IUCN threat status:

Least Concern (LC)

Morphology

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Winter wrens are tiny brown birds with dark barring on their wings, tails, and ventral surfaces. They have a light stripe just above their eyes and their throats are lighter than the rest of their bodies. Juveniles are darker than adults and the sexes look the same. They have a narrow bill and a short tail which usually points upward.

Winter wrens have round, short wings with strong distal feathers. These features are adaptations to living in dense vegetation. Round, short wings require less effort and room to suddenly take off or stop and they are easier to maneuver within obstacles. Having heavier, stronger feathers at the ends of their wings protects them from breakage when they inevitably smack something in their crowded environment.

Winter wrens sexes can be distinguished during the breeding season by the presence of either a brood patch (female) or a cloacal protuberance (male). Age can be determined by the number of spots on their fourth primaries.

A species' average basal metabolic rate is influenced by several factors, including size and plumage color. Birds which eat mainly invertebrate prey generally have intermediate basal metabolic rates, compared to similar birds eating different diets. Temperate species average higher BMRs than tropical species and flighted birds are higher than flightless ones. Winter wrens average 0.60 kJ/h basal metabolic rate.

Range mass: 8 to 12 g.

Range length: 8 to 12 cm.

Range wingspan: 12 to 16 cm.

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.60 kJ/h cm3.O2/g/hr.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

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Source: Animal Diversity Web

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