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BiologyAdults found mostly in estuaries and lagoons, and sometimes up rivers in nearly fresh waters. They occur in the lower parts of rivers in freshwater or brackish water and in coastal seas (Ref. 12693, 48635). Juveniles may occur in dense aggregations (Ref. 9801). Feed on crustaceans, mollusks and fishes. Marketed mostly fresh. Spines associated with anterior fins have potent venom.