There are 40 species in the family Pitheciidae, commonly known as titi monkeys, sakis, and uakaris. The most diverse genus in this family is Callicebus (titi monkeys), with 28 species. There are 5 species of saki monkeys (Pithecia), 5 species of bearded saki monkeys (Chiropotes), and 2 species of uakaris (Cacajao) (Wilson and Reeder, 2005).
Members of Pitheciidae are found in the rainforests of South America, including the Amazon and Orinoco river basins and the Atlantic coastal forest of southeastern Brazil (Grafton, 2004). Titis, sakis, and uakaris are small to medium-sized monkeys. Titis (Callicebus) are the smallest and uakaris (Cacajao) are the largest. The four pitheciine genera are distinct in appearance, but all share a common dental morphology marked by large, laterally splayed canine teeth separated from the incisors by a diastema. The incisors are also angled forward and the molars have low, crenulated occlusal surfaces. This dental morphology is an adaptation to eating hard, heavily protected fruits. Uakaris (Cacajao) and bearded sakis (Chiropotes) are sexually dimorphic and several saki monkey species (Pithecia) are sexually dichromatic. Uakaris (Cacajao) are the most unusual looking pitheciines, with largely naked faces and heads and short tails.
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