control of competing vegetation.

Because of this intolerance, even-aged management is usually recommended for slash pine (21,33). Either the seed-tree or shelterwood system of natural regeneration may be used (34). Exposed mineral soil is of primary importance in establishing natural regeneration. Overstory seed trees should be removed promptly after the new seedlings are well established. Failure to do so may retard growth in height, diameter, and merchantable volume of the next crop (19). An alternative to natural regeneration is to clearcut and establish a new stand by planting or direct seeding.

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Rooting Habit

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Slash pine develops an extensive lateral root system and a moderate taproot. Maximum length of the lateral roots was more than double the tree height in three out of four site preparation treatments at 5 years. Taproots may be deformed as a result of poor planting technique, a restricting soil horizon, or a high water table (46).

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Seed Production and Dissemination

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Some seeds are produced each year, with good crops about every third year. In natural stands, cone production was increased by 50 to 100 percent after each of the following treatments: heavy thinning or crown release, stem injury, and fertilization applied before flower bud initiation. Wide initial spacing, fertilization, competition control, and irrigation are used to maintain a high level of production in seed orchards. Age, crown size, and genetic and environmental factors interact to influence seed production once a tree begins to bear cones.

Slash pine cones mature during September, approximately 20 months after pollination. There is a wide variation in time of cone maturation among trees, regions, and years. The specific gravity of cones with mature seeds is about 0.9 and they float in SAE 20 motor oil. Cones begin to open when the specific gravity decreases to 0.7. Natural seedfall occurs primarily in October but may be hastened by dry weather or delayed by wet weather. A few seeds may fall until March. Seed viability is increased if collected cones are stored several weeks before seeds are extracted.

There are 21,160 to 42,550 seeds per kilogram (9,600 to 19,300/lb) and the average is about 29,760/kg (13,500/lb) (55). More than 90 percent of the winged seeds usually fall within 46 m (150 ft) of the parent tree. A slash pine plantation 13 to 16 years old, 15.2 m (50 ft) tall, grown initially at a spacing of 5.8 by 5.8 m (19 by 19 ft) or 297 stems per hectare (120/acre), will produce seeds at an average of 30.3 kg/ha (27 lb/acre) per year.

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Seedling Development

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Seed viability is usually good. Fresh seeds germinate rapidly, many within 2 weeks of natural seedfall if soil moisture is adequate. Those kept in cold storage for a year or more benefit from stratification (38). Germination is epigeal (55). Newly germinated seedlings have an average of 7.2 cotyledons, 30 mm (1.18 in) long. Hypocotyls average 37 mm (1.46 in) in length and 0.89 mm (0.035 in) in diameter. Seedlings in the cotyledon stage cannot be positively distinguished by external characteristics from those of loblolly (Pinus taeda) or Virginia (P. virginiana) pines (37).

Seed size, which is quite variable, does not influence germination in the laboratory or nursery. Small seeds produce smaller seedlings than medium or large seeds, but field survival and average heights 1 to 2 years after field planting are similar for trees from seeds of all sizes.

Root development of seedlings is influenced by soil texture and structure. In one field study, taproot length was similar for first-year seedlings in all soils, but number of laterals and total length of all roots were largest on a clay, intermediate on a loam, and least on a sandy soil (23). The presence of mycorrhizae has an important beneficial influence on survival and early growth of bare-root seedlings of all morphological grades (24).

Juvenile trees past the seedling stage make from two to four height-growth flushes each year. The first begins when the winter bud elongates to become the spring shoot. Spring shoot growth begins slowly in February and gradually increases until it reaches a mean daily increment of about 7 mm (0.28 in) between mid-March and mid-April. Growth of this first shoot is completed by early June. First summer buds form in April, while the spring shoot is still growing, and second summer shoots are formed by the end of May. Winter buds are present in July and height growth is slow thereafter, although some growth may occur as late as October. The spring shoot makes up 62 percent and the summer shoots 38 percent of the annual height increment.

Height growth patterns may be influenced by silvicultural practices, previous land use, and competing vegetation. Site index curves for plantations on recently abandoned fields that were cultivated and fertilized are different from those for stands on areas formerly in timber and having a dense ground cover of brush or other low vegetation when planted to trees.

Radial growth begins in early February, about the same time as height growth, and continues throughout the summer and into October or November, as long as soil moisture is adequate. Root growth accelerates in early February, before terminal and radial activity begin. Root growth rates are fastest and the percentage of actively growing tips is highest in summer when soil moisture is optimum, but some root growth takes place during all seasons of the year.

Survival and early growth of seedlings are frequently stimulated by intensive site preparation treatments such as flat disking, chopping, or bedding. Disking and chopping are effective on deep, dry, sandy soils where they control competing vegetation, incorporate organic matter into the topsoil, and may alter nutrient availability (9). On sites with a shallow water table, bedding provides increased rooting space, improves aeration, and may increase growth (39). Surface drainage may produce a similar response (26). On droughty sites, weed control and irrigation may be effective (1). Many slash pine sites are low in available phosphorus and nitrogen. In creased volume growth may result from fertilization with either element alone or a combination of both, depending on soil conditions (20,43). Combinations of mechanical site treatment and fertilization may be more effective than either treatment alone (1).

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Soils and Topography

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Soils within the range of slash pine are mostly Spodosols, Ultisols, and Entisols. Spodosols and Entisols are common along the coasts of Florida while the Ultisols are in the northern part of the range. The most frequently found suborders are Udults, Aquults, Psamments, and Aquods. Topography varies little throughout the southeastern Coastal Plain, but small changes in elevation frequently coincide with abrupt changes in soil and site conditions.

Although slash pine is adaptable to a variety of site and topographic conditions, it grows best on pond margins and in drainages where soil moisture is ample but not excessive and the soil is well aerated. Growth is unsatisfactory on deep, well drained sands (sandhills) and on poorly drained savanna soils with high water tables (crawfish flats). Growth is intermediate on inadequately drained soils. Specific factors related to height growth, and hence to productivity, vary somewhat, but the most influential are those related to the amount of water or space available to tree roots.

Height growth of slash pine plantations in Florida was estimated from three soil factors: depth to a fine textured horizon, depth to a mottled horizon, and silt plus clay content of the finest textured horizon in the soil profile. The first two alone explained 89 percent of the variation in height at a given age and gave height estimates adequate for field use (21). Where internal drainage was adequate, the height of slash pine increased directly with the amount of silt and clay in the subsoil (12). Average site index (base age 50 years) ranged from 22.9 m (75 ft) for sands and loamy sands to 27.4 m (90 ft) for silty clays and other fine textured soils.

In the Carolina sandhills, slash pine heights increased with thickness of the A, soil horizon and decreased with depth to fine textured horizons (44). In southeastern Louisiana, site index increased with depth of the least permeable layer, sand content of the subsoil, and degree of internal drainage. Site index decreased where the least permeable layer was too deep, the topsoil was too sandy, or the soil was excessively drained internally (36).

Mean total height of dominants and codominants was related to seasonal rainfall, slope, and potential available moisture storage of the subsoil in 87 test plantings throughout Louisiana and southern Mississippi. Optimum conditions within the range of data were 610 mm (24 in) of rain from April through September, 790 mm (31 in) of rain from October through March, 5 percent slope, and 7 percent available moisture storage capacity in the subsoil. Dominant and codominant trees average 19.6 m (64.3 ft) tall at 20 years under these conditions (49).

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Special Uses

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Slash pine is worked for naval stores. This industry, one of the oldest in the United States, has supplied a large portion of the resin and turpentine used throughout the world since colonial times. In many early forests, gum was the primary and sometimes the only product harvested. Chipping the trees for oleoresin increases bark thickness and reduces volume growth inside the bark 20 to 25 percent. A strain of inherently high-gum-yielding slash pine has been selected, and seedlings are commercially available in Florida and Georgia.

Cattle frequently graze the slash pine forests. Moderate grazing does little damage to trees past the seedling stage and may be indirectly beneficial by preventing the buildup of a dense and highly flammable understory.

Slash pine seeds are eaten by a variety of birds and small mammals. The dense foliage provides protective cover for many wildlife species during inclement weather. Slash pine may be planted to stabilize the soil on eroding slopes and strip mine spoil banks, where its rapid early growth is an advantage over slower growing species.

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Vegetative Reproduction

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Vegetative reproduction of slash pine rarely occurs naturally, but several techniques have been developed to reproduce specific individuals for use in seed orchards, clone banks, and genetic studies. Scions from mature trees are grafted onto seedling rootstocks in seed orchards and this is probably the most widely used technique of vegetative reproduction. The "cleft" graft is used with either succulent or dormant material. Normally, dormant scions are grafted onto stock plants just beginning active growth in early spring.

Air-layering (rooting undetached branches on young trees by girdling and treating them with a rooting hormone) has been more than 85 percent successful in some tests. Factors influencing results include age of the tree, concentration of the rooting hormone, season of treatment, and geographic location. Air layers usually develop a balanced root system and grow rapidly.

Cuttings from branches are difficult to root, especially those from older trees. There is considerable variation in results among trees, seasons, chemical treatments, and environmental factors. Enhanced carbon dioxide and a heated rooting medium greatly increase rooting. Needle fascicles can also be rooted, but the results are as poor and inconsistent as those with branch cuttings. In addition, most of the fascicles that form roots never begin height growth.

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Distribution

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Slash pine has the smallest native range of the four major southern pines. The range extends over 8° latitude and 10° longitude, and 45 percent of the present growing stock is in Georgia (53). Slash pine grows naturally from Georgetown County, SC, south to central Florida, and west to Tangipahoa Parish, LA. Its native range includes the lower Coastal Plain, part of the middle Coastal Plain, and the hills of south Georgia. The species has been established by planting as far north as Tennessee, in north central Georgia, and Alabama. It has also been planted and direct-seeded in Louisiana and eastern Texas where it now reproduces naturally.

Within its natural range, the distribution of slash pine was initially determined by its susceptibility to fire injury during the seedling stage. Slash pine grew throughout the flatwoods of north Florida and south Georgia.

It was also common along streams and the edges of swamps and bays (21). Within these areas either ample soil moisture or standing water protected young seedlings from frequent wildfires in young forests.

With improved fire protection and heavy cutting of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), slash pine has spread to drier sites, replaced longleaf pine in mixed stands, and invaded abandoned fields. This increase in acreage was possible because of slash pine's frequent and abundant seed production, rapid early growth, and ability to withstand wildfires and rooting by hogs after the sapling stage.


- The native range of slash pine.

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Brief Summary

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Pinaceae -- Pine Family

Richard E. Lohrey and Susan V. Kossuth

Slash pine (Pinus elliottii) is one of the hard yellow pines indigenous to southeastern United States. Other names occasionally used for this species include southern pine, yellow slash pine, swamp pine, pitch pine, and Cuban pine. It is one of the two southern pines used for naval stores and one of the most frequently planted timber species in North America. Two varieties are recognized: P. elliottii var. elliottii, the slash pine most frequently encountered, and P. elliottii var. densa, that grows naturally only in the southern half of peninsula Florida and in the Keys.

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Physical Description

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Tree, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds not resinous, Leaves needle-like, Leaves alternate, Needle-like leaf margins finely serrulate (use magnification or slide your finger along the leaf), Leaf apex acute, Leaves > 5 cm long, Leaves > 10 cm long, Leaves blue-green, Needle-like leaves triangular, Needle-like leaves somewhat rounded, Needle-like leaves twisted, Needle-like leaf habit erect, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 2, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 3, Needle-like leaf sheath persistent, Twigs glabrous, Twigs viscid, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones > 5 cm long, Seed cones bearing a scarlike umbo, Umbo with obvious prickle, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds brown, Seeds winged, Seeds unequally winged, Seed wings prominent, Seed wings equal to or broader than body.
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Pinus elliottii

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Pinus elliottii, commonly known as slash pine,[2][3] is a conifer tree in the Southeastern United States. Slash pine is named after the "slashes" – swampy ground overgrown with trees and bushes – that constitute its habitat. Other common names include swamp pine, yellow slash pine, and southern Florida pine.[3] Historically, slash pine has been an important economic timber for naval stores, turpentine, and resin.[3] Slash pine has two different varieties: P. e. var. elliottii and P. e. var. densa. Slash pine is known for its unusually high strength, especially for pine. It exceeds many hardwoods and is even comparable to very dense woods such as ironwood.

Description and taxonomy

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Slash pine needles

This tree is fast-growing, but not very long-lived by pine standards (to 200 years). It reaches heights of 18–30 m (59–98 ft) with a trunk diameter of 0.6–0.8 m (2.0–2.6 ft). The leaves are needle-like, very slender, in clusters of two or three, and 18–24 cm (7.1–9.4 in) long. The cones are glossy red-brown, 5–15 cm (2.0–5.9 in) in length, with a short (2–3 mm or 0.079–0.118 in), thick prickle on each scale. It is known for its conical shape and unusually high strength, especially for a pine. Its wood has an average crush strength of 8,140 lb/in2 (56.1 MPa), which exceeds many hardwoods such as white ash (7,410 lb/in2) and black maple (6,680 lb/in2). It is not as strong as black ironwood (9,940 lb/in2), but because its average density is less than half that of ironwood, slash pine has a far greater strength-to-weight ratio.[4][5][6][7]

It may be distinguished from the related loblolly pine (P. taeda) by the somewhat longer, glossier needles and larger red-brown cones, and from longleaf pine (P. palustris) by the shorter, more slender needles and smaller cones with less broad scales.

Two varieties of P. elliotii are described, but recent genetic studies have indicated that the varieties may not be more closely related to each other than they are to other pines in the Southeast. If this is the case, reclassifying these varieties as separate species would be warranted.[8] P. elliottii can hybridize with P. taeda, sand pine (Pinus clausa), and P. palustris.[9]

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Pinus elliottii cones

The two commonly accepted varieties are the following:

  • P. e. var. elliottii (typical slash pine) ranges from South Carolina to Louisiana, and south to central Florida. Its leaves occur in bundles, fascicles of twos and threes, mostly threes, and the cones are larger, 7–15 cm (2.8–5.9 in).
  • P. e. var. densa (South Florida slash pine, Dade County pine) is found in the pine rocklands of southern Florida and the Florida Keys, including the Everglades.[10][11] Leaves are nearly all in bundles of two, with longer needles. The cones are smaller, 5–12 cm (2.0–4.7 in), the wood is denser, and the tree has a thicker taproot.[9] Unlike the typical variety of slash pine, seedlings of P. e. var. densa has a "grass stage" similar to longleaf pine. P. e. var. densa is not frost tolerant, which limits its range to South Florida.[12]

Range and habitat

Communities dominated by slash pine are termed "slash pine forests". Slash pine is predominately found in Florida and Georgia, and extends from South Carolina west to southeastern Louisiana, and south to the Florida Keys.[13] It is common in East Texas, where it was first planted at the E.O. Siecke State Forest in 1926.[14] The natural habitat is sandy subtropical maritime forests and wet flatwoods.[8] Slash pine generally grows better in warm, humid areas where the average annual temperature is 17 °C (63 °F), with extreme ranges from −18 to 41 °C (0 to 106 °F).[3] Factors such as competition, fire, and precipitation may limit the natural distribution of these trees. Slash pines are able to grow in an array of soils, but pine stands that are close to bodies of water such as swamps and ponds grow better because of higher soil moisture and seedling protection from wildfire.[3] These forests have been managed through controlled fires since the beginning of the 20th century.[15] Within the first year, P. elliottii is particularly susceptible to seedling mortality caused by fire. P. e. var. densa is more fire resistant than P. e. var. elliottii because it has thicker bark.[3]

Fire ecology

History

Fire has long been an important element in Southeastern forests. Native Americans burned land to improve grass growth for grazing and visibility for hunting.[15] When European settlers arrived in the New World, they brought new diseases that severely diminished the Native American populations. Over time, with the lack of consistent burning, much of the open land of the South reverted to forest land.[15] Logging began to increase in the Southeast, which created some tension between the loggers and local farmers. The loggers wanted to continue to burn the forest, but the local farmers were concerned about how burning would affect cattle grazing and turpentine production.[15] Fire maintenance has long been a controversial issue. In the 1940s, the Smokey Bear campaign to prevent wildfires promoted a shift toward fire suppression. Subsequently, many of these fire-dependent ecosystems became increasingly dominated by more shade-tolerant tree species (hardwoods).[16] Despite many reports from the U.S. Forest Service about the benefits fire has on forage production, pine regeneration, control of tree pathogens, and reducing risks of wildfires, controlled burning did not begin to regain traction until the 1950s and 1960s.

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Controlled burn in a slash pine forest

Uses

Without regular fire intervals in slash pine forests, the ecosystem can change over time. For example, in the northern range for slash pine, forests can convert from mesic flatwoods[17] to denser mixed-hardwood canopies with trees such as oaks, hickory, and southern magnolia.[18] In South Florida, the pine rocklands can convert to a rockland hammock dominated by woody shrubs and invasive plants. Invasive species are a major management issue in the South. Many pine trees and native plants are adapted to fire, meaning they require fire disturbance to open their pine cones, germinate seeds, and cue other metabolic processes. Fire can be a good management strategy for invasive species because many invasive plants are not adapted to fire. Therefore, fire can eliminate the parental plant or reduce seed viability. Controlled burning is also used to help reduce pathogen load in an ecosystem. For example, fire can eliminate pest populations or resting fungal spores that could infect new seedlings. Low-intensity burns can also clear space in the understory and provide nutrient pulses[19] that benefit the understory vegetation.

Fire is also used to prevent "fuel" buildup, the highly flammable plants such as grasses and scrub under the canopy that could burn easily in a wildfire. Most prescribed burn intervals are about every 2–5 years, which allows the ecosystem to regenerate after the burn.[20] Much of the South Florida pine rockland ecosystem is highly fragmented and has not been burned because of the proximity to buildings.[18] Risks such as smoke, air quality, and residual particulate matter in the environment pose safety issues for controlled burns near homes and businesses.

Diseases and pests

Fusiform rust

Starting in the late 1950s, the emergence of fusiform rust on Southeastern pine trees including slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine, led to massive tree mortality within the pine industry.[12] This obligate parasitic pathogen is notorious for infecting young trees in newly planted areas within the first few years of growing. The pine industry was still rather new at the time of this initial outbreak, so many newly planted forests had large-scale mortality because the trees were not yet old enough to be resilient to the disease or harvested.[12] Florida’s pine industry in particular was booming with an increase in plantation acreage from 291,000 acres (118,000 ha) in 1952 to upwards of 5.59 million acres (2,260,000 ha) in 1990. Because of the complicated lifecycle of Cronaritum quercuum f. sp. fusiforme, the fungal causal agent of fusiform rust, the management strategies of pruning diseased stems, reducing fertilization, and discarding infected seed were not sufficient to prevent million-dollar annual loses.[12][21]

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Example of fusiform rust symptoms on pine tree bark

Rust pathogens are difficult to manage because of their complicated reproductive lifecycles. C. querecuum f. sp. fusiforme is heteroecious, requiring two different plant hosts for reproduction, and is macrocyclic, meaning it contains all five spore stages typical for rust infections: basidiospores, teliospores, urediniospores, aeciospores, and spermatia. Oak trees are the secondary host for this pathogen.[22] The primary inocula on pine are basidiospores, which infect the pine needles between March and May.[23] The basidiospores germinate and grow into the stems of the tree where the fungus can overwinter for 4–6 months in the wood. In the fall, the spermatia form and fertilize the aceiospores in the following spring. The aceiospores are released from the pine and are the primary inocula that infect the oak trees in the following growing season. Aceiospores grow through the oak leaves producing urediniospores on the underside of the oak leaves. These urediniospores can reproduce clonally, asexually, and can continue to infect oak plants as a secondary inoculum. Within two weeks of the primary urediniospore inoculation on the oak tree, teliospores are formed which germinate into basidiospores that infect the pine trees and complete the life rust cycle. Symptoms on the pine include gall formation, stem swelling, cankers, bushiness, and dieback.[21][23] The cankers in the stem allow secondary fungal infections or other pests to enter the trees easily.[23]

Understanding the climate conditions that can lead to rust outbreaks is an important component for management strategies, but this was not well understood in the early decades of this epidemic.[12] More recent information has shown that certain weather patterns such as high humidity, wet pine needles, and temperatures around 15–29 °C (59–84 °F) for about 18 days can increase the spread of basiodiospores, so increase disease severity.[23]

The secondary hosts, oaks, are another economically and ecologically important trees in the Southeast. Therefore, eradication of the secondary host is not only not possible, but also not effective because basidiospores can travel up to a half mile, easily infecting distant pine trees. A combination of management strategies, though, such as reducing fertilization treatments (which can benefit the pathogen), planting more rust disease-resistant trees in plantations,[12] and reintroducing fire to reduce the oak trees within the forest may help to reduce disease incidences.

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Example of Pitch Canker symptoms on a slash pine tree

Pitch canker

Pitch canker, a monocyclic disease caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum (previously named Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans),[24][23] was first described in 1946 by Hepting and Roth. When it was first described, disease levels were low until the 1970s, when a massive epidemic of pitch canker caused mass tree mortality in Florida slash pine.[23] Some hypotheses suggest that the pathogen may have originated in Mexico and was then introduced in Florida and later transmitted to California on diseased seed. The pathogen has been reported in Mexico, however, high fungal diversity and low tree mortality from the disease suggests that this pathogen may have co-evolved in Mexico before being introduced to other parts of the world.[25] Many reports describe the pathogen as endemic to Florida,[26] likely because the disease was introduced a long time therefore the population has become more diverse.[27] By 1974, over half of the slash pine population in Florida was infected with Fusarium circinatum disease.[28] In areas where the pathogen is newly introduced, the fungal population is mostly clonal, because fewer mating types are present within the population,[27] so sexual reproduction may be lower.[25] Pitch canker infects nearly all pine species, including longleaf pine, shortleaf pine, and eastern white pine.

This disease continues to be a problem in nurseries, and has been reported in other countries.[25] A major problem in Florida is that artificial replanting of pines may be contributing to high disease incidences.[24] The disease can be passed through seed and spores, but requires open wounds to infect the tree from insect damage, mechanical damage, hail/weather damage, etc.[27]

The predominant symptoms include needle chlorosis and reddening of shoots (called "flagging") that later die.[23][28][24][25] Cankers or lesions that form on the trunks can turn the bark yellow or dark brown and cause resin to exude. Stems may die and get crystalized in resin-soaked lesions. Resin is generally produced in plants to protect against pathogens. Sometimes, the tissue above the canker dies, causing girdling of the stem.[24] The severity of the disease depends on weather conditions and may require moisture and insect wounds or hail to infect the trees. Some insects such as bark beetles, spittle bugs, weevils,[26] pine tip moths, and needle midges may vector the disease into the tree.[3][23][28] F. circinatum was used to inoculate P. e. var. densa trees to try to increase resin production for extraction, but this approach was ineffective.[28]

Uses

This tree is widely grown in tree plantations. It is also used in horticulture.

See also

References

  1. ^ Conifer Specialist Group (1998). "Pinus elliottii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1998. Retrieved 10 May 2006.old-form url
  2. ^ Kral, Robert (1993). "Pinus elliottii". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 2. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Family, P. P. (1990). Pinus elliottii Engelm. slash pine. Silvics of North America: Conifers, (654), 338.
  4. ^ https://www.wood-database.com/slash-pine/
  5. ^ https://www.wood-database.com/white-ash/
  6. ^ https://www.wood-database.com/black-maple/
  7. ^ https://www.wood-database.com/black-ironwood/
  8. ^ a b "Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States".
  9. ^ a b Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/pinell/all.html
  10. ^ "Pine Rocklands" (PDF). United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  11. ^ Gilman, Edward F.; Dennis G. Watson (2006). "Pinus elliottii: Slash Pine". University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Schmidt, Robert A. (August 2003). "Fusiform Rust of Southern Pines: A Major Success for Forest Disease Management". Phytopathology. 93 (8): 1048–1051. doi:10.1094/phyto.2003.93.8.1048. ISSN 0031-949X. PMID 18943875.
  13. ^ Moore, Gerry; Kershner, Bruce; Craig Tufts; Daniel Mathews; Gil Nelson; Spellenberg, Richard; Thieret, John W.; Terry Purinton; Block, Andrew (2008). National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Trees of North America. New York: Sterling. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-4027-3875-3.
  14. ^ Mattoon, W.R.; Webster, C.B. (1990). Forest Trees of Texas (8 ed.). College Stagion, Texas: Texas Forest Service.
  15. ^ a b c d Johnson, A. S., & Hale, P. E. (2000, September). The Historical Foundations of Prescribed Burning for Wildlife: a Southeastern Perspective. In The Role of Fire in Nongame Wildlife Management and Community Restoration: Traditional Uses and New Directions Proceedings of a Special Workshop(p. 11).
  16. ^ Stanturf, J, and D. Wade, T. Waldrop, D. Kennard and G. Achtemeier. Chapter 25, Background Paper: Fire in Southern Forest Landscapes Southern forest resource assessment. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-53. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 2002, p. 612.
  17. ^ Horn, Sally P.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.; Harley, Grant L. (2013-06-03). "Fire history and forest structure of an endangered subtropical ecosystem in the Florida Keys, USA". International Journal of Wildland Fire. 22 (3): 394–404. doi:10.1071/WF12071. ISSN 1448-5516. S2CID 17371128.
  18. ^ a b Snyder, J. R., Ross, M. S., Koptur, S., & Sah, J. (2005). Developing ecological criteria for prescribed fire in south Florida pine rockland ecosystems.
  19. ^ Lavoie, M., Starr, G., Mack, M. C., Martin, T. A., & Gholz, H. L. (2010). Effects of a prescribed fire on understory vegetation, carbon pools, and soil nutrients in a longleaf pine-slash pine forest in Florida. Natural Areas Journal, 30(1), 82-95.
  20. ^ Wade, D.D, Lunsford, J.D. (1988). A guide for prescribed fire in southern forests. Technical Publication R8-TP 11. https://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr292/1989_wade.pdf
  21. ^ a b Lundquist, J. E. (1982). "Early Symptomatology of Fusiform Rust on Pine Seedlings". Phytopathology. 72 (1): 54. doi:10.1094/phyto-72-54. ISSN 0031-949X.
  22. ^ Gilman, E. F., & Watson, D. G. (1994). Pinus elliottii: Slash Pine. USDA Forest Service Fact Sheet ST-463 Google Scholar.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h Sinclair, Wayne A. (2005). Diseases of trees and shrubs. Comstock Pub. Associates. ISBN 0801443717. OCLC 60188468.
  24. ^ a b c d Barnard, E.L.; Blakesless, G.M. (December 2006). "Pitch Canker of Southern Pines" (PDF). Florida Depart of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
  25. ^ a b c d Gordon, T. R. 2006. Pitch canker disease of pines. Phytopathology 96:657-659.
  26. ^ a b Correll, J. C., Gordon, T. R., McCain, A. H., Fox, J. W., Koehler, C. S., Wood, D. L., & Schultz, M. E. (1991). Pitch canker disease in California: pathogenicity, distribution, and canker development on Monterey pine (Pinus radiata). Plant Disease, 75(7), 676-682.
  27. ^ a b c Gordon, T. R., Storer, A. J., & Okamoto, D. (1996). Population structure of the pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, in California. Mycological Research, 100(7), 850-854.
  28. ^ a b c d Dwinell, David L. Barrows-Broaddus, Jane B. Kuhlman, G. E. (1985). Pitch Canker: A Disease Complex. Plant Disease, 69(3), 270–276.

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Pinus elliottii: Brief Summary

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Pinus elliottii, commonly known as slash pine, is a conifer tree in the Southeastern United States. Slash pine is named after the "slashes" – swampy ground overgrown with trees and bushes – that constitute its habitat. Other common names include swamp pine, yellow slash pine, and southern Florida pine. Historically, slash pine has been an important economic timber for naval stores, turpentine, and resin. Slash pine has two different varieties: P. e. var. elliottii and P. e. var. densa. Slash pine is known for its unusually high strength, especially for pine. It exceeds many hardwoods and is even comparable to very dense woods such as ironwood.

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