The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

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  • Cody, W. J. 1996. Fl. Yukon Terr. i–xvii, 1–669. NRC Research Press, Ottawa.
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col. Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Hitchcock, C. H., A.J. Cronquist, F. M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Cryptogams, Gymnosperms, and Monocotyledons. 1: 1–914. In C. L. Hitchcock Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N.W. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
  • Hultén, E. 1968. Fl. Alaska i–xxi, 1–1008. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages (http://bioimages.vanderbilt.edu/)   http://bioimages.vanderbilt.edu/baskauf/00000 External link.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Proc. Hort. Soc. Edinb. 3: 149. 1863. (Proc. Hort. Soc. Edinb.)
  • Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 2: 8–9. 1863. (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci.)
  • Quine CP; Humphrey JW; Ferris R. 1999. Should the wind disturbance patterns observed in natural forests be mimicked in planted forests in the British uplands?. Forestry. 72(4): 337-358.
  • Sarg. 1899. In: Silva N. Amer. 12: 73, t. 605.
  • The Silva of North America 12: 73. 1898. (Silva)
  • Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.
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  •    
       
    1. Aldhous, J. R., and A. J. Low. 1974. The potential of western  hemlock, western red cedar, grand fir and noble fir in Britain. Great  Britain Forestry Commission Bulletin 49. London. 105 P.
    2.  
    3. Barnes, G. H. 1962. Yield of even-aged stands of western hemlock.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 1273. Washington, DC.  52 p.
    4.  
    5. Driver, C. H. 1976. Disease impact concerns in the intensive culture  of western hemlock. In Proceedings, Western Hemlock Management  Conference. p. 126-127. W. A. Atkinson and R. J. Zasoski, eds.  University of Washington, College of Forest Resources, Seattle.
    6.  
    7. Edwards, D. G. W. 1976. Seed physiology and germination in western  hemlock. In Proceedings, Western Hemlock Management Conference.  p. 87-102. W. A. Atkinson and R. J. Zasoski, eds. University of  Washington, College of Forest Resources, Seattle.
    8.  
    9. Evans, J. 1976. Wildlife damage and western hemlock management in the  Pacific Northwest. In Proceedings, Western Hemlock Management  Conference. p. 148-154. W. A. Atkinson and R. J. Zasoski, eds.  University of Washington, College of Forest Resources, Seattle.
    10.  
    11. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    12.  
    13. Franklin, Jerry F., and C. T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural vegetation of  Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  PNW-8. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland,  OR. 417 p.
    14.  
    15. Fujimori, T. 1971. Primary productivity of a young Tsuga heterophylla  stand and some speculations about biomass of forest communities on the  Oregon coast. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-123. Pacific  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 11 p.
    16.  
    17. Furniss, R. L., and V. M. Carolin. 1977. Western forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1339. Washington,  DC. 654 p.
    18.  
    19. Grier, C. C. 1976. Biomass, productivity, and nitrogen-phosphorus  cycles in hemlock-spruce stands of the central Oregon coast. In  Proceedings, Western Hemlock Management Conference. p. 71-81. W. A.  Atkinson and R. J. Zasoski, eds. University of Washington, College of  Forest Resources, Seattle.
    20.  
    21. Griffin, J. R., and W. B. Critchfield. 1972. The distribution of  forest trees in California. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PSW-82.  Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. 114  p.
    22.  
    23. Handley, D. L. 1976. The yield potential of western hemlock. In  Proceedings, Western Hemlock Management Conference. p. 221-227. W.  A. Atkinson and R. J. Zasoski, eds. University of Washington, College of  Forest Resources, Seattle.
    24.  
    25. Hard, J. S., and D. C. Schmiege. 1968. The hemlock sawfly in  southeast Alaska. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-65. Pacific  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 11 p.
    26.  
    27. Hedlin, A. F., H. 0. Yates III, D. C. Tovar, and others. 1980. Cone  and seed insects of North American conifers. Canadian Forestry Service,  Ottawa; USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC; Secretaria de Agricultura y  Recursos Hidraulicos, Mexico. 122 p.
    28.  
    29. Heilman, P. 1976. Soils and site index in coastal hemlock forests of  Washington and Alaska. In Proceedings, Western Hemlock  Management Conference. p. 39-48. W. A. Atkinson and R. J. Zasoski, eds.  University of Washington, College of Forest Resources, Seattle.
    30.  
    31. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386.  Washington, DC. 658 p.
    32.  
    33. Hetherington, J. C. 1965. The dissemination, germination and survival  of seed on the west coast of Vancouver Island from western hemlock and  associated species. British Columbia Forest Service, Research Note 39.  Victoria, BC. 22 p.
    34.  
    35. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. Canada Department of  Environment, Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, ON. 380 p.
    36.  
    37. Isaac, L. A. 1930. Seed flight in the Douglas-fir region. Journal of  Forestry 28:492-499.
    38.  
    39. Krajina, V. J. 1969. Ecology of forest trees in British Columbia.  Ecology of Western North America 2(l):1-147.
    40.  
    41. Meurisse, R. T. 1976. Some chemical and other properties of western  hemlock soils in Oregon - their relationship to productivity. In  Proceedings, Western Hemlock Management Conference. p. 49-55. W. A.  Atkinson and R. J. Zasoski, eds. University of Washington, College of  Forest Resources, Seattle.
    42.  
    43. Minore, D., and C. E. Smith. 1971. Occurrence and growth of four  northwestern tree species over shallow water tables. USDA Forest  Service, Research Note PNW-160. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 9 p.
    44.  
    45. Morris, W. G. 1970. Effects of slash burning in overmature stands of  the Douglas-fir region. Forest Science 16:258-270.
    46.  
    47. Morrison, D. J., and G. W. Wallis. 1976. Disease following thinning  in western hemlock stands. In Proceedings, Western Hemlock  Management Conference. p. 137-141. W. A. Atkinson and R. J. Zasoski,  eds. University of Washington, College of Forest Resources, Seattle. 
    48.  
    49. Packee, E. C. 1976. The ecology of western hemlock. In Proceedings,  Western Hemlock Management Conference. p. 10-25. W. A. Atkinson and R.  J. Zasoski, eds. University of Washington, College of Forest Resources,  Seattle.
    50.  
    51. Pfister, Robert D., Bernard L. Kovalchik, Stephen F. Arno, and  Richard C. Presby. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. USDA Forest  Service, General Technical Report INT-34. Intermountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 174 p.
    52.  
    53. Ruth, R. H., and A. S. Harris. 1979. Management of western  hemlock-Sitka spruce forests for timber production. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report PNW-88. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 197 p.
    54.  
    55. Shepherd, R. F. 1976. Major insect pests of western hemlock. In  Proceedings, Western Hemlock Management Conference. p. 142-147. W.  A. Atkinson and R. J. Zasoski, eds. University of Washington, College of  Forest Resources, Seattle.
    56.  
    57. Smith, R. B. 1969. Assessing dwarf mistletoe in western hemlock.  Forest Science 15:277-285.
    58.  
    59. Steinbrenner, E. C. 1976. Soil-site relationships and comparative  yields of western hemlock and Douglas-fir. In Proceedings,  Western Hemlock Management Conference. p. 236-238. W. A. Atkinson and R.  J. Zasoski, eds. University of Washington, College of Forest Resources,  Seattle.
    60.  
    61. Taylor, R. J. 1971. Phytochemical relationships in the genus Tsuga.  (Abstract.) American Journal of Botany 58(5,pt.2):466.
    62.  
    63. van den Driessche, R. 1976. Mineral nutrition of western hemlock.  In Proceedings, Western Hemlock Management Conference. p. 56-67.  W. A. Atkinson and R. J. Zasoski, eds. University of Washington, College  of Forest Resources, Seattle.
    64.  
    65. Viereck, Leslie A., and Elbert L. Little, Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and  shrubs. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 410.  Washington, DC. 265 p.
    66.  
    67. Wiley, K. N. 1976. Site index and yield of western hemlock. In  Proceedings, Western Hemlock Management Conference. p. 228-235. W.  A. Atkinson and R. J. Zasoski, eds. University of Washington, College of  Forest Resources, Seattle.
    68.  
    69. Wooldridge, D. D. 1961. Environmental factors related to growth and  management of western hemlock Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.  Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Washington, Seattle. 241 p.
    70.  
     

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