fourni par Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
Herzogiella cylindricarpa (Cardot) Z. Iwats., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 33: 374. 1970.
Isopterygium cylindricarpum Cardot, Rev. Bryol. 37: 56. 1910; Ctenidiadelphus cylindricarpus (Cardot) E. B. Bartram, Bryologist 49: 124. 1946. Type: Mexico. Amecameca, Pringle, Plantae Mexicanae 10606 (lectotype: MO!, here designated; isolectotypes: F!, FH!, H!, MICH!, TENN!, US!).
Plagiothecium bolivianum Broth. in Herzog, Biblioth. Bot. 87: 153. 1916; Herzogiella boliviana (Broth.) M. Fleisch. in Broth. in Engl., Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 11: 466. 1925. Type: Bolivia. Waldgrenze über Tablas, Herzog 2821 (lectotype: H!, here designated); zwischen San Mateo u. Sunchal, Herzog 4435 (syntype: NY!).
Plants in thin, loose mats, glossy, yellowish green. Stems 0.6–1.5 cm long, 1–2 mm wide, ascending, simple to irregularly branched; rhizoids papillose, in leaf axils. Leaves 1.0–1.5 mm long, 0.4–0.6 mm wide, somewhat rigid, close to distant, loosely complanate-foliate, erect-to wide-spreading, sometimes distinctly secund, smooth or weakly plicate, lanceolate, slightly concave, slenderly acuminate; margins sharply serrate above, serrulate below to base, plane; costa short and double or none; median cells 47–70 × 5–6 μm, smooth, linear; alar regions with a few quadrate, rectangular or rounded cells, often 1–4 cells on margins. Autoicous. Setae 1.0–1.8 cm long, reddish brown, sometimes yellowish above; capsules 1.5–3.0 mm long, 0.3–0.4 mm wide, yellowish, erect, sometimes slightly curved, 1.5–3.0 mm long, 0.3–0.4 mm wide, narrowly cylindrical, usually contracted below mouth when dry, narrow at the sometimes wrinkled neck; operculum conic to obliquely short-rostrate; peristome teeth up to 0.2 mm long, cilia none. Spores 10–12 μm in diameter, minutely papillose.
Distribution and ecology: Infrequent and thus far known from Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and a few localities in Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador (Figure 4); also known from Rwanda (Africa). Usually occurring on humus on moist, rotting logs, bases of trees and tree trunks, mainly coniferous, and rarely on rock. Predominately at high elevations, mostly over 2500 m and known up to ˜4100 m; recorded as low as 1830 m.
Discussion: Recognized by the erect- to wide-spreading, lanceolate, slightly concave, slenderly acuminate leaves with plane margins that are serrate above and serrulate below to the base. The stems have a prominent hyalodermis which is evident in cross section. The plants are autoicous and the sporophytes are distinctive because of the very slender, long, erect capsules, narrowed at the neck and contracted below the mouth when dry.
Herzogiella cylindricarpa was originally described as an Isopterygium by Cardot (1910), but Bartram (1946) transferred it to Ctenidiadelphus M. Fleisch., a genus then known to have species only in Java and Borneo. Iwatsuki (1970) eventually transferred C. cylindricarpa to Herzogiella when he revised that genus.
The lectotype (Herzog 2821) of Plagiothecium bolivianum Broth. in Herzog was designated from a collection
in the Brotherus herbarium in Helsinki. The species is here considered synonymous with Herzogiella cylindricarpa although the lectotype has capsules that are much shorter (1.5–2.0 mm) than those in most of the other Latin American collections of H. cylindricarpa. The capsules from this collection are apparently those illustrated by Brotherus when he described the species in Herzog (1916: tbl. 7). Another specimen mentioned by Brotherus in the protologue of P. bolivianum (syntype: Herzog 4435 NY) has longer capsules (2.0–2.5 mm), even though they are somewhat immature, that are more typical of H. cylindricarpa. The other morphological features of the type specimens of P. bolivianum are typical of Herzogiella cylindricarpa.
Specimens examined: MEXICO. Chiapas: Cerro Mozotal, 29 km NW of Motozintla, 2880 m, Cárdenas 4252 (MEXU); Cima del Cerro Tzontehuitz, close to Tenejapa, 2870 m, Cárdenas 4276 (MEXU, MO, NY); near Las Casas, 2682 m, Sharp 3481 (CANM, MEXU, MICH, TENN). Districto Federal: Desierto de los Leones, Lyonnet 1623 (MEXU); El Zarco, 3200 m, Sánchez & Herrera 51 (MEXU). Hidalgo: 10 km N of Pachuca, Mineral del Monte, 2810 m, Castillo 33 (MEXU); 2 km N of Presa Jaramillo, El Chico, 2920 m, Alfaro & Castillo 112 (MEXU). México: Mpio. de Tlalmanalco, 3 km E of San Rafael, 2750–2900 m, Cisneros 1666 (CANM); Cañada en la Vertiente NW of Iztaccíhuatl, 2690–2980 m, 19°12'N, 98°43'W, Cárdenas 3973 (NY). Popocatépetl, 11 km E of Amecameca, 3000 m, Held & van Rhijn HM 11 (CANM). Michoacán: Along Federal Hwy. 15, ˜50 km W of Cd. Hidalgo, Sharp et al. 2301 (CANM); ˜46 km W of Cd. Hidalgo, 2700 m, Sharp et al. 2286b (CANM, TENN). Oaxaca: Above Llano de las Flores in Sierra Juárez on Hwy. 175 between Tuxtepec and Oaxaca, 2400 m, Sharp et al. 132 (MEXU, MICH, MO, NY), 140a, 2332 (CANM, TENN), 2341 (CANM, F, MEXU, TENN); N of Oaxaca, along road N of Llano de Las Flores, Iwatsuki & Sharp 532a (CANM). Tlaxcala: Mpio. de Tlaxco, Ex-Hacienda de Tlacotla, 2950 m, Reyna s.n. (MEXU, U). GUATEMALA. Chimaltenango: Cerro de Tecpan, region of Santa Elena, 2400–2700 m, Standley 60966 (FH, MICH); slopes of Volcán de Acatenango, above Las Calderas, 2400–2700 m, Standley 61923 (F, FH). Huehuetenango: Sierra de los Cuchumatenes, along road beyond La Pradera, km 32, ˜3300 m, Standley 81813 (FH); above San Mateo Ixtatán, 3048 m, Sharp 4962a (CANM, TENN). Quezaltenango: Volcán Santa María, upper NE facing slopes to summit of volcano, 3000–4200 m, Steyermark 34086, 34105 (DUKE, F, FH, MICH), 34121 (F, FH, MICH); above Los Vahos, Cerro Quemado, 2900–3000 m, Standley 86103 (F, FH, MICH); above Chiquival, 2621 m, Sharp 2160 (TENN); Cerro de Sija, 3048 m, Sharp 5033 (CANM, DUKE, F, FH, MICH, TENN); Getena area N of Sija, 3002 m, Sharp 2287 (MEXU, TENN). Totonicapán: Pacajá region of Desconsuelo, mountains above Totonicapán, 3100–3200 m, Standley 84534 (F, FH, MICH); E of Totonicapán, 3200 m, Sharp 2619 (DUKE, FH, TENN). COSTA RICA. San José: ˜12 km NE of Canáan, on trail to Cerro Chirripó, 2940–3120 m, Bowers 914-G, 916-I (TENN, USJ), 919-I (TENN); Cerros de las Vueltas, 2700–3000 m, Standley & Valerio 43761b (FH); southern slope of Volcán de Turrialba, 2000–2400 m, Standley 35013 (FH, NY), 35015, 35159, 35217 (FH). COLOMBIA. Cundinamarca: Mpio. de Subachoque and Supata, “El Tablazo,” 3500 m, Ireland 23374 (CANM, COL, MO, NY), Lewis 88-1234 (CANM, LPB), Lewis 88-1222 (LPB). VENEZUELA. Mérida: Páramo de Los Granates, 3000–3100 m, Griffin PV-942 (CANM). Trujillo: Above Mpio. Las Piedras, Páramo de Guirigay, 3200 m, Griffin & López PV-1536 (CANM); Páramo El Jabón, al SE y arriba de Carache, 2900–3300 m, Griffin & López PV-1452 (NY). ECUADOR. Imbabura: Lago San Marcos, Cayambe Mountain, 3414 m, Cazalet & Pennington 68 (MICH, NY). Napo: At Km 45 on road from Salcedo to Napo, 3800 m, Laegaard 54158CC (NY); 3600 m, 54159M (NY); N side of Laguna Verdecocha, 2 km E of the peak of Cerro Quilindaña, Cord. Oriental, 4100 m, 78°21'W, 0°47'S, Løjtnant & Molau 11679 (NY). Pichincha: Road Olmedo–Laguna San Marcos, W of the pass, 3600 m, Øllgaard et al. 34341 (CANM, MO, NY). PERU. Amazonas: Prov. Chachapoyas, Chachapoyas-Cajamarca road, ˜3 km above Leymebamba, 2700 m, Philippi 2334a (NY). BOLIVIA. La Paz: Prov. Saavedra, mountain side directly N of river, beneath Niño Karine, NNW of Chuma, 3250 m, Lewis 79-1044 (CANM, F, NY), 79-1045A (CANM, F). Prov. Franz Tamayo, along trail between Pelechuco and Pata, 3050 m, Lewis 88-1852 d-1 (CANM). Prov. Inquisivi, Río Glorieta, ˜8 km NW of Quime, 3200–3400 m, Lewis 87570 (MO).
4. Homomallium (Schimp.) Loeske
Homomallium (Schimp.) Loeske, Hedwigia 46: 314. 1907; Hypnum subg. Homomallium Schimp., Syn. 616. 1860; Stereodon sect. Homomallium (Schimp.) C. E. O. Jensen, Danm. Moss. 2: 115. 1923. Type:Hypnum incurvatum Brid.
Plants small to medium-sized, in flat mats, shiny, soft, yellow-green to dark green. Stems creeping, regularly to irregularly pinnately branched, not or weakly complanate-foliate; stems in cross section dorsiventrally flattened, without a hyalodermis, with medium-sized thick-walled cells surrounding larger thinner-walled cells, central strand small; pseudoparaphyllia filamentous; axillary hairs with a single short brown basal cell and 1–2 elongate hyaline apical cells. Stem and branch leaves similar or somewhat differentiated, not or weakly complanate, erect-spreading to ± homomallous, concave, not or slightly plicate, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, short- to long-acuminate, short-decurrent; margins subentire to weakly serrulate above, plane or recurved below; costa short and double; cells oblong- to linear-rhomboidal, smooth or (extralimitally) prorulose, shorter in the acumen; alar cells relatively numerous, subquadrate to oblate, with a single decurrent cell. Asexual propagula not seen. Autoicous. Perichaetial leaves erect, oblong-lanceolate, short- to long-acuminate, not or scarcely plicate; margins entire to serrulate; costa none or short and double. Setae elongate, smooth, reddish; capsules inclined to horizontal, arcuate, asymmetric, cylindrical, constricted below the mouth when dry and empty; exothecial cells rounded-hexagonal to short-rectangular, ± thick-walled; annulus differentiated; operculum conic-apiculate to obliquely short-rostrate; peristome double, exostome teeth pale yellow, shouldered, bordered, on the front surface with a zigzag median line, not furrowed, cross-striolate below, papillose above, trabeculate at back; endostome with a high basal membrane, segments keeled, perforate, smooth or papillose, cilia in groups of 1–3, nodulose. Spores spherical, nearly smooth to finely papillose. Calyptrae cucullate, naked, smooth.
Discussion: Homomallium is somewhat intermediate between the erect-capsuled, epiphytic Hypnaceae genera, like Pylaisia or Platygyrium, and more typical terrestrial members of the family. It is characterized by relatively short apical leaf cells, numerous quadrate alar cells and curved, asymmetric capsules with a perfect peristome (Ando, 1964). The genus barely makes it into the Neotropics, with one species in northern Mexico and adjacent United States and the other a little-collected Mexican endemic.
KEY TO THE SPECIES OF HOMOMALLIUM
1. Branches usually homomallous-foliate; stem and branch leaves scarcely differentiated, relatively short-acuminate; margins usually recurved below; branch leaf alar cells extending up the margins 20–30 cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. H. mexicanum
1. Branches not homomallous-foliate; stem and branch leaves differentiated, relatively long-acuminate; margins erect to narrowly incurved; branch leaf alar cells extending up the margins 8–13 cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. H. sharpie
- citation bibliographique
- Ireland, Robert Root and Buck, William R. 2009. "Some Latin American Genera of Hypnaceae (Musci)." Smithsonian Contributions to Botany. 1-97. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.0081024X.93